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INCREASE IN THE GENERAL ACCIDENT RATE.

The increase in the accident rate during the period 1897 to 1907 has been made the subject of special attention, and in order to disclose its extent Table 3 shows the number of persons killed or injured per 1,000 full-time workers for each industry group.

The increase in this rate for all establishments, except those conducted by public authorities, is best shown in the second line of figures in Table 3.

The increases in the accident rates must be considered in connection with the degree of disability caused by the injuries. The following table classifies the injuries according to whether they result in death, in total permanent disability, in partial permanent disability, or in temporary disability:

NUMBER OF FULL-TIME WORKERS, NUMBER OF INJURED PERSONS, AND NUMBER

PER 1,000 FULL-TIME WORKERS KILLED OR INJURED BY ACCIDENTS COMPEN. SATED FOR THE FIRST TIME IN EACH YEAR OF THE PERIOD 1897 TO 1907, INSURED IN INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENT ASSOCIATIONS.

(Source: Amtliche Nachrichten des Reichs-Versicherungsamts 1899 to 1909.)

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It will be remembered that the data in this study include only those accidents resulting in disability lasting longer than 13 weeks or in death.

The change from the general accident rate of 8.07 in 1897 to 9.58 in 1907 represents an increase of 1.51 per 1,000 full-time workers or of 18.7 per cent in the rate. This rate is composed of accidents resulting in death, in total permanent disability, in partial permanent disability, or in temporary disability of over 13 weeks. The detailed information contained in the report shows that there has been a decrease in the fatal rate, a decrease in the rate for total permanent disability, a decrease in the rate for partial permanent disability, but a marked increase in the rate for temporary disability. The increase in the general rate, therefore, is due entirely to the increase in the less serious cases of injury. The average rate for all establishments also fails to give as accurate an impression of the tendency as do the rates for the various industry groups.

All except seven of the industry groups show an increase in the number of persons injured per 1,000 full-time workers; the group livery, drayage, cartage, etc., increased from 16.97 in 1897 to 26.61 per 1,000 full-time workers in 1907; the group flour milling increased from 13.51 in 1897 to 16.06 per 1,000 full-time workers in 1907; the group mining, etc., increased from 12.09 in 1897 to 15.54 per 1,000 full-time workers in 1907; the group quarrying increased from 11.94 in 1897 to 15.35 per 1,000 full-time workers in 1907. These groups with high accident rates indicate the general tendency of the great majority of the industries to have a higher accident rate. As already stated, seven of the groups show decreases in the rate per 1,000 fulltime workers; these are textiles with a decrease from 3.25 in 1897 to 3 in 1907, paper making from 9.27 to 9.21, food products from 6.79 to 6.27, chimney sweeping from 6.14 to 5.98, private railways from 5.86 to 5.56, express and storage from 12.36 to 11.34, while marine navigation shows a considerable decrease from 8.95 in 1897 to 6.22 per 1,000 full-time workers in 1907. With the exception of the lastnamed group, all of the decreases are comparatively slight. The increases, on the other hand, are in many cases quite marked.

The accident rate for workers engaged in Government industrial plants and operations shows some fluctuations during the period given in the preceding table, being highest in 1903, when it was 7.66 per 1,000 full-time workers, and lowest in 1897, when it was 6.79 per 1,000 full-time workers; since 1903 the general tendency has been for the rate to decrease.

The increase in the number of accidents has been so marked that the Imperial Insurance Office sent a circular letter to each of the accident associations in order to determine the cause. The returns showed that the increase was principally due to the following causes: Stricter control in regard to reporting accidents, employment of untrained and inexperienced workmen, more frequent prosecution of claims by the injured persons because of their better knowledge of the law, better knowledge of the literal definition of what is an “industrial accident,'' increase of the cases in which the officials of the insurance system admitted a causal connection between an existing malady or weakness and its aggravation by an accident, the frequent granting of a transitory or “accustoming” pension in cases where strictly speaking there was no longer a loss of earning power, and finally the frequency of changes in the personnel of the labor force of the plant.

According to the report, an increasing accident rate is an unfortunate but at the same time a well established and natural accompaniment of the industrial development of a country; in a time of industrial activity new and often inexperienced employees are taken on, and all employees are urged to turn out a maximum product in order to make the fullest possible use of the machinery, and naturally a higher accident rate results. It may also be noted that in times of depression, sending workmen from one establishment or occupation to another is likely to result in an increase in the number of accidents.

TABLE 3.—INCREASE IN THE GENERAL ACCIDENT RATE: NUMBER OF PERSONS

KILLED OR INJURED PER 1,000 FULL-TIME WORKERS, 1897 TO 1907, BY INDUSTRY

GROUPS. (Source: Amtliche Nachrichten des Reichs-Versicherungsamts, 1910. I Beiheft, I Teil. Gewerbe-Unfall

statistik für das Jahr 1907, pp. 18* to 23*.]

