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STRIKES, BY NUMBER OF STRIKERS INVOLVED, RESULTS, AND DURATION, 1908.

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Considered by their duration, the largest per cent of successful strikes was found in strikes which lasted 7 days and under. In strikes of this class 19.8 per cent were successful, while of those which continued for more than 7 days only 12.4 per cent terminated favorably to the strikers. In the classes 8 to 15 days and 16 to 30 days the percent of successful strikes were 12.8 and 15, respectively. Of strikes lasting 31 to 100 days 11.6 per cent were successful, while of the 15 strikes lasting 101 and more days none were successful.

The following table gives a summary of the most important strike statistics for each of the years 1894 to 1908. The figures for the years 1894 to 1907 have been compiled from previous reports and those for 1908 from the present report.

STRIKES AND STRIKERS, BY RESULTS, ESTABLISHMENTS AFFECTED, AND

WORKING-DAYS LOST, FOR EACH YEAR, 1894 TO 1908.

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The number of strikes, establishments affected, strikers, and aggregate working-days lost during 1908 show a considerable decrease as compared with the figures for 1907.

CONCILIATION AND ARBITRATION.—During the year recourse to the law of December 27, 1892, relating to the conciliation and arbitration 1 of labor disputes, was had in 182 disputes. In 20 cases recourse was had to the law before entire cessation of work had occurred. In 4 of these 20 cases the demands of the employees were granted, in 1 case a compromise was effected, and in 5 cases the employees receded from their demands, although in 1 of these cases the employer refused to agree to the proposition of conciliation. In 4 cases upon the refusal of the employers to participate in conciliation proceedings, strikes were declared; in 2 of these strikes a compromise was reached, and 2 failed. In 1 case the employees refused to agree to the proposition of conciliation and the establishment was closed for some days, though later a compromise was reached. In 1 case neither the employers nor employees presented themselves, and the strike failed. In 4 other cases a committee of conciliation was formed, but, following a disagreement among the members of the committee, strikes followed ; 2 of these disputes were settled by compromise after other meetings of the committee, and 2 by agreement.

The number of disputes in which application of the law was requested in 1908 is equal to 16.96 per cent of the number of strikes that actually occurred during the year. During the preceding 15-year period such recourse was had in 2,450 disputes, or 23.87 per cent of the total strikes for the period. Of the 182 cases in which recourse was had during 1908, requests for the application of the law were made by employees in 75 disputes, by employers in 4 disputes, and by both employees and employers in 8 disputes, 87 cases in all; in the other 95 disputes in which recourse was had to the law, the initiative was taken by the justice of the peace.

As to results, it was found that 12 of the disputes had terminated by direct agreement between employers and employees before committees of conciliation were formed. The offer of conciliation was rejected in 69 of the 170 remaining disputes, the rejection coming from employers in 53 cases, from employees in 5 cases, and from both employees and employers in 11 cases. In 15 of the 69 cases in which conciliation was rejected the disputes were terminated by agreement between employees and employers in 7 cases, and in 8 cases the employees withdrew their demands. In the other 54 cases strikes were declared or continued.

Committees of conciliation were constituted for the settlement of the remaining 101 disputes; 49 of these disputes were settled directly

For the provisions of this law see Bulletin of the Department of Labor, No. 25, pp. 854–856.

by such committees, 4 indirectly by committees, and in 48 cases strikes were declared or continued, after failure of conciliation and arbitration.

The following is a summary statement in regard to disputes in which recourse was had to the law concerning conciliation and arbitration during 1908 and for the preceding 15 years taken collectively: SUMMARY OF CASES IN WHICH RECOURSE WAS HAD TO THE LAW CONCERNING CON

CILIATION AND ARBITRATION, 1893 TO 1907, AND 1908.

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Total number of strikes..
Disputes in which recourse was had to the law of 1892.
Disputes settled:

Before the creation of committees of conciliation...
After creation but before assembling of committees of conciliation.
After refusal of request for conciliation..
Directly by committees of conciliation.
By arbitration....
Directly by the parties, after having had recourse to conciliation.

Total cases settled through the application of the law..
Strikes resulting or continuing:

After refusal of request for conciliation.
After failure of recourse to conciliation and arbitration.

