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shall be admitted in evidence equally with the originals in any

and all cases and proceedings under this Act and in all cases and proceedings in which the originals thereof might be admissible as evidence.

(g) The officers in charge of property owned or leased by the Government are authorized, upon the recommendation of the Attorney General, to provide quarters without payment of rent, in any building occupied by the Service, for a photographic studio, operated by welfare organizations without profit and solely for the benefit of persons seeking to comply with requirements under the immigration and nationality laws. Such studio shall be under the supervision of the Attorney General.

(h) 256 In order to promote the opportunities and responsibilities of United States citizenship, the Attorney General shall broadly distribute information concerning the benefits which persons may receive under this title and the requirements to obtain such benefits. In carrying out this subsection, the Attorney General shall seek the assistance of appropriate community groups, private voluntary agencies, and other relevant organizations. There are authorized to be appropriated (for each fiscal year beginning with fiscal year 1991) such sums as may be necessary to carry out this subsection.

PHOTOGRAPHS

SEC. 333. [8 U.S.C. 1444] (a) Three identical photographs of the applicant shall be signed by and furnished by each applicant for naturalization or citizenship. One of such photographs shall be affixed by the Attorney General to the original certificate of naturalization issued to the naturalized citizen and one to the duplicate certificate of naturalization required to be forwarded to the Service.

(b) Three identical photographs of the applicant shall be furnished by each applicant for

(1) a record of lawful admission for permanent residence to be made under section 249(a);

(2) a certificate of derivative citizenship;
(3) a certificate of naturalization or of citizenship;
(4) a special certificate of naturalization;

(5) a certificate of naturalization or of citizenship, in lieu of one lost, mutilated, or destroyed;

(6) a new certificate of citizenship in the new name of any naturalized citizen who, subsequent to naturalization, has had his name changed by order of a court of competent jurisdiction or by marriage; and

(7) a declaration of intention. One such photograph shall be affixed to each such certificate issued by the Attorney General and one shall be affixed to the copy of such certificate retained by the Service.

256 Subsection (h) was added by $ 406 of the Immigration Act of 1990 (P.L. 101-649, Nov. 29, 1990, 104 Stat. 5039), effective on November 29, 1990, under $ 408(aX3) of that Act.

APPLICATION FOR NATURALIZATION; DECLARATION OF INTENTION

SEC. 334. [8 U.S.C. 1445] (a) An applicant for naturalization shall make and file with the Attorney General a sworn application in writing, signed by the applicant in the applicant's own handwriting, if physically able to write, which application shall be on a form prescribed by the Attorney General and shall include averments of all facts which in the opinion of the Attorney General may be material to the applicant's naturalization, and required to be proved under this title. In the case of an applicant subject to a requirement of continuous residence under section 316(a) or 319(a), the application for naturalization may be filed up to 3 months before the date the applicant would first otherwise meet such continuous residence requirement. 257

(b) No person shall file a valid application for naturalization unless he shall have attained the age of eighteen years. An application for naturalization by an alien shall contain an averment of lawful admission for permanent residence.

(c) Hearings under section 336(a) on applications for naturalization shall be held at regular intervals specified by the Attorney General.

(d) Except as provided in subsection (e), an application for naturalization shall be filed in the office of the Attorney General.

(e) A person may file an application for naturalization other than in the office of the Attorney General, and an oath of allegiance administered other than in a public ceremony before the Attorney General or a court, if the Attorney General determines that the person has an illness or other disability which

(1) is of a permanent nature and is sufficiently serious to prevent the person's personal appearance, or

(2) is of a nature which so incapacitates the person as to prevent him from personally appearing. (f) An alien over 18 years of age who is residing in the United States pursuant to a lawful admission for permanent residence may file with the Attorney General a declaration of intention to become a citizen of the United States. Such a declaration shall be filed in duplicate and in a form prescribed by the Attorney General and shall be accompanied by an application prescribed and approved by the Attorney General. Nothing in this subsection shall be construed as requiring any such alien to make and file a declaration of intention as a condition precedent to filing an application for naturalization nor shall any such declaration of intention be regarded as conferring or having conferred upon any such alien United States citizenship or nationality or the right to United States citizenship or nationality, nor shall such declaration be regarded as evidence of such alien's lawful admission for permanent residence in any proceeding, action, or matter arising under this or any other Act.

