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(1) AT DEPORTATION PROCEEDINGS.—Any alien against whom a final order of deportation is entered in absentia under this section and who, at the time of the notice described in subsection (a)(2), was provided oral notice, either in the alien's native language or in another language the alien understands, of the time and place of the proceedings and of the consequences under this paragraph of failing, other than because of exceptional circumstances (as defined in subsection (f)(2)) to attend a proceeding under section 242, shall not be eligible for relief described in paragraph (5) for a period of 5 years after the date of the entry of the final order of deportation. (2) VOLUNTARY DEPARTURE.

(A) IN GENERAL.–Subject to subparagraph (B), any alien allowed to depart voluntarily under section 244(e)(1) or who has agreed to depart voluntarily at his own expense under section 242(b)(1) who remains in the United States after the scheduled date of departure, other than because of exceptional circumstances, shall not be eligible for relief described in paragraph (5) for a period of 5 years after the scheduled date of departure or the date of unlawful reentry, respectively.

(B) WRITTEN AND ORAL NOTICE REQUIRED.-Subparagraph (A) shall not apply to an alien allowed to depart voluntarily unless, before such departure, the Attorney General has provided written notice to the alien in English and Spanish and oral notice either in the alien's native language or in another language the alien understands of the consequences under subparagraph (A) of the alien's remaining in the United States after the scheduled date of departure,

other than because of exceptional circumstances. (3) FAILURE TO APPEAR UNDER DEPORTATION ORDER.

(A) IN GENERAL.-Subject to subparagraph (B), any alien against whom a final order of deportation is entered under this section and who fails, other than because of exceptional circumstances, to appear for deportation at the time and place ordered shall not be eligible for relief described in paragraph (5) for a period of 5 years after the date the alien was required to appear for deportation.

(B) WRITTEN AND ORAL NOTICE REQUIRED.Subparagraph (A) shall not apply to an alien against whom a deportation order is entered unless the Attorney General has provided, orally in the alien's native language or in another language the alien understands and in the final order of deportation under this section of the consequences under subparagraph (A) of the alien's failure, other than because of exceptional circumstances, to appear for deportation at

the time and place ordered. (4) FAILURE TO APPEAR FOR ASYLUM HEARING.– 160

(A) IN GENERAL.-Subject to subparagraph (B), any alien

160 Paragraph (4) is effective on February 1, 1991, under $545(gX3) of the Immigration Act of 1990 (P.L. 101-649, Nov. 29, 1990, 104 Stat. 5066).

(i) whose period of authorized stay (if any) has expired through the passage of time,

(ii) who has filed an application for asylum, and

(iii) who fails, other than because of exceptional circumstances, to appear at the time and place specified

for the asylum hearing, shall not be eligible for relief described in paragraph (5) for a period of 5 years after the date of the asylum hearing.

(B) WRITTEN AND ORAL NOTICE REQUIRED.—Subparagraph (A) shall not apply in the case of an alien with respect to a failure to be present at a hearing unless

(i) written notice in English and Spanish, and oral notice either in the alien's native language or in another language the alien understands, was provided to the alien of the time and place at which the asylum hearing will be held, and in the case of any change or postponement in such time or place, written notice in English and Spanish, and oral notice either in the alien's native language or in another language the alien understands, was provided to the alien of the new time or place of the hearing; and

(ii) notices under clause (i) specified the consequences under subparagraph (A) of failing, other than because of exceptional circumstances, to attend such

hearing. (5) RELIEF COVERED.—The relief described in this paragraph is

(A) 1596 voluntary departure under section 242(b)(1),

(B) suspension of deportation or voluntary departure under section 244, and

(C) adjustment or change of status under section 245,

248, or 249. (f) DEFINITIONS.-In this section:

(1) The term “certified mail” means certified mail, return receipt requested.

(2) The term "exceptional circumstances” refers to exceptional circumstances (such as serious illness of the alien or death of an immediate relative of the alien, but not including less compelling circumstances) beyond the control of the alien.

