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TABLE 9.-LENGTH OF TIME EMPLOYED IN THE OCCUPATION: PER CENT OF PERSONS KILLED OR INJURED, BY DURATION OF EMPLOYMENT IN THE OCCUPATION PRE

VIOUS TO THE ACCIDENT. (Source: Amtliche Nachrichten des Reichs-Versicherungsamts, 1910. I Beiheft, I Tell. Gewerbe-Unfall

statistik für das Jahr 1907, pp. 328 to 337.)

Per cent of injured persons who had been at work

Asso

ciation num. ber.

Industry, etc.

At
Total

tem-
report-

Less
3

3

6 1 ing.

po-
than days
1 week 1 month

mos.
rary

to 1

months to 3

year 3 to 1

to 6 month. months.

to 1 em

and ploydays. week.

months. year. over. ment.

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A. TOTALS.
Grand total..
Industrial accident associa-

tions (not including insti

tutes).
Subsidiary institutes of

building trades, engineer

ing, and navigation. Public authorities...

B. GROUPS OF ASSOCIATIONS. 1 Mining.. 2 Quarrying..

3 Fine mechanical products. 4-11 Iron and steel..

Metal working.. 14 Musical instruments. 15 Glass. 16

Pottery. 17 Brick and tile making. 18 Chemicals. 19 Gas and water works.. 20 Linen. 27

Silk. 20-27 Textiles (including linen

and silk).. 28 | Paper making.. 29 Paper products... 30

Leather.. 31-34

Woodwc; king 35 Flour miiling. 36

Food products. 37

Sugar. 38 Dairying, distilling, and

starch.. 39 Brewing and malting 40 Tobacco..

Clothing 42 Chimney sweeping.. 43-54 Building trades (not includ

ing institutes). 55 Printing and publishing. 56

Private railways.. 57 Street and small railroads. 58 Express and storage...

59 Livery, drayage,cartage, etc. 60-62 Inland navigation.. 63 Marine navigation (not in

cluding institute). Engineering, excavating,

ete. (not including insti

tute).. 65

Meat products...
66 Blacksmithing, etc..

C. PUBLIC AUTHORITIES.
Establishments of the naval

administration..
Establishments of the mill-

tary administration...
Postal and telegraph admin-

istration..
Railway administration.
Dredging, towing, etc.
Building operations (States

and Empire).
Marine navigation....
Building operations of local

governments..

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LENGTH OF TIME THE INJURED PERSON HAD BEEN AT WORK ON THE

DAY OF THE ACCIDENT.

In order to disclose what, if any, relation exists between the number of hours which the injured person had been at work on the day of the accident and the frequency of accidents, Table 10 shows the number of persons killed and injured classified by the number of hours they had been at work on the day of the accident. As was the case in the tables showing the length of time employed in the establishment and in the occupation, it would be necessary to know the total number of persons employed the respective number of hours per day in order to compute an accurate rate; this information is not available. Table 10 presents the proportion of injured persons instead of the rate per 1,000 persons in each period of time.

Taking the total number of injured persons, Table 10 shows that these were distributed throughout the day as follows: Number of hours the injured person had been at work.

Per cent. Less than 1 hour...

4.94 1 hour and up to 2 hours.

8. 63 2 hours and up to 3 hours..

9.21 3 hours and up to 4 hours..

11, 28 4 hours and up to 5 hours..

12. 20 5 hours and up to 6 hours..

10.16 6 hours and up to 7 hours..

8. 10 7 hours and up to 8 hours.

8. 66 8 hours and up to 9 hours..

8. 54 9 hours and up to 10 hours.

7.57 10 hours and over..

10.71

Total........

100.00

The most conspicuous fact in these figures is that the expected increase in the proportion of accidents in the last few hours of the day does not appear; in fact, the proportion of accidents occurring from the seventh to the eighth hour of work is practically the same as that occurring from the first to the second hour of work. It is customary to allow about 15 minutes for afternoon lunch (Vesperpause) at 4 o'clock or later; and probably this intermission is responsible for the decrease noted beginning with the eighth hour of work.