257 This sentence was added by $ 401(b) of the Immigration Act of 1990 (P.L. 101-649, Nov. 29, 1990, 104 Stat. 5038), effective on November 29, 1990, under $ 408(a)(3) of that Act.

INVESTIGATION OF APPLICANTS; EXAMINATIONS OF APPLICATIONS Sec. 335. [8 U.S.C. 1446] (a) Before a person may be naturalized, an employee of the Service, or of the United States designated by the Attorney General, shall conduct a personal investigation of the person applying for naturalization in the vicinity or vicinities in which such person has maintained his actual place of abode and in the vicinity or vicinities in which such person has been employed or has engaged in business or work for at least five years immediately preceding the filing of his application for naturalization. The Attorney General may, in his discretion, waive a personal investigation in an individual case or in such cases or classes of cases as may be designated by him.

(b) The Attorney General shall designate employees of the Service to conduct examinations upon applications for naturalization. For such purposes any such employee so designated is hereby authorized to take testimony concerning any matter touching or in any way affecting the admissibility of any applicant for naturalization, to administer oaths, including the oath of the applicant for naturalization, and to require by subpena the attendance and testimony of witnesses, including applicant, before such employee so designated and the production of relevant books, papers, and documents, and to that end may invoke the aid of any district court of the United States; and any such court may, in the event of neglect or refusal to respond to a subpena issued by any such employee so designated or refusal to testify before such employee so designated issue an order requiring such person to appear before such employee so designated, produce relevant books, papers, and documents if demanded, and testify; and any failure to obey such order of the court may be punished by the court as a contempt thereof. The record of the examination authorized by this subsection shall be admissible as evidence in any hearing conducted by an immigration officer under section 336(a). Any such employee shall, at the examination, inform the applicant of the remedies available to the applicant under section 336. 258

(c) The record of the examination upon any application for naturalization may, in the discretion of the Attorney General, be transmitted to the Attorney General and the determination with respect thereto of the employee designated to conduct such examination shall when made also be transmitted to the Attorney General.

(d) The employee designated to conduct any such examination shall make a determination as to whether the application should be granted or denied, with reasons therefor.

(e) After an application for naturalization has been filed with the Attorney General, the applicant shall not be permitted to withdraw his application, except with the consent of the Attorney General. In cases where the Attorney General does not consent to the withdrawal of the application, the application shall be determined on its merits and a final order determination made accordingly. In cases where the applicant fails to prosecute his application, the ap

258 This sentence was added by $ 401(c) of the Immigration Act of 1990 (P.L. 101-649, Nov. 29, 1990, 104 Stat. 5038), effective on November 29, 1990, under $ 408(a)(3) of that Act, and was amended by $ 407(c) of that Act.

plication shall be decided on the merits unless the Attorney General dismisses it for lack of prosecution.

(f) An applicant for naturalization who moves from the district of the Service in the United States in which the application is pending may, at any time thereafter, request the Service to transfer the application to any district of the Service in the United States which may act on the application. The transfer shall not be made without the consent of the Attorney General. In the case of such a transfer, the proceedings on the application shall continue as though the application had originally been filed in the district of the Service to which the application is transferred.

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259 HEARINGS ON DENIALS OF APPLICATIONS FOR NATURALIZATION

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SEC. 336. [8 U.S.C. 1447] (a) If, after an examination under section 335, an application for naturalization is denied, the applicant e may request a hearing before an immigration officer.

(b) If there is a failure to make a determination under section 335 before the end of the 120-day period after the date on which the examination is conducted under such section, the applicant

may apply to the United States district court for the district in ni which the applicant resides for a hearing on the matter. Such court

has jurisdiction over the matter and may either determine the matter or remand the matter, with appropriate instructions, to the Service to determine the matter.

