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Wholesale prices, 1890 to 1910:

Page.

Introduction....

309

Prices of commodities, 1910 compared with 1909

309-317

Prices of commodities, 1910, and December, 1910, compared with previous

years back to 1890....

317-327

Prices of commodities, by months, January, 1900, to December, 1910.. 327-332

Influences affecting prices.....

333

Explanation of tables....

334-361

Table I.—Wholesale prices of commodities from January to December,

362-411

Table II.-Average yearly actual and relative prices of commodities,

1890 to 1910, monthly actual and relative prices, January to Decem-

ber, 1910, and base prices (average for 1890–1899).

412-464

Table III.-Yearly relative prices of commodities, 1890 to 1910, and

monthly relative prices, January to December, 1910......

465-499

Report of British Board of Trade on cost of living in the principal industrial

cities of the United States:

Introduction.....

500, 501

Scope of the investigation...

501, 502

Rates of wages...

502-512

United States..

502-510

United States and England and Wales compared..

510-512

Hours of labor.....

512-514

United States.....

512, 513

United States and England and Wales compared

513, 514

Housing and rents....

515-517

United States...

515, 516

United States and England and Wales compared...

516, 517

Retail prices...

517-536

United States...

517-531

United States and England and Wales compared...

531-536

Rents and retail prices combined....

536

Family income and cost of living.

536-555

United States.....

536-550

United States and England and Wales compared.

551-555

Summary of conclusions......

555, 556

Reports of British Board of Trade on cost of living in England and Wales,

Germany, France, Belgium, and the United es:

Introduction.

557-559

Rates of wages.

560-563

Hours of labor..

563-565

Rents .....

565, 566

Retail prices of commodities .

566-569

Cost of food consumed weekly in the British workman's family.. 569, 570

Page. Hours of labor of men, women, and children employed in factories in Austria. 571-606 Digest of recent foreign statistical publications:

Chile--Report on the condition of labor in the saltpeter industry....... 607–611 Finland-- Report on conditions of employment of clerks and assistants in business offices and mercantile establishments....

611-616 GermanyReport of relief work done by the city of Düsseldorf.......

616-621 Report on women's organizations...

622-626 Italy--Report on housing condition among public administration employees in the city of Rome and among railway employees....

626-631 Sweden-Report on employment of alien laborers....

632 Decisions of courts affecting labor: Decisions under statute law...

633-654 Combinations in restraint of trade--antitrust law--penalties—juris

diction-constitutionality (Grenada Lumber Co. et al v. State)...... 633, 634 Employers' advances-contracts with intent to defraud-peonage constitutionality of statute (Bailey v. Alabama)....

634-639 Employers' liability--mine regulations-disobedience by employ

ers--assumption of risk-negligence of licensed employees (Poli v.
Numa Block Coal Co.)......

639-641 Employers' liability-railroad companies—fellow - servant act

death--survival of action (Sumner v. Missouri Pacific Ry. Co.)... 641 Employers' liability--railroad companies--fellow - servant law

constitutionality of statute ( Mobile, Jackson & Kansas City R. R.
Co. v. Turnipseed)...

641-644 Employers' liability-railroad companies--relief benefits--receipt

not a bar in suits for damages-construction of statute (Chicago,
Burlington & Quincy R. R. Co. v. McGuire)...

644-649
Employment of women--hours of labor constitutionality of stat-
ute-police power (Withey v. Bloem).......

649, 650 Garnishment of wages-class legislation-constitutionality of statute (White v. Missouri, Kansas & Texas Ry. Co.)......

650-652 Payment of wages-wages as preferred claims-assignment of rights (Richeson v. National Bank of Mena).....

653 Public work—protection of laborers and material men--contractors' bonds (Title Guaranty & Trust Co. v. Crane Co.).......

653, 654 Decisions under common law....

654-672 Employer and employee-contract of employment--breach

accord and satisfaction-necessary elements (Fuller v. Smith)..... 654–657 Employers' liability-injuries by fellow-servants-"initiation ” of new employees ( Medlin Milling Co. v. Boutwell).......

657, 658 Employers' liability-injury to employee being transported to place of employment (Headline v. Great Northern Ry.).......