While the last 4 hours of work do not show an increase in the proportion of accidents, the first 5 hours do show such an increase to a marked degree. The proportion of all accidents occurring to persons at work less than 1 hour was 4.94 per cent; the increase in the next group, those who had been employed 1 to 2 hours, is quite marked; after the second hour the increase is uninterrupted until the end of the fifth hour, when the maximum for the day is reached with 12.20 per cent of all the injured persons. At this point the noon recess evidently influences the number of accidents, though in

the various industries and in the various localities the custom regarding the time of the noon meal differs greatly.

It is of interest to note that other investigations as to the time of day when the accidents occur show substantially the same results as those above cited. In the Report on Condition of Woman and Child Wage-earners in the United States the accidents in cotton textile mills (Vol. I) and in establishments engaged in the metal trades (Vol. XI) are distributed throughout the day in practically the same proportion as is stated above. In explanation of the increasing proportion of accidents during the first 4 or 5 hours, the report (Vol. I, p. 396) suggests that at the beginning of the day the worker in the factory gradually increases his speed in order to increase his output, but such increased exertion soon becomes accompanied by increase of fatigue, lack of care, etc., and naturally results in a higher accident rate. In the afternoon the sense of fatigue overcomes the desire for increased output and is also accompanied by the feeling that, since a certain amount of work has been accomplished, a lessening of effort is permissible. This suggested explanation is apparently based on the experience of factory employees and especially of piece-rate workers. It is worthy of note that practically the same tendency to an increase of accidents during the first 4 hours of work occurs in industries where piecework can prevail to only a limited extent, such as in the operation of gas and water works (association 19) and in the operation of the State railways. Table 10.-NUMBER OF HOURS OF WORK PRECEDING THE ACCIDENT; PER CENT OF PERSONS KILLED OR INJURED, BY NUMBER OF HOURS OF WORK ON DAY OF ACCIDENT. (Source: Amtliche Nachrichten des Reichs-Versicherungsamts, 1910. I Beiheft, I Teil. Gewerbe-Unfall

statistik für das Jahr 1907, pp. 329 to 335.)

Per cent of injured persons who had been at work

Asso

cistion number.

Industry, etc.

Total

re-
port. Less

than
1 hr.

ing.

10 hrs. 1 to 22 to 3 3 to 4 4 to 5 5 to 6 6 to 7 7 to 8 8 to 9 9 to 10

and hrs. hrs.

hrs.
hrs. hrs. hrs. hrs. hrs. hrs.

over.

8. 66

8. 54

7.57 10.71

8. 68

8. 54

7.59 10.82

A. TOTALS.
Grand total.

79,791 4.94 8. 63 9.21 11. 28. 12. 2010.16 8. 10
Industrial accident

associations (not
including insti.
tutes)..

74,084 4. 89 8. 57 9.10 11.24 12. 20 10.24 8.13
Subsidiary insti-

tutes of building
trades, engineer-
ing, and naviga-
tion accident as-

sociations...... 1,255 4.38 9.00 11.39 11.47 12. 27 6.85 7.17
Public authorities.. 4, 452 5. 80 9.57 10. 47 11.93 12. 38 9. 70 7.82
B. GROUPS OF ASSO-

CIATIONS. 1 Mining ..

11. 194 5. 02 10.53 10.89 13.10 14.36 14.34 9.901 2 Quarrying

2, 610 5. 360 9.04 10.50 10.38 11.69 8.85 8. 39 3 Finé mechanical products.

1, 455 6. 12 9.35 10.37 14. 23 13. 33 10. 24 7.70 4-11 Iron and steel.. 113, 966 4.321 8.871 8. 23. 11.01 12.09 9.90l 7.15

9.48 10.52 8. 11 8.11

7.821 7. 231

9. 65 8.88

9. 31
8. 39

5. 42
9.16

3.00 4.13
7.781 10. 46

9. 28 8.73
8.45 9.34

6.32 4.33
9.771 10.87

Table 10.-NUMBER OF HOURS OF WORK PRECEDING THE ACCIDENT: PER CENT OF PERSONS KILLED OR INJURED, BY NUMBER OF HOURS OF WORK ON DAY OF ACCIDENT-Concluded.