(c) The Attorney General shall have the right to appear before

any immigration officer in any naturalization proceedings for the Bic purpose of cross-examining the applicant and the witnesses propre duced in support of the application concerning any matter touching

or in any way affecting the applicant's right to admission to citishi zenship, and shall have the right to call witnesses, including the o applicant, produce evidence, and be heard in opposition to, or in their favor of, the granting of any application in naturalization proceedings.

(d) The immigration officer shall, if the applicant requests it at I find the time of filing the request for the hearing, issue a subpena for I bet the witnesses named by such applicant to appear upon the day set

for the hearing, but in case such witnesses cannot be produced upon the hearing other witnesses may be summoned upon notice to the Attorney General, in such manner and at such time as the Attorney General may by regulation prescribe. Such subpenas may be enforced in the same manner as subpenas under section 335(b) may be enforced.

(e) It shall be lawful at the time and as a part of the administration by a court of the oath of allegiance under section 337(a) for the court, in its discretion, upon the bona fide prayer of the applicant included in an appropriate petition to the court, to make a decree changing the name of said person, and the certificate of naturalization shall be issued in accordance therewith.

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259 This section was amended extensively by $$ 407(c)17) and 407(d)(14) of the Immigration Act of 1990 to substitute hearings before immigration officers for final hearings before judges. OATH OF RENUNCIATION AND ALLEGIANCE

SEC. 337. [8 U.S.C. 1448] (a) A person who has applied for naturalization shall, in order to be and before being admitted to citizenship, take in a public ceremony before the Attorney General or a court with jurisdiction under section 310(b) an oath 260 (1) to support the Constitution of the United States; (2) to renounce and abjure absolutely and entirely all allegiance and fidelity to any foreign prince, potentate, state, or sovereignty of whom or which the applicant was before a subject or citizen; (3) to support and defend the Constitution and the laws of the United States against all enemies, foreign and domestic; (4) to bear true faith and allegiance to the same; and (5) (A) to bear arms on behalf of the United States when required by the law, or (B) to perform noncombatant service in the Armed Forces of the United States when required by the law, or (C) to perform work of national importance under civilian direction when required by the law. Any such person shall be required to take an oath containing the substance of clauses (1) through (5) of the preceding sentence, except that a person who shows by clear and convincing evidence to the satisfaction of the Attorney General that he is opposed to the bearing of arms in the Armed Forces of the United States by reason of religious training and belief shall be required to take an oath containing the substance of clauses (1) through (4) and clauses (5)(B) and (5/(C), and a person who shows by clear and convincing evidence to the satisfaction of the Attorney General that he is opposed to any type of service in the Armed Forces of the United States by reason of religious training and belief shall be required to take an oath containing the substance of clauses (1) through (4) and clause (5/C). The term "religious training and belief" as used in this section shall mean an individual's belief in a relation to a Supreme Being involving duties superior to those arising from any human relation, but does not include essentially political, sociological, or philosophical views or a merely personal moral code. In the case of the naturalization of a child under the provisions of section 322 of this title the Attorney General may waive the taking of the oath if in the opinion of the Attorney General the child is unable to understand its meaning.

(b) In case the person applying for naturalization has borne any hereditary title, or has been of any of the orders of nobility in any foreign state, the applicant shall in addition to complying with the requirements of subsection (a) of this section, make under oath in the same public ceremony in which the oath of allegiance is administered, an express renunciation of such title or order of nobility, and such renunciation shall be recorded as a part of such proceedings.

260 Section 2 of the Act of Feb. 29, 1952 (36 U.S.C. 154) provides that “Either at the time of the rendition of the decree of naturalization or at such other time as the judge may fix, the judge or someone designated by him shall address the newly naturalized citizen upon the forme and genius of our Government and the privileges and responsibilities of citizenship; it being the intent and purpose of this section to enlist the aid of the judiciary, in cooperation with civil and educational authorities, and patriotic organizations

in a continuous effort to dignify and emphasize the significance of citizenship.”.

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