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The ratio of the total cost of the articles of food enumerated in the table at American prices to their cost at English prices is 128 to 100, or adjusted to February, 1909, as 125 to 100, as compared with 138 to 100 in the case of the quantities of the same articles on the basis of the British workman's budget. Of the two ratios, that based upon the quantities of the average British budget is presented by the investigators as more directly concerning the working-class consumer in England, and 138 to 100 is therefore taken in the report as representing from this point of view the relative levels of the cost of food in the United States and in England and Wales in February, 1909.

RENTS AND RETAIL FOOD PRICES COMBINED.

In the following table the cost of food and rent in the various cities has been expressed by means of a combined index number, New York being taken as base or 100. In computing this index number allowance was made for the relative importance of the two forms of expenditure, and this was determined by the general ratio in which these two items stood in the American-British budget. A weight of 3 was therefore given to food prices and of 1 for rents.

RELATIVE LEVEL OF RENT AND FOOD PRICES IN SPECIFIED CITIES OF THE

UNITED STATES AS COMPARED WITI NEW YORK CITY.

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In order to secure information in regard to the standards of living in various cities a large number of budgets were secured for wageearning families showing the particulars of family income and of expenditure for food and rent. This information is presented in the report on a nationality basis according to the declared country of birth of the head of the family, but for purposes of the international comparisons the report uses the group representing American and British families of the northern cities.

The particulars sought in connection with these family budgets were mainly confined to those items of domestic expenditure which were most recurrent and most likely to be furnished correctly and the most pertinent to the main comparative object in full. The only other full particulars obtained were such as were necessary to throw light on the income and composition of the family, including in the last the occupation of the husband and the country of birth of both parents.

In the discussion of the various types represented in the family budgets the report explains that it is necessary to draw attention to the fact that even in relation to the alien people of the United States “American” speedily comes to have a meaning all its own. Were there nothing industrially or socially distinctive, the United States would, indeed, cease to exercise its attractive force, and in various ways, and as regards the mere material standard of comfort, in forms that compare favorably with those that have been left behind, the Americanization of immigrants is apt to begin almost from the moment of their landing.

“Thus, although the industrial status of the bulk of the Italians, Poles, and other Slavonic and allied peoples is different from and lower than that of the bulk of those who are regarded as the true Americans, it is equally true that as measured by the command of material comforts the position of the great bulk, even of such races as those mentioned, begins at once to be relatively American in standard. Even as regards the poorer industrial classes of the United States, the term 'American’ is thus found to have a significance that, covering, it is true, great differences and wide ranges, still represents, even apart from all considerations of political and social environment, something that is not the less definable and real."

Altogether 7,616 family budgets were secured in the course of the investigation. The following table shows the distribution of these budgets among the various nationalities and geographical groups:

CLASSIFICATION OF BUDGETS BY NATIONALITIES.

Nationality.

Number Percent

of budgets. total.

age of

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American-British (including American, Irish, English, Scottish, Welsh, and Cana-
dian):

(1) Northern
(2) Southern..

(3) (American) Southern (broken families)
German (including a few Dutch, Belgian, and 'Swiss).
Scandinavian (including Swedes, Norwegians, and Danes).
South European (including Italians, Greeks, Spaniards, and Portuguese. A few

French and Syrian budgets have been included here).
Slavonic and allied peoples (including Bohemians, Croats, Hungarians, Galicians,

Poles, Lithuanians, Russians, Roumanians, and Serbs)..
Jewish—from all countries (chiefly Russia).
Negro:

(1) Northern group.
(2) Southern group.

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Total.....

7,616

100.0

It will be seen that the American British (northern) group, which has been taken as the basis of all comparisons between the United States and England, comprises 3,215 families, or 42.2 per cent of the entire number included in the study.

The distribution of these budgets among the various industrial occupations according to nationality is shown in the following table:

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i The term “laborer” in the United States is not infrequently used to designate an assistant or helper, and many of these would therefore have been transferred to definite trades had the description been more complete

In the following table the 3,215 budgets of the American-British (Northern) group of families are summarized somewhat in detail, the families being classified according to the weekly family income:

SUMMARY OF BUDGETS OF AMERICAN-BRITISH (NORTHERN) GROUP.

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Number of budgets (total 3,215),
Percentage of total number of bud-

gets..
Average number of children living at

home..
Average number of persons living at

home.
Average weekly earnings of husband.
Average weekly earnings of wise..
Average weekly earnings of children:

Male.

Female.
Average weekly other income..

Average total income.....
Quantity of meat, poultry, and fish
purchased per capita per annum,
pounds..
Food bill 1 per capita per week.
Percentage of family income spent
on-
(1) Meat (including poultry and

fish)...... (2) Food of all kinds ! (excluding

wine, beer, and spirits).. (3) Rent.

