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(iii) if another employee or other employees are directly supervised, has the authority to hire and fire or recommend those as well as other personnel actions (such as promotion and leave authorization) or, if no other employee is directly supervised, functions at a senior level within the organizational hierarchy or with respect to the function managed; and

(iv) exercises discretion over the day-to-day operations of the

activity or function for which the employee has authority. A first-line supervisor is not considered to be acting in a managerial capacity merely by virtue of the supervisor's supervisory duties unless the employees supervised are professional.

(B) The term "executive capacity" means an assignment within an organization in which the employee primarily

(i) directs the management of the organization or a major component or function of the organization;

(ii) establishes the goals and policies of the organization, component, or function;

(iii) exercises wide latitude in discretionary decision-making; and

(iv) receives only general supervision or direction from higher level executives, the board of directors, or stockholders

of the organization. (C) If staffing levels are used as a factor in determining whether an individual is acting in a managerial or executive capacity, the Attorney General shall take into account the reasonable needs of the organization, component, or function in light of the overall purpose and stage of development of the organization, component, or function. An individual shall not be considered to be acting in a managerial or executive capacity (as previously defined) merely on the basis of the number of employees that the individual supervises or has supervised or directs or has directed.

(45) 33 The term "substantial" means, for purposes of paragraph (15)(E) with reference to trade or capital, such an amount of trade or capital as is established by the Secretary of State, after consultation with appropriate agencies of Government.

(46) 34 The term "extraordinary ability” means, for purposes of section 101(a)(15)(O)(i), in the case of the arts, distinction.

(b) As used in titles I and II—

(1) The term “child” means an unmarried person under twentyone years of age who is

(A) a legitimate child;

(B) a stepchild, whether or not born out of wedlock, provided the child had not reached the age of eighteen years at the time the marriage creating the status of stepchild occurred;

(C) a child legitimated under the law of the child's residence or domicile, or under the law of the father's residence or domicile, whether in or outside the United States, if such legitimation takes place before the child reaches the age of eighteen

33 Paragraph (45) was added by $ 204(c) of the Immigration Act of 1990 (P.L. 101-649, Nov. 29, 1990, 104 Štat. 5019), effective October 1, 1991.

34 Paragraph (46) was added by $ 205(a) of the Miscellaneous and Technical Immigration and Naturalization Amendments of 1991 (P.L. 102-232, Dec. 12, 1991, 105 Stat. 1740), effective April 1, 1992.

years and the child is in the legal custody of the legitimating parent or parents at the time of such legitimation;

(D) an illegitimate child, by, through whom, or on whose behalf a status, privilege, or benefit is sought by virtue of the relationship of the child to its natural mother or to its natural father if the father has or had a bona fide parent-child relationship with the person;

(E) a child adopted while under the age of sixteen years if the child has been in the legal custody of, and has resided with, the adopting parent or parents for at least two years: Provided, That no natural parent of any such adopted child shall thereafter, by virtue of such parentage, be accorded any right, privilege, or status under this Act; or

(F) a child, under the age of sixteen at the time a petition is filed in his behalf to accord a classification as an immediate relative under section 201(b), who is an orphan because of the death or disappearance of, abandonment or desertion by, or separation or loss from, both parents, or for whom the sole or surviving parent is incapable of providing the proper care and has in writing irrevocably released the child for emigration and adoption; who has been adopted abroad by a United States citizen and spouse jointly, or by an unmarried United States citizen at least twenty-five years of age, who personally saw and observed the child prior to or during the adoption proceedings; or who is coming to the United States for adoption by a United States citizen and spouse jointly, or by an unmarried United States citizen at least twenty-five years of age, who have or has complied with the preadoption requirements, if any, of the child's proposed residence: Provided, that the Attorney General is satisfied that proper care will be furnished the child if admitted to the United States: Provided further, That no natural parent or prior adoptive parent of any such child shall thereafter, by virtue of such parentage, be accorded any right, privilege, or status under this Act. (2) The term "parent", "father", or "mother" means a parent, father, or mother only where the relationship exists by reason of any of the circumstances set forth in (1) above, 35 except that, for purposes of paragraph (1)(F) (other than the second proviso therein) in the case of an illegitimate child described in paragraph (1)(D) (and not described in paragraph (1)(C)), the term "parent" does not include the natural father or the child if the father has disappeared or abandoned or deserted the child or if the father has in writing irrevocably released the child for emigration and adoption.

35 The language following “above” was inserted by $ 210(a) of the Departments of Commerce, Justice, and State, the Judiciary, and Related Agencies Appropriations Act, 1990 (in Pub. L. 100-459, Oct. 1, 1988, 102 Stat. 2203). § 210(b) of such Act provides as follows:

(b) EFFECTIVE DATE.—The amendment made by subsection (a) shall take effect as if included in the enactment of section 315 of the Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1988 and shall expire on October 1, 1989.