Total cases of failure after application of the law...

118

4 104 743 87 67

15 46 3 4

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The above summary shows that of 182 disputes considered in 1908, 80 were settled directly or indirectly through the application of the law of 1892, and in 102 cases the recourse to the law proved fruitless. Of the 80 disputes settled, 13 were favorable to the demands of the employees, 49 succeeded partly, and 18 were favorable to employers. In the 102 disputes which continued after the failure of attempts at conciliation and arbitration the employees succeeded in 5, partly succeeded in 46, and failed in 51 cases.

LOCKOUTS IN 1908.-During the year there were 31 lockouts reported, involving 306 establishments. These establishments (not including one dispute in which 18,000 persons were locked out) employed 11,181 persons, of this number 6,817 were locked out, making the total number of persons locked out 24,817. As a result of these lockouts 586,377 working-days were lost by the employees locked

Considered from the employers' point of view, 7 lockouts were successful, 12 partially successful, and 12 failed.

GERMANY.

Streiks und Aussperrungen im Jahre 1908. Bearbeitet im Kaiserlichen

Statistichen Amt. 64 pp. (Statistik des Deutschen Reichs, Band 230.)

This is the tenth annual report on strikes and lockouts issued by the Imperial Statistical Office of Germany. The report contains analyses and summaries of the data relating to strikes and lockouts in a series of diagrams presenting the principal features of the usputes, tables showing the data by industries and by localities, and a summary statement for the years 1899 to 1908.

STRIKES IN 1908. -The number of strikes which ended in 1908 was 1.347. and the number of establishments affected was 4,774. Of the establishments affected, 1,214 suspended operations entirely. The number of employees in the establishments affected was 199,371, and of these 68,392 participated in the strikes.' The number of nonstrikers who were thrown out of employment was 7,405.

The following table shows the number of strikes, establishments affected, strikers, and other employees thrown out of work, by results of strikes, in 1908:

STRIKES, ESTABLISHMENTS AFFECTED, STRIKERS, AND OTHER EMPLOYEES

THROWN OUT OF WORK, BY RESULTS, 1908. [The column headed “Strikers” shows the maximum number of strikers at any time during the strike.)

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In 1908 the average number of establishments affected by each strike was 3.5, while the average number of strikers to a strike was 50.8; the persons on strike formed 34.3 per cent of the employees of the establishments affected. The proportion of strikes that succeeded was 15.3 per cent, those that failed 52.3 per cent, and those that succeeded partly were 32.4 per cent of the total. The number of strikers engaged in strikes which succeeded formed 10.8 per cent, those in strikes that failed formed 47.6 per cent, and those in strikes that succeeded partly formed 41.6 per cent, of the total number of strikers.

The following table shows, by principal groups of industries, the number and results of strikes, the number of establishments and strikers involved, and the number of other employees thrown out of work, on account of strikes, occurring in the year 1908:

1 The number of strikers included in the strike statistics of Germany is the greatest number of persons on strike at any time during the progress of the strike.

NUMBER AND RESULTS OF STRIKES, ESTABLISHMENTS AFFECTED, STRIKERS, AND

OTHER EMPLOYEES THROWN OUT OF WORK, BY INDUSTRIES, 1908. (The column headed “Strikers” shows the maximum number of strikers at any time during the strike.)

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The building trades had by far the greatest number of strikes, the 429 disputes in this industry forming 31.8 per cent of all the strikes reported; the number of strikers also was in excess of those in any other industry, the 19,593 strikers being 28.6 per cent of all the persons on strike. The group woodworking, carved materials, etc., came next in order as regards the number of strikes, this group having had 11.6 per cent of all the strikes. The mining, metallurgical, etc., group ranked second as far as the number of strikers was concerned, with 12.5 per cent of all the persons on strike.

The two tables following present the data according to the duration of the strikes and according to the number of strikers involved: NUMBER AND RESULTS OF STRIKES, ESTABLISHMENTS AFFECTED, STRIKERS, AND

OTHER EMPLOYEES THROWN OUT OF WORK, BY DURATION, 1908. [The column headed "Strikers" shows the maximum number of strikers at any time during the strike.]

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