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A. TOTALS.
Grand total.

8.08 8.18 8.47 8.54 9.16 9.13 19.21 19.41 1 9.46 19.38 9.44 Industrial accident asso

ciations (not including
institutes).

8.07
8. 22
8.51 8.58 9.25 9.19 9.24 9.491

9.55 9. 481

9.58 Subsidiary institutes of

building trades, engi-
neering, and navigation
associations..

17.89 13.82 14.14 14.61 15.31 15.59 1 17.06 1 17.76 1 14.92 1 16.35 16.57 Public authorities..

6.79 6.82

7.13

7.11 7.24 7.41 7.66 7.20 7.42 7.16 6.85 B. GROUPS OF ASSOCIA

TIONS. 1 Mining.

12.09 12.77 12.10 12.19 13.06 13.53 14.59 15.46 15.53 15.70 15.54 2 Quarrying

11.94 11.38 12.40 12.44 14.78 15. 33 14.91 14.83 15.14 14.98 15.35 3 Fine mechanical products. 5.38 5.51 5.14 5.26 6.78 5. 89 5.82 6.43 7.08 6.68

6. 64 4-11 Iron and steel..

28.92 29.76 % 10.05 - 10.07 11.39 11.45 11.25 11.62 11.45 11.55 11.62 12, 13 Metal working.

4.21 4.34 4.42 4.75 5.09 5. 69 5.89 6.45 6.82 7.16 7.63 14 Musical instruments. 3. 96 4.35 5.04 4.94

5. 26 5.33 5.11 5. 34 5.37 5.04

6.92 15 Glass.

4.07 4.31 4.87 4.19 4.77 4.28 4.92 4.89 5.08 4.68 4.46 16 Pottery.

2. 33 2.38 2.04
2. 731 3. 01 3.06

2.73

3. 23 3.31 3.03 3. 39 17 Brick and tile making..

6. 71
6.49

7.34 8. 60 8. 24 8.74 7.85 8.61 9.42 8.991 9. 59 18 Chemicals.....

7.76 7.09 7.79 8. 39 9.04 7.85 7.98 8.65 8. 71 9. 24 9.88 19 Gas and water works. 5.14 5. 39 5. 20 5.42 6.10 5.94 6.96

6.78 6.44 6.23 6. 45 20 Linen.

4.49 4.17

5. 16 4.32 4. 49 4. 65 3.80 4.52 3.97 4.91 4.76 27 Silk.

1.26 1.54

1.41 1.64 1.69 1.31 1.36 1.44 1.46 1.30 1.29 20-27 | Textiles, including linen and silk.

3.25 3. 13 3.34 3.45 3.21 3.01 3.04 3.00 3.07 3.07 3.00 28 Paper making. 9.27 9. 23 8.81 8.96 10.66 9.83 9.52 9.51 9.65 9.00

9.21 Paper products.

3. 39
3.19
3.28

3. 58 3. 45 3.16 3. 41 3.53 4.08 3.81 3. 81 30 Leather..

5. 23 5.98 4.96 6.06 6.66 6.15 6.53 6.45 6.51 6.36 7.14 31-34 Woodworking

11.77 12.07 13.00 12.93 13.35 12.35 12.41 12.68 13.05 13.19 13.28 35 Flour milling..

13.51) 13.32 14.43 13.83 14.49 14.96 15.67 16.18 16.24 15.72 16.06 36 Food products.

6.79 5.29 5.86 5.97 6.40 6.33 5. 71 5.99 5.69 5.39 6.27 37 Sugar..

7.89 7.41 8.74 8. 41 7.97

9. 23
8.27 9.00

8.41

8.86 9.10 38 Dairying, distilling, and starch..

7.67 7.96 9.01 7.57 8.22 8.36 7.38 8.33 8.68 8.02 8.10 39 Brewing and malting. 11.31 10.87 11.21 12.17 11.88 11.88 12.78 13.22 13.08 11.93 13.05 40Tobacco..

.43 .46 .61 .54 59 651 .53 48 .56 .49 41 Clothing...

2.18 2.67 2.65 2.70 3. 29

2. 72 2.85 3.07 2. 67

2.88 2.81 42 Chimney sweeping.