Subsection (a) of section 611 of the Department of Justice Appropriations Act, 1990 (P.L. 101162, 103 Stat. 1038–1039) amended $10100X2) of the INA in a similar manner as under Pub. L. 100-459 to make the change permanent. Subsection (b) of that section 611 provides as follows:

(b) EFFECTIVE DATE.—The amendment made by subsection (a) shall take effect on October 1, 1989, upon the expiration of the similar amendment made by section 210(a) of the Department of Justice Appropriations Act, 1989 (title II of Public Law 100-459, 102 Stat. 2203).

(3) The term “person” means an individual or an organization.

(4) The term "special inquiry officer" means any immigration officer who the Attorney General deems specially qualified to conduct specified classes of proceedings, in whole or in part, required by this Act to be conducted by or before a special inquiry officer and who is designated and selected by the Attorney General, individually or by regulation, to conduct such proceedings. Such special inquiry officer shall be subject to such supervision and shall perform such duties, not inconsistent with this Act, as the Attorney General shall prescribe.

(5) The term “adjacent islands” includes Saint Pierre, Miquelon, Cuba, the Dominican Republic, Haiti, Bermuda, the Bahamas, Barbados, Jamaica, the Windward and Leeward Islands, Trinidad, Martinique, and other British, French, and Netherlands territory or possessions in or bordering on the Caribbean Sea.

(c) As used in title III

(1) The term “child” means an unmarried person under twentyone years of age and includes a child legitimated under the law of the child's residence or domicile, or under the law of the father's residence or domicile, whether in the United States or elsewhere, and, except as otherwise provided in sections 320, 321, and 322 of title III, a child adopted in the United States, if such legitimation or adoption takes place before the child reaches the age of sixteen years, and the child is in the legal custody of the legitimating or adopting parent or parents at the time of such legitimation or adoption.

(2) The terms "parent", "father", and "mother” include in the case of a posthumous child a deceased parent, father, and mother.

[(d) stricken by $ 9(a)(3) of Pub. L. 100–525.] (e) For the purpose of this Act,

(1) The giving, loaning, or promising of support or of money or any other thing of value to be used for advocating any doctrine shall constitute the advocating of such doctrine; but nothing in this paragraph shall be construed as an exclusive definition of advocating.

(2) The giving, loaning, or promising of support or of money or any other thing of value for any purpose to any organization shall be presumed to constitute affiliation therewith; but nothing in this paragraph shall be construed as an exclusive definition of affiliation.

(3) Advocating the economic, international, and governmental doctrines of world communism means advocating the establishment of a totalitarian Communist dictatorship in any or all of the countries of the world through the medium of an internationally coordinated Communist movement.

(f) For the purposes of this Act

No person shall be regarded as, or found to be, a person of good moral character who, during the period for which good moral character is required to be established, is, or was

(1) a habitual drunkard;
[(2) stricken by $ 2(c)(1) of Pub. L. 97–116.]

(3) a member of one or more of the classes of persons, whether excludable or not, described in paragraphs (2)(D), (6 (E), and (9XA) 36 of section 212(a) of this Act; or subparagraphs (A) and (B) of section 212(a)(2) and subparagraph (C) thereof of such section (except as such paragraph relates to a single offense of simple possession of 30 grams or less of marihuana); if the offense described therein, for which such person was convicted or of which he admits the commission, was committed during such period;

(4) one whose income is derived principally from illegal gambling activities;

(5) one who has been convicted of two or more gambling offenses committed during such period;

(6) one who has given false testimony for the purpose of obtaining any benefits under this Act;

(7) one who during such period has been confined, as a result of conviction, to a penal institution for an aggregate period of one hundred and eighty days or more, regardless of whether the offense, or offenses, for which he has been confined were committed within or without such period;

(8) one who at any time has been convicted of an aggravated felony (as defined in subsection (a)(43)). 37 The fact that any person is not within any of the foregoing classes shall not preclude a finding that for other reasons such person is or was not of good moral character.

(g) For the purposes of this Act any alien ordered deported (whether before or after the enactment of this Act) who has left the United States, shall be considered to have been deported in pursuance of law, irrespective of the source from which the expenses of his transportation were defrayed or of the place to which he departed.

Ch) 38 For purposes of section 212(a)2XE), the term "serious criminal offense” means

(1) any felony; (2) any crime of violence, as defined in section 16 of title 18 of the United States Code; or

(3) any crime of reckless driving or of driving while intoxicated or under the influence of alcohol or of prohibited substances if such crime involves personal injury to another.