COUNTRIES TO WHICH ALIENS SHALL BE DEPORTED; COST OF

DEPORTATION

SEC. 243. [8 U.S.C. 1253] (a) The deportation of an alien in the United States provided for in this Act, or any other Act or treaty, shall be directed by the Attorney General to a country promptly designated by the alien if that country is willing to accept him into its territory, unless the Attorney General, in his discretion, concludes that deportation to such country would be prejudicial to the

1596 The previous subparagraph (A) (relating to relief under section 212(c) of the INA) was stricken, and the previous subparagraphs (B) through (D) redesignated as subparagraphs (A) through (C), by $ 306(c)(6J) of the Miscellaneous and Technical Immigration and Naturalization Amendments of 1991 (P.L. 102-232, Dec. 12, 1991, 105 Stat. 1753).

interests of the United States. No alien shall be permitted to make more than one such designation, nor shall any alien designate, as the place to which he wishes to be deported, any foreign territory contiguous to the United States or any island adjacent thereto or adjacent to the United States unless such alien is a native, citizen, subject, or national of, or had a residence in such designated foreign contiguous territory or adjacent island. If the government of the country designated by the alien fails finally to advise the Attorney General within three months following original inquiry whether that government will or will not accept such alien into its territory, such designation may thereafter be disregarded. Thereupon deportation of such alien shall be directed to any country of which such alien is a subject, national, or citizen if such country is willing to accept him into its territory. If the government of such country fails finally to advise the Attorney General or the alien within three months following the date of original inquiry, or within such other period as the Attorney General shall deem reasonable under the circumstances in a particular case, whether that government will or will not accept such alien into its territory, then such deportation shall be directed by the Attorney General within his discretion and without necessarily giving any priority or preference because of their order as herein set forth either

(1) to the country from which such alien last entered the United States;

(2) to the country in which is located the foreign port at which such alien embarked for the United States or for foreign contiguous territory;

(3) to the country in which he was born;

(4) to the country in which the place of his birth is situated at the time he is ordered deported;

(5) to any country in which he resided prior to entering the country from which he entered the United States;

(6) to the country which had sovereignty over the birthplace of the alien at the time of his birth; or

(7) if deportation to any of the foregoing places or countries is impracticable, inadvisable, or impossible, then to any coun

try which is willing to accept such alien into its territory. (b) If the United States is at war and the deportation, in accordance with the provisions of subsection (a), of any alien who is deportable under any law of the United States shall be found by the Attorney General to be impracticable, inadvisable, inconvenient, or impossible because of enemy occupation of the country from which such alien came or wherein is located the foreign port at which he embarked for the United States or because of reasons connected with the war, such alien may, in the discretion of the Attorney General, be deported as follows:

(1) If such alien is a citizen or subject of a country whose recognized government is in exile, to the country in which is located that government in exile if that country will permit him to enter its territory; or

(2) if such alien is a citizen or subject of a country whose recognized government is not in exile, then to a country or any political or territorial subdivision thereof which is proximate to the country of which the alien is a citizen or subject, or, with the consent of the country of which the alien is a citizen

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or subject, to any other country. (c) If deportation proceedings are instituted at any time within five years after the entry of the alien for causes existing prior to or at the time of entry, the cost of removal to the port of deportation shall be at the expense of the appropriation for the enforcement of this Act, and the deportation from such port shall be at the expense of the owner or owners of the vessels, aircraft, or other transportation lines by which such alien came to the United States, or if in the opinion of the Attorney General that is not practicable, at the expense of the appropriation for the enforcement of this Act: Provided, That the costs of the deportation of any such alien from such port shall not be assessed against the owner or owners of the vessels, aircraft, or other transportation lines in the case of any alien who arrived in possession of a valid unexpired immigrant visa and who was inspected and admitted to the United States for permanent residence. In the case of an alien crewman, if deportation proceedings are instituted at any time within five years after the granting of the last conditional permit to land temporarily under the provisions of section 252, the cost of removal to the port of deportation shall be at the expense of the appropriation for the enforcement of this Act and the deportation from such port shall be at the expense of the owner or owners of the vessels or aircraft by which such alien came to the United States, or if in the opinion of the Attorney General that is not practicable, at the expense of the appropriation for the enforcement of this Act.