6.14 5.50 5.14
4.48 4.42 5.27 5. 39 5.27

5.27 4.71 5.98 43-54 Building trades (not in

cluding institutes). 11.04 10.77 10.92 10.72 11.44 12.16 11.34 11.24 11.04 10.77 11.22 55 Printing and publishing.. 2.66 2.05 2.31 2.66 2.52 2.84 2. 48 2. 45 3. 12 3.16 3.02 56 Private railways.. 5.86 4.61 5.72 4.53 5.37 6.26 6.68 5. 65 5.78

6.57 5. 56 57 Street and small railroads. 5.14 5. 65 7.07 6.58 8.00 8.36 7.99 7.13 7.60 7. 45 58 Express and storage 12.36 12.19 13.95 14.15 14.52 13.90 13.57 11.62 12.53 12.23 11.34 59 Livery, drayage, cartage,

16.97 18.14 16.50 15.11 20.11 20.22 24.12 22.68 25.31 24.14 26.61 60-62 Inland navigation. 11.35 10.70 11.73 11.74 13.84 12.97 13. 69 15.02 14.31 14.11 11.82 63 Marine navigation (not in

cluding institute). 8.95 8.01 9.02 8.00 7.30 7.67 6.49 6.72 6.50 64 Engineering, excavating,

6.70 6.22 etc. (not including institute)...

11.85 12.38 12.82 12.82 13.87 16.61 16.24 15.17 14.74 12.74 12.95 65 Meat products..

7.03 7.13 8.08 7.66 10.05 9.19 9.90) 10.17/ 10.02 8.90 8. 80 66 Blacksmithing, etc. (3) () (3) (3) 3.611 5.891 8.771 7.791 8.63 7.87

1 Not including subsidiary institute of the navigation accident association.
. Including blacksmithing, etc.
3 Included in associations 4-11.

TABLE 3.-INCREASE IN THE GENERAL ACCIDENT RATE: NUMBER OF PERSONS KILLED OR INJURED PER 1,000 FULL-TIME WORKERS, 1897 TO 1907, BY INDUSTRY GROUPS-Concluded.

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The month of the year in which the accident occurred is shown in Table 4.

The grand total for all insured establishments in 1907 indicates that the accidents are distributed with a fair degree of uniformity throughout the year; the highest proportion in any one month was that for October, when it was 9.39 per cent of all the accidents occurring in the year, while the month of August, with 8.87 per cent, came second. The month of February having but 28 days naturally had the smallest proportion, with 7.22 per cent of the total number of accidents; in some of the industry groups the distribution of the accidents reflects the seasonal character of the industries; thus in the industry of inland navigation, the association for inland navigation of West Germany (association 60) fluctuates between 5.07 per cent in January and 11.96 per cent in September; in the building trades the Hamburg Building Trades Association (association 43) fluctuates between 4.95 per cent in January and 11.08 per cent in May. Some of the industries in which such fluctuations would not ordinarily be expected show also a wide difference in the proportion of accidents occurring in the different months during the year; thus the fine mechanical products association (association 3) had only 6.62 per cent of its accidents in the month of May, while 9.79 per cent occurred in the month of January.

TABLE 4.-TIME OF ACCIDENT, MONTH OF YEAR: PER CENT OF PERSONS INJURED,

BY MONTH IN WHICH ACCIDENTS OCCURRED. (Source: Amtliche Nachrichten des Reichs-Versicherungsamts, 1910. I Beiheft, I Teil. Gewerbe-Unfall

statistik für das Jahr 1907, pp. 300 to 309.)

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A. TOTALS.
Grand total:

1907. (81,248 cases). 8. 487.22 7.83 7.78 8.15 8.35 8. 54 8.87 8.32 9.39 8.62 8.45

1897 (45,971 cases).. 7.93 7.03 7.69 7. 42 8. 41 8.30 9.23 8.78 9.08 9.21 8.69 8. 23 Industrial accident associa

tions (not including insti-
tutes):

1907. (75,370 cases).. 8.52 7.23 7.80 7.75 8. 12 8.36 8.51 8. 92 8.34 9.39 8.63 8. 43

1897.. (41,746 cases) 7.85 7.12 7.70 7.38) 8. 41 8. 21 9.23 8.83 9.11 9.28 8.68 8. 20 Subsidiary institutes of build

ing trades, engineering, and
navigation accident asso-
ciations:

1907. ...(1,345 cases). | 4.83 4.46 9.00 10.86 11.82 10.48 11.00 8.48 7.96 8.10 7.73 5. 28

1897... .. (1,155 cases).. 6.06 4.50 6.32 7.97 11.26 12. 8011. 52 10.13 7.36 7. 71 7.53 6. 84 Public authorities:

1907 (4,533 cases). . 8.85 7.88 7.97 7.31 7.60 7.51) 8.26 8. 10 7.94 9.80 8.74 10.04

1897 .(3,070 cases). . 9.76 6.73 8.07 7.71 7. 41 7.87 8. 361 7.55 9.33 8.79 9.14 9. 28 B. GROUPS OF ASSOCIATIONS. 1 Mining:

1907. (11,381 cases).. 10.18 7.93 8.85 7.32 7.84 8. 087.72 8.75 8.16 8.64 8.50 8.03 1897 (5,670 cases).. 8.75 8.798.84 7.41

7.90

7. 36] 8. 751 7. 66! 8.70 9. 24 8.17 8. 43 2 Quarrying: 1907

(2,677 cases).. 7.81 7.93 9.05 8.07 8. 79 8. 67 8. 04 7. 89 7.93 9.38 8.18 8. 26 1897 -(1,554 cases).. 6.89 7.92 8.24 7.34 9.21 7. 66 9.92 8. 82 9.34 8.50 7.86 8.30 3 Fine mechanical products:

1907. (1,481 cases).. 9.79 9.12 7.83 7. 49 6. 62 7.83 8. 17) 8. 24 8.71 9.05 8. 981 8. 17
1897.. -(567 cases). . 8.13 6.89 8.30 7.42 7.60 7. 24 8. 48/10.07 9.36 10. 42 8. 69 7. 40

IRON AND STEEL.
4 South German iron and steel:

1907.......(2,105 cases). 8. 79 7. 27 7.98 7.98 6.37) 6. 79 8.12 9. 41 9.60 11.06 9.31 7.32
1897 ...(1,093 cases).. 7.87 8.33 6.40 6.95

6.95

7.87] 9.33 9.33) 10.16 11. 25 8.42 7.14 5 Southwest German iron:

1907. ..(821 cases).. 8.65 6.46 9.14 8.77) 9.50 8.04 7.92 8. 28 7. 43 9.00 7.55 9. 26
1897
(301 cases). 7.31 10.63 4. 32 9.97

8.97 6.31 7.97 9. 63 12. 96 4. 65 9. 97 6 Rhineland-Westphalian fur

nace and rolling works:
1907.. -(2,748 cases).. 9.50 8.11 7.75 7. 86

7.28

8. 81 8.52 7. 46 7.35, 8. 371 9.86 9. 13 1897. (1,127 cases). 8.16 8. 87 8.78 8. 16 7.72 7. 46 9.76] 8. 43 8.34 8.61) 8.34 7.37 1 Machine building and small

iron wares:
1907

-(2,308 cases).. 8.06 6.72 8.19 8.02 7.931 8. 247.89 9.41 8.58 10.14 8.32 8.50
1897 (936 cases).. 7.27 7.70 8.24 6. 42 7.70 7. 49 8.88 8.98 8.45 9.09 10. 27 9.51
Saxony-Thuringian iron and
steel:

..(1,104 cases).. 9.24 8.51 7.71 8.15 6.97 7.25 9.87 8.70 8. 42 8. 97 7.88 8. 33 1897. (788 cases). | 7.24 7.36 7. 49 7.99 8. 25 9.14 9.77 10. 28 9.14 7.36 7.99 7.99 9 Northeast iron and steel: 1907. ..(1,510 cases).. 8.61 8.15 7.35 8.61

7. 42 8. 74 7.02 9. 21 8.74 9.27 9.07 7.81 1897

(746 cases). 9.25 7.77 8. 71 6.30 7.77 8.18! 8. 85 10.05 8.04 7. 65 9.52 7.91 10 Silesian iron and steel:

(1,813 cases). 9. 10 8.16 7.12 7. 67 8.99 10.15 7. 671 8. 71 7.17 10.09 7.56 7.61 1897 .. (957 cases).. 10.24 7.63 7.94 7.31 9. 72

7.94 7.94 9. 40 7.32 7.94 8. 78 7. 84 11 Northwest iron and steel: 1907. ......(1,674 cases).. 9.74 9.09 6.87 7.83 6. 81 7.35 8.13 7. 47 8. 07 11.00 8.37 9. 27

(925 cases). .10.17| 8.44 9.85 6.82 7.68 8.98 7.90 7. 47 8.01 7. 47 8. 66 8.55
METAL WORKING.
12 South German precious and

nonprecious metal work-
ing:

1907.... (424 cases). . 7.55 8.25 8.73 8.02 9.67 5.19 8. 49 8.73 8.25 8.25 8.96 9.91

1897. (199 cases). - 12. 06/10.05 7.04 4.52 10.54 5.53 7.54 5.03 10.05 9.55 8.54 9.55 13 North German metal working:

-(1,109 cases).. 7.12 8.03 9.02 8.39 9.37 7.48 7.66 9.65 7.39 8.66 8.75 8.48 1897 (335 cases).. 8.661 5.671 6. 87/10.151 8.66 7.76 9.55 7.76 7.76'10.15 8.06 8.95

1 Including blacksmithing, etc., in 1897.

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