APPLICABILITY OF TITLE II TO CERTAIN NONIMMIGRANTS 39 SEC. 102. [8 U.S.C. 1102] Except as otherwise provided in this Act, for so long as they continue in the nonimmigrant classes enu

36 References to paragraphs (2XD), (6XE), and (9)(A) were substituted for references to paragraphs (11), (12), and (31), and references to subparagraphs (A) and (B) of section 212(aX2) and subparagraph (C) thereof were substituted for references to paragraphs (9) and (10) of section 212(a) and paragraph (23) of such section, by $ 603(aX1) of the Immigration Act of 1990 (P.L. 101649, Nov. 29, 1990, 104 Stat. 5082).

31 8 509(a) of the Immigration Act of 1990 (P.L. 101-649, Nov. 29, 1990, 104 Stat. 5051) struck "crime of murder" and inserted "an aggravated felony..", effective on November 29, 1990, and applicable to convictions occurring at any time.

38 Subsection (h) was added by 8131(b) of the Foreign Relations Authorization Act, Fiscal Years 1990 and 1991 (Pub. L. 101-246, Feb. 16, 1990, 104 Stat. 31). 8 603(aX1XC) of the Immigration Act of 1990 (P.L. 101-649, Nov. 29, 1990, 104 Stat. 5082) substituted reference to section 212(aX2XE) for reference to section 212(a)(34).

39 Section 7(a) of the International Organizations Immunities Act (22 U.S.C. 288d) provides officers, employees, and their families of international organizations with the same privileges, ex

Con

merated in this section, the provisions of this Act relating to ineligibility to receive visas and the exclusion or deportation of aliens shall not be construed to apply to nonimmigrants

(1) within the class described in paragraph (15XA)(i) of section 101(a), except those provisions relating to reasonable requirements of passports and visas as a means of identification and documentation necessary to establish their qualifications under such paragraph (15)(AXi), and, under such rules and regulations as the President may deem to be necessary, the provisions of subparagraphs (A) through (C) of section 212(a)(3)40

(2) within the class described in paragraph (15XGi) of section 101(a), except those provisions relating to reasonable requirements of passports and visas as a means of identification and documentation necessary to establish their qualifications under such paragraph (15XGXi), and the provisions of subparagraphs (A) through (C) of section 212(a)(3); 40 and

(3) within the classes described in paragraphs (15XAXii), (15)(G)(ii), (15)(GXiii), or (15)G)(iv) of section 101(a), except those provisions relating to reasonable requirements of passports and visas as a means of identification and documentation necessary to establish their qualifications under such paragraphs, and the provisions of subparagraphs (A) through (C) of section 212aX3.40

POWERS AND DUTIES OF THE ATTORNEY GENERAL AND THE

COMMISSIONER

Sec. 103. [8 U.S.C. 1103] (a) The Attorney General shall be charged with the administration and enforcement of this Act and all other laws relating to the immigration and naturalization of aliens, except insofar as this Act or such laws relate to the powers, functions, and duties conferred upon the President, the Secretary of State, the officers of the Department of State, or diplomatic or consular officers: Provided, however, That determination and ruling by the Attorney General with respect to all questions of law shall be controlling. He shall have control, direction, and supervision of all employees and of all the files and records of the Service. He shall establish such regulations; prescribe such forms of bond, re

emptions, and immunities concerning entry and departure and alien registration and finger: printing as those provided to officers and employees of foreign governments. In addition, $407 of the Foreign Relations Authorization Act, Fiscal Years 1990 and 1991 (Pub. L. 101–246, Feb. 16, 1990, 104 Stat. 67) provides as follows: SEC. 407. DENIAL OF VISAS TO CERTAIN REPRESENTATIVES TO THE UNITED NA

TIONS.

(a) IN GENERAL.--The President shall use his authority, including the authorities contained in section 6 of the United Nations Headquarters Agreement Act (Public Law 80-357), to deny any individual's admission to the United States as a representative to the United Nations if the President determines that such individual has been found to have been engaged in espionage activities directed against the United States or its allies and may pose a threat to United States national security interests.

(b) WAIVER. -The President may waive the provisions of subsection (a) if the President de termines, and so notifies the Congress, that such a waiver is in the national security interests of the United States.

40 Section 307(1) of the Miscellaneous and Technical Immigration and Naturalization Amendments of 1991 (P.L. 102-232, Dec. 12, 1991, 105 Stat. 1756) substituted reference to "subparagraphs (A) through (C) of section 21212X3)” for reference to "paragraph (3) (other than subparagraph (E)) of section 212(a)".

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