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(C) DOCUMENT FRAUD.-Any alien who is the subject of a final order for violation of section 274C is deportable. (4) SECURITY AND RELATED GROUNDS.—

(A) IN GENERAL.-Any alien who has engaged, is engaged, or at any time after entry engages in

(i) any activity to violate any law of the United States relating to espionage or sabotage or to violate or evade any law prohibiting the export from the United States of goods, technology, or sensitive information,

(ii) any other criminal activity which endangers public safety or national security, or

(iii) any activity a purpose of which is the opposition to, or the control or overthrow of, the Government of the United States by force, violence, or other unlawful means,

is deportable.

(B) TERRORIST ACTIVITIES.-Any alien who has engaged, is engaged, or at any time after entry engages in any terrorist activity (as defined in section 212(a)(3)(B)(iii)) is deportable.

(C) FOREIGN POLICY.—

(i) IN GENERAL.-An alien whose presence or activities in the United States the Secretary of State has reasonable ground to believe would have potentially serious adverse foreign policy consequences for the United States is deportable.

(ii) EXCEPTIONS.-The exceptions described in clauses (ii) and (iii) of section 212(a)(3)(C) shall apply to deportability under clause (i) in the same manner as they apply to excludability under section 212(a)(3)(C)(i). (D) ASSISTED IN NAZI PERSECUTION OR ENGAGED IN GENOCIDE. Any alien described in clause (i) or (ii) of section 212(a)(3)(E) is deportable.

(5) PUBLIC CHARGE.-Any alien who, within five years after the date of entry, has become a public charge from causes not affirmatively shown to have arisen since entry is deportable. 150

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(b) 151 An alien, admitted as an nonimmigrant under the provisions of either section 101(a)(15)(A)(i) or 101(a)(15)(G)(i), and who fails to maintain a status under either of those provisions, shall not be required to depart from the United States without the approval of the Secretary of State, unless such alien is subject to deportation under paragraph (4) of subsection (a).

[(c) repealed; see footnote 151.]

150 See Appendix VII.B.5, relating to attribution to an alien of a sponsor's income and resources for purposes of determining eligibility for and amount of benefits of the alien under the Supplemental Security Income program.

151 Former subsections (b), (c), (f), and (g) were repealed by § 602(b)(1) of the Immigration Act of 1990 (P.L. 101-649, Nov. 29, 1990, 104 Stat. 5081), and former subsection (e) was redesignated as subsection (b) by § 602(b)(2)(B) of that Act and amended by substituting the reference to paragraph (4) of subsection (a) for the former reference to subsection (a)(6) or (7). For text of former subsections, see Appendix II.A.2.

[(d) repealed by § 307(k) of the Miscellaneous and Technical Immigration and Naturalization Amendments of 1991 (P.L. 102-232, Dec. 12, 1991, 105 Stat. 1756), effective March 1, 1991, namely, as if included in section 602(b) of the Immigration Act of 1990.]

[(f) & (g) repealed; see footnote 151.]

(c) 152 Paragraphs (1)(A), (1)(B), (1)(C), (1)(D), or (3)(A) of subsection 241(a) (other than so much of paragraph (1) as relates to a ground of exclusion described in paragraph (2) or (3) of section 212(a)) shall not apply to a special immigrant described in section 101(a)(27)(J) based upon circumstances that existed before the date the alien was provided such special immigrant status.

APPREHENSION AND DEPORTATION OF ALIENS

SEC. 242. [8 U.S.C. 1252] (a)(1) Pending a determination of deportability in the case of any alien as provided in subsection (b) of this section, such alien may, upon warrant of the Attorney General, be arrested and taken into custody. Except as provided in paragraph (2), any such alien taken into custody may, in the discretion of the Attorney General and pending such final determination of deportability, (A) be continued in custody; or (B) be released under bond in the amount of not less than $500 with security approved by the Attorney General, containing such conditions as the Attorney General may prescribe; or (C) be released on conditional parole. But such bond or parole, whether heretofore or hereafter authorized, may be revoked at any time by the Attorney General, in his discretion, and the alien may be returned to custody under the warrant which initiated the proceedings against him and detained until final determination of his deportability. Any court of competent jurisdiction shall have authority to review or revise any determination of the Attorney General concerning detention, release on bond, or parole pending final decision of deportability upon a conclusive showing in habeas corpus proceedings that the Attorney General is not proceeding with such reasonable dispatch as may be warranted by the particular facts and circumstances in the case of any alien to determine deportability.