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Metal working.. 1,519 5. 79 8. 23 8.76 13.76 13. 10 8. 89 7.64 10.60 9. 28 7.18

6.77 14 Musical instruments 222 7. 20 6.76 10.80) 10.36 15. 32 7. 66 7.2112.17 10.81 5. 41 6.30 15 Glass..

344 8. 43 8. 72 9.01 8. 43 9.60 10.76 8.72 9.60 8. 43 6.10 12. 20 16 Pottery. 297 8. 75 8.75 12. 46 16.84 16.16 12.79 4. 71 2. 36 6. 40

3.03 7.75 17 Brick and tile making.

1,917 5.22 8. 09 8. 40 9. 29 10.38 10.64 8. 40 9. 44 10.07 7.67 12. 40 18 Chemicals

1,999 4. 90 7. 45 8. 45 10.80 11.40 10.00 6.95 8. 95 9. 69 9.60 11.81 19 Gas and water works 425 5.88 10.82 8. 24 10.59 13. 41 8. 71 5. 65 8. 47 9. 41

6.82 12.00 20 Linen.

5.91 11. 44 12.92 6.64 16.97 9.96 7.01 8. 49 8. 49 9. 59 2. 38 27 Silk.

93 9. 68 9.68 16. 13 12. 90 10.75 4.30 2.15 11.83 6. 45 8. 60 7.53 20-27 Textiles (including

linen and silk). 2,689 6. 62 9. 26 10.52 11.38 12. 46 10.70 7. 59 8.33 7.70 8.00 7. 44 28 Paper making.

778 6. 68 8.35 7.97 10.80 12. 49 11.05 6.94 7.84 9. 25 6.94 11. 69 29 Paper products. 494 6. 28 19. 42 20. 44 21. 26 24.08 6. 90 1. 22

20

. 20 30 Leather..

508
5. 31

9. 25 9.06 10.24 14. 57 9. 25 9. 45 11. 42 7. 48 7. 28 6. 69 31-34 Woodworking

5, 222

4. 17 7. 22 8. 25. 11. 28 12.11 9.17 10.09 10. 76 10.09 8.08 8. 78 35 Flour milling.

1,024
5. 37
6. 25 7.13

8. 20 10.06 8. 69 9.57 5. 27 9.77 8. 40 21. 29 36 Food products..

777 6. 44 5. 92 8.37 10.17 10.94 10. 41 9. 78 8. 24 6.95 8. 49 14. 29 37 | Sugar.

503 4.17 8.75 7.55 9.94 12. 52 10.54 3. 18 5. 77 9.15 9.35 19.08 38 Dairying, distilling, and starch.

405 8.15 7.16 6.17 7.90 9. 63 7. 42 6.17 6.91 7.90 11.11 21.48 39 Brewing and malt. ing. 1,577 3. 80 6. 47 5. 39 7. 42

9.58 10. 21 9.07 9.00 10.27 8.75 20.04 Tobacco.

80 5.00 10.00 7.50 12.50 12.50 8.75 3. 75 11.25 6.25 11.25 11. 25 Clothing

676 4. 14 9.02 10.36 14.20 9. 32 6.21 10.36 12.13 10.95 7.84 5. 17 42 Chimney sweeping. 34 14.71 14. 71 5.88 11.76)

8. 82
8.82 20.60 5. 88

5. 88 43-54 Building trades (not

including insti-
tutes)...

10,816 4. 31 8. 19 8. 76 11. 45 12. 41 9. 26 9.36 10.02 10.11 8. 71 7. 42 55 Printing and publishing..