(4) Food 1 and rent combined. Percentage balance after paying for

food 1 and rent.

$21.51 $26. 10

$31.38

$36. 13

$50.33

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1 Including meals away from home.

It should be noted that in the foregoing table and in all of the tables of food expenditure and food consumption the family--that is, all persons sharing in the family food irrespective of the age of its members—has been taken as the unit. The composition of the family in every group tends to vary greatly with the income and the supplementary earnings of the children, and occasionally the other sources of income assume large proportions in the higher income classes.

The following table shows for the same group of families the details of weekly expenditure per family for food, the families, as before, being classified according to the weekly family income:

WEEKLY EXPENDITURE PER FAMILY ON FOOD IN AMERICAN-BRITISH

(NORTHERN) GROUP.

[graphic]

Number of budgets..
Average weekly family income.
Average number of children living at

home..
Average number of persons per fam-

ily!..

243 $50.33

1 4.20

Bread, wheat..
Bread, rye.
Bread, other.
Flour, wheat.
Flour, rye.
Flour, buckwheat and other.
Maize and maize meal...
Cakes, crackers, doughnuts.
Rolls, buns, biscuits...
Macaroni, noodles, spaghetti.
Rice, barley, sago, etc...
Oatmeal and breakfast cereals.
Potatoes (Irish)..
Sweet potatoes, etc..
Dried peas and beans.
Sweet corn..
Green vegetables, etc..
Canned vegetables..
Beef (fresh and corned).
Mutton and lamb.
Pork (fresh and salt).
Bacon, bam, brawn, etc..
Veal..
Sausage.
Poultry
Fish of all kinds.
Lard, suet, dripping.
Butter...
Oleomargarine.
Olive oil.
Cheese
Milk (fresh).
Milk (condensed).
Eggs.
Tea.
Coffee..
Cocoa and chocolate.
Sugar..
Molasses and sirup
Vinegar, pickles, condiments.
Fruits and jams..
Other items.
Meals away from home..

Total..

$0.274 $0.355 $0, 416 $0.476 $0.497 $0.502 $0.568
. 030
.046
.046

$0.644
.036 .041 .046 030
.005

.071 .005 .010 .005

020 . 365

005 . 309 .345

.010 . 400 . 446

.543 517 532 .005 .005 .005

.005
.010

.005
.010 .015 .020 .025
.025

.020
.020

.015 025

041 .025 .025 .091

036 . 142

041 .208 .233 .269 .309 .046

.340 .095

395 137

. 167 162 .030 .036

203 243 .051 .056

.056 .046 .056

.066 .056

.061 .076 .076

.081 .051

. 091

086 066

096 086 . 101 . 112 117 .299 340

. 117 360

132

.441 . 492 .005

.593 .010

568 025

061 . 076

051 ..071

OS6 . 066 .076 .086 096 107 .025 .030

096 .041 .066

.061 .091 183 269

101 142 360 . 421

.451 .096

543 091

629 127 .157 .183 . 193 .512 .750

208 902

198 1.044 1.227 1.257 1.526 .066 .117

1.708 147 . 208 .259

.335 .218 .289 309 .314

.330 421 456 . 172

507 .218

.314
.324

.395
.056

456 .537 .071

. 142
. 162
193

193
.041

223 .061

.096

. 101 .005

. 107

147 127 .056 . 107 . 137 . 172 . 157 .076 .117

360 152 . 188 . 172

.213 . 142

228 157

274 177 . 203 .218 .248 .335

253 269 . 411 .548

.684

.760 .015

973

1.029 .020 .010

.015

.020 .020
.010

030
.010 .015 .020 .020
046

.025
.056

. 112 . 117 . 137 253

.142 .330

. 162 . 426 . 476

.543 .593
061

.619
.081
.086
.086

. 081 081
223

101 .335

066 .461 .558

690 .091

750 811 . 127 . 142

233 253 132

248 . 172 223

. 238
.264

. 274
.005

279 335 .015 .030 .036

.041

.056 208

.071 .218

076
259 .324 .335 390
.020

. 426
.030 036 .046 .041 .056
.020

056
.030 .051 .061

.066 086 091 . 112

. 107 .188 279 .370

. 390 .482 .020

. 507 .548 .025 .036

.025

.046 .010

0511 .071

. 167 .228 .395 . 466 .527 1.212 4.501 5.912 7.504 8. 860 9.867 11. 150 12. 461 14,299

.005

715

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. 416 . 056

1 Including boarders and relatives sharing the family food. The total number of these was 466, of whom about one-third were sons or daughters of the family: Children whose weekly payments for board and lodging-and not their weekly wages-were furnished, were counted as boarders.

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