658, 659 Employers' liability--railway relief fund-malpractice--charities (Texas Central R. R. Co. v. Zumwalt)..

659-661 Employers' liability-relation of employer and employee-inde

pendent contractors-assumption of risk-contributory negli-
gence-questions for jury-fear of discharge-safe place to work
(Jewell v. Arkansas City Bolt & Nut Co. et al.)...

661-667
Labor organizations-right to withhold service-boycott-action for
damages ( Meier v. Speer).....

667-670 Labor organizations-rules-expulsion of members-regulation by

courts (Crutcher v. Easter Division, No. 321, of the Order of Railway
Conductors of America).....

670-672

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INTRODUCTION. The average of wholesale prices in 1910, as measured by the prices of the 257 commodities included in the present investigation, was 4 per cent higher than the average of 1909, and with this advance the level was 1.6 per cent above the high average of 1907 prices. Wholesale prices during 1910 were 19.1 per cent higher than in 1900; 46.7 per cent higher than in 1897, the year of lowest prices in the 21-year period from 1890 to 1910; 16.6 per cent higher than in 1890; and 31.6 per cent higher than the average price for the 10 years 1890 to 1899.

The highest point reached in 1907 was in the month of October, from which month there was a general decline until August, 1908. Beginning with September, 1908, wholesale prices increased without a break in any month up to March, 1910; in the months of April, May, and June prices declined slightly, but from June to December, 1910, prices remained very nearly at the same level. Wholesale prices in March, 1910, were higher than at any time in the preceding 21 years, being 10.2 per cent higher than in August, 1908, 7.5 per cent higher than in March, 1909, 21.1 per cent higher than the average yearly price of 1900, and 49.2 per cent higher than the average yearly price of 1897. Wholesale prices in December, 1910, however, were 1.4 per cent lower than in December, 1909, and 2.5 per cent lower than in March, 1910, but they were still 30.4 per cent higher than the average price for the 10 years 1890 to 1899, and 45.4 per cent higher than the prices of 1897.

PRICES OF COMMODITIES, 1910 COMPARED WITH 1909.

Comparing 1910 with 1909 the group of commodities showing the greatest increase in prices was lumber and building materials, the increase in the group as a whole being 10.7 per cent. Six other groups show an increase in 1910 of 2.7 to 7.5 per cent, while of the remaining 2 of the 9 groups into which all commodities have been classified 1 shows a decrease of 0.1 per cent and 1 a decrease of 3 per cent.

Of the 257 articles for which wholesale prices were obtained, 148 showed an increase in the average price for 1910 as compared with 1909, 26 showed no change in the average price for the year, and 83 showed a decrease in price. The following table shows for each of the 9 groups the number of articles covered, the per cent of increase or decrease in the average price for 1910 as compared with that for 1909 for each group as a whole, and the number of articles that increased or decreased in price:

PER CENT OF INCREASE IN AVERAGE PRICES FOR 1910 AS COMPARED WITH AVERAGE PRICES FOR 1909 AND NUMBER OF ARTICLES THAT INCREASED OR DECREASED IN PRICE, BY GROUPS OF COMMODITIES.

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From the above table it is seen that in farm products, taken as a whole, there was an increase in price of 7.5 per cent in 1910 over the average price for 1909. Among the 14 articles for which prices increased were hops, hogs, flaxseed, barley, live poultry, cotton, mules, sheep, hay, and cattle. The 6 articles that decreased in price were oats, corn, tobacco, wheat, hides, and rye.

Food as a whole increased 3.2 per cent in the average price for 1910 as compared with 1909. Among the 34 articles showing an increase in price were mess pork, bacon, lard, coffee, hams, dressed poultry, eggs, butter, mutton, and fresh beef. No change took place in the price of soda, starch, and one quotation for loaf bread. The principal articles of the 20 showing a decrease in price were canned tomatoes, flour, corn meal, rice, and potatoes.

In the group of cloths and clothing as a whole there was an average increase of 2.7 per cent in price, the increase being mainly in the prices of cotton goods and the decrease in the prices of raw wool and raw

silk.

In fuel and lighting as a group there was a decrease in price of 3 per cent. The commodities showing the greatest decrease in prices were

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