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PREDOMINANT WEEKLY WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR IN SPECIFIED TOWNS OF

THE UNITED STATES, 1909—Continued.

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112.17- 18. 25 1 60 17.60- 12.17 1 60 17. 60- 12.17 /24. 33- 27.37 48-54 219. 47- 21. 90

114. 60– 19. 47 1 48 112. 17- 14. 60 144-48
24. 33 48 17.03- 19.47 48 112. 17- 17.03 1 48 114. 60- 17.03

15. 21- 16. 73 481 7. 60- 9. 12 1 48 1 7. 60- 9.12

2 48

148 148

1 Colored men.

2 White men.

PREDOMINANT WEEKLY WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR IN SPECIFIED TOWNS OF

THE UNITED STATES, 1909–Continued.

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PREDOMINANT WEEKLY WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR IN SPECIFIED TOWNS OF

THE UNITED STATES, 1909–Concluded.

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The figures of the foregoing table may be more readily compared arranged in the form of index numbers, New York being taken as the base or 100 and the mean predominant wage being expressed in the terms of wages in New York.

RELATIVE LEVEL OF WEEKLY WAGES IN SPECIFIED CITIES OF THE UNITED STATES

AS COMPARED WITH NEW YORK CITY.

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New York.
New England towns:

Boston..
Brockton.
Fall River.
Lawrence.
Lowell.

Providence. Other Eastern towns:

Baltimore. Newark. Paterson.

Philadelphia.
Central towns:

Cincinnati,
Cleveland.
Detroit.
Louisville,
Muncie..

Pittsburg.
Middle West towns:

Chicago...
Duluth.
Milwaukee.
Minneapolis-St. Paul.

St. Louis.
Southern towns:

Atlanta.
Augusta..
Birmingham..
Memphis.
New Orleans.
Savannah.

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These comparisons are restricted to occupations common to nearly all cities. The rates of wages ascertained for these occupations show in general no very marked divergence and, according to the report, the differences are certainly not greater than those shown to exist as between the towns of England and Wales." 1 In some towns, in the Middle West especially, the New York rates are exceeded in certain occupations. Omitting New York, the highest general wage levels occur in the Middle West towns, the lowest in the New England group.

A conspicuous feature of the situation commented on in the report is the rough apportionment of the tasks of unskilled labor on the one hand to the immigrant classes, largely to those of more recent arrival, and on the other hand to the colored race. The absorption into the ranks of the unskilled or semiskilled of the greater part of immigrant labor tends, according to the investigators, to leave skilled labor comparatively unaffected by the competition of foreigners. This fact, combined with the size, wealth, and comparatively recent development of the country, tends, in the opinion of the investigators, to maintain the rates for skilled labor at their present high level. The report further notes as a special characteristic of the unskilled labor supply that, owing partly to the comparatively modern char

* See also page 562 of this Bulletin.

acter of urban development in the United States and partly to the large influx of labor that is physically sound and morally enterprising, the proportion of deteriorated labor unfit for employment is relatively small. The mobility of labor is noted as unusually great. In fields of employment that are well known as centers toward which great numbers of foreigners drift and in which much of the labor is unskilled, in which organized relationships are almost absent, and in which the work is especially laborious, as in iron and steel works, or especially intermittent, as in the stockyards and packing houses of Chicago, the constantly changing stream of labor that passes through is a conspicuous feature of the situation.

UNITED STATES AND ENGLAND AND WALES COMPARED. The predominant rates of weekly wages in the printing, engineering, and building trades of the United States (industries which were found in all of the cities investigated) are in the following table brought into contrast with the rates of weekly wages paid in similar trades in England and Wales. The wages for the United States, it will be observed, relate to February, 1909, while the corresponding data for England and Wales are for October, 1905.

The wages as given for England and Wales are, as is shown by the first report of the series, that relating to cost of living in the United Kingdom, exclusive of London. PREDOMINANT WEEKLY WAGES OF ADULT MALES IN CERTAIN OCCUPATIONS IN ENGLAND AND WALES (EXCLUSIVE OF LONDON) AND IN THE UNITED STATES

COMPARED.

Occupation.

Predominant range of weekly

Ratio of mean wages.

predominant wage in the United States

(February,

1909) to mean England and Wales, exclu- United States

predominant sive of London (February, 1909). land and Wales

wage in Eng(October, 1905).

(October, 1905), taken as 100.

BUILDING TRADES. 1 Bricklayers..

$9.12-$9.85 $26. 77-$30. 42

301 285 Stonemasons.

9. 04-9.57 23. 42- 26.77 Carpenters.

8. 80- 9.57

210 Joiners.

16. 73- 21.00

210 Plasterers.

8. 88-10.14 24. 33- 20.00

280 Plumbers.

8. 60- 9. 67 21.29- 27.37

206 Painters.

7.66 9.12 15. 82- 20.68

217 Hod carriers and bricklayers' laborers.

5. 92- 6. 57 12, 17- 16.73

231 ENGINEERING TRADES. Fitters.

7.79- 8.76

203 Turners.

15. 41- 18. 13 7. 79- 8.76

203 Smiths..

7.79- 8. 76 16. 47- 20.76

225 l'attern makers.

8. 27- 9. 25 18. 13- 22.30

231 Laborers..

4.38- 5.35 9. 12- 10.65

203 PRINTING TRADES. IIand compositors (job work)........

6. 81-8.03 16. 73- 19.77

246 (The building trades...

243 Arithmetic means. The engineering trades.

213 All above occupations..

232 1 The wages stated for the building trades are for a full week in summer in both countries.

a In arriving at the trade and general index numbers, bricklayers and stonemasons have been regarded as one occupation, and carpenters and joiners and fitters and turners as two, respectively, as in the earlier foreign inquiries.

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