412 8. 25 15.05 13.35 7.52 11.17 7. 28 6.32 6. 55 7.52 13. 35 3. 64 56 Private railways.. 166 6. 63 4. 82 9.04 12. 65 12. 65 7.83 7.83 7.83 10.84 4. 22 15. 66 57 Street and small railroads..

473 7.19 10.36 10.99 11.20 10.57 9.09 8.25 8.88 6. 77 9.09 7. 61 58 | Express and storage 3, 852 4. 26 7.50 9. 28 11.66 11.94 10.36 5. 74 5. 79 6.57 7.04 19.86 59 Livery, drayage, cartage, etc.. 2,500 3. 52 5. 69

6. 22 7.24 7.61 8.35 5. 69 5.36 6. 96 7.86 35. 50 60-62 | Inland navigation.. 716 5.17 7.68 8.80 11.03 10.06) 9.08 7. 26 6. 42 8. 38 7.40 18.72 63 Marine navigation

(not including in-
stitute).

327 12.54 12.54 15.60 12.84 8. 26 6. 12 4. 89 5. 50 4. 28 3. 06 14.37 64 Engineering, exca

vating, etc. (not including institute)..

2, 137 5. 24 7.58 9.03 9. 55 11.04 7.53 5.15 7. 67 10.80 10.15 16. 26 65 Meat products.

1. 108 4. 96 6. 32 9. 21 7.67 9.39 10.83 9.75 7.04 10.02 7.58 17. 23 66 Blacksmithing, etc. 9181

9.16 11.98 13. 29 10.68 8.50 8.93

8. 06 6. 64 11.75

***

2.94

4. 90

6.11

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CAUSES OF ACCIDENTS.

In Table 11 the proportion of the accidents due to the various causes are given for the standard industry groups.

In this table the accidents are distributed among 17 groups of causes. If there was more than one cause responsible for the accident, the accident is classified under the cause which had the greatest influence in producing the injury.

The accidents in the first 4 groups in the table may be grouped together as having been caused by machinery of various sorts; these 4 groups included 24.37 per cent of the accidents of the year 1907. The machinery accidents resulted fatally in 1.07 per cent of all the accidents, while of all the fatal accidents machinery caused 13.40 per cent. Out of the total number of 81,248 accidents compensated for the first time in 1907, motors, etc., caused 0.64 per cent, transmission apparatus 1.20 per cent, working machinery of all kinds 17.50 per cent, and elevators, etc.,5.03 per cent. A table printed in the original report but not here given shows that there were 19,803 accidents caused by machinery of all kinds. The highest proportion of these occurred in the iron and steel industries, which had 24.26 per cent of the number just given. The woodworking associations had 15.77 per cent, the textile associations 7.91 per cent, the mining 6.96 per cent, the building trades 6.15 per cent, the metal-working trades 4.81 per cent, the fine mechanical products association 3.28 per cent, and the express and storage association 2.54 per cent.

Of the accidents occurring in each industry group, 71 per cent of those occurring in the paper products group were due to machinery of all kinds; in the clothing group 66.42 per cent of the accidents were caused by machinery, the metal-working group had 62.17 per cent, the musical instruments 61.33 per cent, the woodworking 59.13 per cent, the printing and publishing group 57.71 per cent, and the textile group 57.21 per cent.

Of the accidents caused by motors, engines, etc. (including prime movers of all kinds), the highest proportion occurred in the case of marine navigation (association 63) where they formed 8.28 per cent of the accidents compensated in this industry; the group with the next highest proportion of accidents due to motors, etc., was inland navigation (association 60–62) where the proportion was 2.26 per cent of the accidents compensated in this industry. Dairying, distilling, etc. (association 38), has the next highest proportion, namely, 2.20 per cent of all the accidents compensated in 1907 in this industry. The detailed table not reproduced here shows that 70.79 per cent of the 517 accidents caused by motors were caused by steam engines, 4.26 per cent by water-power engines, 19.15 per cent by gas, compressed air, and wind motors, 5.03 per cent by electric motors and

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