(2)(A) 153 The Attorney General shall take into custody any alien convicted of an aggravated felony upon release of the alien (regardless of whether or not such release is on parole, supervised release, or probation, and regardless of the possibility of rearrest or further confinement in respect of the same offense). Notwithstanding paragraph (1) or subsections (c) and (d) but subject to subparagraph (B), the Attorney General shall not release such felon from custody.

152 Subsection (c) was added as subsection (h) by § 153(b) of the Immigration Act of 1990 (P.L. 101-649, Nov. 29, 1990, 104 Stat. 5006) and redesignated by § 307(k)(1) of the Miscellaneous and Technical Immigration and Naturalization Amendments of 1991 (P.L. 102-232, Dec. 12, 1991, 105 Stat. 1756). The reference to "subsection 241(a)" should be to "subsection (a)". The text shown is that effective on March 1, 1991 [namely "the date that the amendments made by section 602 of this Act become effective"; see § 602(d), 104 Stat. 5082]. From November 29, 1990, to such date, the subsection read as follows:

(h) Paragraphs (1), (2), (5), (9), or (12) of subsection 241(a) (other than so much of paragraph (1) as relates to a ground of exclusion described in paragraph (9), (10), (23), (27), (29), or (33) of section 212(a)) shall not apply to a special immigrant described in section 101(a)(27)(J) based upon circumstances that exist before the date the alien was provided such special immigrant status.

153 § 504(a) of the Immigration Act of 1990 (P.L. 101-649, Nov. 29, 1990, 104 Stat. 5049) amended paragraph (2) by striking "upon completion of the alien's sentence for such conviction" and inserting "upon release...same offense)", and by adding subparagraph (B).

(B) 154 The Attorney General may not release from custody any lawfully admitted alien who has been convicted of an aggravated felony, either before or after a determination of deportability, unless the alien demonstrates to the satisfaction of the Attorney General that such alien is not a threat to the community and that the alien is likely to appear before any scheduled hearings.

(3)(A) The Attorney General shall devise and implement a system

(i) to make available, daily (on a 24-hour basis), to Federal, State, and local authorities the investigative resources of the Service to determine whether individuals arrested by such authorities for aggravated felonies are aliens;

(ii) to designate and train officers and employees of the Service within each district to serve as a liaison to Federal, State, and local law enforcement and correctional agencies and courts with respect to the arrest, conviction, and release of any alien charged with an aggravated felony; and

(iii) which uses computer resources to maintain a current record of aliens who have been convicted of an aggravated felony and who have been deported; such record shall be made available to inspectors at ports of entry and to border patrol agents at sector headquarters for purposes of immediate identification of any such previously deported alien seeking to reenter the United States.

(B) The Attorney General shall submit reports to the Committees on the Judiciary of the House of Representatives and of the Senate at the end of the 6-month period and at the end of the 18-month period beginning on the effective date of this paragraph which describe in detail specific efforts made by the Attorney General to implement this paragraph.

(b) A special inquiry officer shall conduct proceedings under this section to determine the deportability of any alien, and shall administer oaths, present and receive evidence, interrogate, examine, and cross-examine the alien or witnesses, and as authorized by the Attorney General, shall make determinations, including orders of deportation. Determination of deportability in any case shall be made only upon a record made in a proceeding before a special inquiry officer, at which the alien shall have reasonable opportunity to be present, unless by reason of the alien's mental incompetency it is impracticable for him to be present, in which case the Attorney General shall prescribe necessary and proper safeguards for the rights and privileges of such alien. If any alien has been given a reasonable opportunity to be present at a proceeding under this section, and without reasonable cause fails or refuses to attend or remain in attendance at such proceeding, the special inquiry officer may proceed to a determination in like manner as if the alien were present. In any case or class of cases in which the Attorney General believes that such procedure would be of aid in making a determination, he may require specifically or by regulation that an additional immigration officer shall be assigned to present the evidence

154 Subparagraph (B) was amended to read as shown by § 306(a)(4) of the Miscellaneous and Technical Immigration and Naturalization Amendments of 1991 (P.L. 102–232, Dec. 12, 1991, 105 Stat. 1751).

on behalf of the United States and in such case such additional immigration officer shall have authority to present evidence, and to interrogate, examine and cross-examine the alien or other witnesses in the proceedings. Nothing in the preceding sentence shall be construed to diminish the authority conferred upon the special inquiry officer conducting such proceedings. No special inquiry officer shall conduct a proceeding in any case under this section in which he shall have participated in investigative functions or in which he shall have participated (except as provided in this subsection) in prosecuting functions. Proceedings before a special inquiry officer acting under the provisions of this section shall be in accordance with such regulations, not inconsistent with this Act, as the Attorney General shall prescribe. Such regulations shall include requirements that are consistent with section 242B and that provide that