(d) If deportation proceedings are instituted later than five years after the entry of the alien, or in the case of an alien crewman later than five years after the granting of the last conditional permit to land temporarily, the cost thereof shall be payable from the appropriation for the enforcement of this Act.

(e) A failure or refusal on the part of the master, commanding officer, agent, owner, charterer, or consignee of a vessel, aircraft, or other transportation line to comply with the order of the Attorney General to take on board, guard safely, and transport to the destination specified any alien ordered to be deported under the provisions of this Act, or a failure or refusal by any such person to comply with an order of the Attorney General to pay deportation expenses in accordance with the requirements of this section, shall be punished by the imposition of a penalty in the sum and manner prescribed in section 237(b).

(f) When in the opinion of the Attorney General the mental or physical condition of an alien being deported is such as to require personal care and attendance, the Attorney General shall, when necessary, employ a suitable person for that purpose who shall accompany such alien to his final destination, and the expense incident to such service shall be defrayed in the same manner as the expense of deporting the accompanied alien is defrayed, and any failure or refusal to defray such expenses shall be punished in the manner prescribed by subsection (e) of this section.

(g) Upon the notification by the Attorney General that any country upon request denies or unduly delays acceptance of the return

of any alien who is a national, citizen, subject, or resident thereof, the Secretary of State shall instruct consular officers performing their duties in the territory of such country to discontinue the issuance of immigrant visas to nationals, citizens, subjects, or residents of such country, until such time as the Attorney General shall inform the Secretary of State that such country has accepted such

alien. 161

(h)(1) The Attorney General shall not deport or return any alien (other than an alien described in section 241(a)(4)(D) 162) to a country if the Attorney General determines that such alien's life or freedom would be threatened in such country on account of race, religion, nationality, membership in a particular social group, or political opinion.

(2) Paragraph (1) shall not apply to any alien if the Attorney General determines that

(A) the alien ordered, incited, assisted, or otherwise participated in the persecution of any person on account of race, religion, nationality, membership in a particular social group, or political opinion;

(B) the alien, having been convicted by a final judgment of a particularly serious crime, constitutes a danger to the community of the United States;

(C) there are serious reasons for considering that the alien has committed a serious nonpolitical crime outside the United States prior to the arrival of the alien in the United States; or

(D) there are reasonable grounds for regarding the alien as a

danger to the security of the United States. For purposes of subparagraph (B), an alien who has been convicted of an aggravated felony shall be considered to have committed a particularly serious crime. 163

SUSPENSION OF DEPORTATION; VOLUNTARY DEPARTURE SEC. 244. [8 U.S.C. 1254] (a) As hereinafter prescribed in this section, the Attorney General may, in his discretion, suspend deportation and adjust the status to that of an alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence, in the case of an alien (other than an alien described in section 241(a)(4)(D))) who applies to the Attorney General for suspension of deportation and

(1) is deportable under any law of the United States except the provisions specified in paragraph (2) of this subsection; has been physically present in the United States for a continuous period of not less than seven years immediately preceding the

161 The processing of immigrant visa applications of Cuban nationals in third countries was required, notwithstanding this subsection, by subsections (b) and (c) of $ 702 of the Cuban Political Prisoners and Immigrants [sic] (contained in Pub. L. 100-202, 101 Stat. 1329-40, Dec. 22, 1987), shown in Appendix III.G., and by $ 903 of the Foreign Relations Authorization Act, Fiscal Years 1988 and 1989 (Pub. L. 100-204, 101 Stat. 1401, Dec. 22, 1987), shown in Appendix II.E. See also § 315(c) of the Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986 (Pub. L. 99-603, Nov. 6, 1986, 100 Stat. 3440), shown in Appendix II.B.1., respecting the sense of Congress respecting treatment of Cuban political prisoners.

162 § 603(b)(3) of the Immigration Act of 1990 (P.L. 101-649, Nov. 29, 1990, 104 Stat. 5085) substituted a reference to section 241(a)(4)(D) for a reference to section 241(a)(19).

163 The last sentence was added by $ 515(a)(2) of the Immigration Act of 1990 (P.L. 101-649, Nov. 29, 1990, 104 Stat. 5053), effective as of November 29, 1990, and applicable to convictions entered as of any date.

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