(1) the alien shall be given notice, reasonable under all the circumstances, of the nature of the charges against him and of the time and place at which the proceedings will be held,

(2) the alien shall have the privilege of being represented (at no expense to the Government) by such counsel, authorized to practice in such proceedings, as he shall choose,

(3) the alien shall have a reasonable opportunity to examine the evidence against him, to present evidence on his own behalf, and to cross-examine witnesses presented by the Government, and

(4) no decision of deportability shall be valid unless it is based upon reasonable, substantial, and probative evidence. The procedure so prescribed shall be the sole and exclusive procedure for determining the deportability of an alien under this section. In any case in which an alien is ordered deported from the United States under the provisions of this Act, or of any other law or treaty, the decision of the Attorney General shall be final. In the discretion of the Attorney General, and under such regulations as he may prescribe, deportation proceedings, including issuance of a warrant of arrest, and a finding of deportability under this section need not be required in the case of any alien who admits to belonging to a class of aliens who are deportable under section 241 if such alien voluntarily departs from the United States at his own expense, or is removed at Government expense as hereinafter authorized, unless the Attorney General has reason to believe that such alien is deportable under paragraph (2), (3), or (4) of section 241(a).155 If any alien who is authorized to depart voluntarily under the preceding sentence is financially unable to depart at his own expense and the Attorney General deems his removal to be in the best interest of the United States, the expense of such removal may be paid from the appropriation for the enforcement of this Act.

(c) When a final order of deportation under administrative processes is made against any alien, the Attorney General shall have a period of six months from the date of such order, or, if judicial

155 § 603(b)(2)(A) of the Immigration Act of 1990 (P.L. 101-649, Nov. 29, 1990, 104 Stat. 5085) substituted a reference to paragraph (2), (3), or (4) of section 241(a) for a reference to (4), (5), (6), (7), (11), (12), (14), (15), (16), (17), (18), or (19) of section 241(a).

review is had, then from the date of the final order of the court, within which to effect the alien's departure from the United States, during which period, at the Attorney General's discretion, the alien may be detained, released on bond in an amount and containing such conditions as the Attorney General may prescribe, or released on such other conditions as the Attorney General may prescribe. Any court of competent jurisdiction shall have authority to review or revise any determination of the Attorney General concerning detention, release on bond, or other release during such six-month period upon a conclusive showing in habeas corpus proceedings that the Attorney General is not proceeding with such reasonable dispatch as may be warranted by the particular facts and circumstances in the case of any alien to effect such alien's departure from the United States within such six-month period. If deportation has not been practicable, advisable, or possible, or departure of the alien from the United States under the order of deportation has not been effected, within such six-month period, the alien shall become subject to such further supervision and detention pending eventual deportation as is authorized in this section. The Attorney General is hereby authorized and directed to arrange for appropriate places of detention for those aliens whom he shall take into custody and detain under this section. Where no Federal buildings are available or buildings adapted or suitably located for the purpose are available for rental, the Attorney General is hereby authorized, notwithstanding section 3709 of the Revised Statutes, as amended (41 U.S.C. 5), or section 322 of the Act of June 30, 1932, as amended (40 U.S.C. 278a), to expend, from the appropriation provided for the administration and enforcement of the immigration laws, such amounts as may be necessary for the acquisition of land and the erection, acquisition, maintenance, operation, remodeling, or repair of buildings, sheds, and office quarters (including living quarters for officers where none are otherwise available), and adjunct facilities, necessary for the detention of aliens. For the purposes of this section an order of deportation heretofore or hereafter entered against an alien in legal detention or confinement, other than under an immigration process, shall be considered as being made as of the moment he is released from such detention or confinement, and not prior thereto.

(d) Any alien, against whom a final order of deportation as defined in subsection (c) heretofore or hereafter issued has been outstanding for more than six months, shall, pending eventual deportation, be subject to supervision under regulations prescribed by the Attorney General. Such regulations shall include provisions which will require any alien subject to supervision (1) to appear from time to time before an immigration officer for identification; (2) to submit, if necessary, to medical and psychiatric examination at the expense of the United States; (3) to give information under oath as to his nationality, circumstances, habits, associations, and activities, and such other information, whether or not related to the foregoing, as the Attorney General may deem fit and proper; and (4) to conform to such reasonable written restrictions on his conduct or activities as are prescribed by the Attorney General in his case. Any alien who shall willfully fail to comply with such reg

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