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DESIGNATION OF PORTS OF ENTRY FOR ALIENS ARRIVING BY CIVIL

AIRCRAFT

Sec. 239. [8 U.S.C. 1229] The Attorney General is authorized (1) by regulation to designate as ports of entry for aliens arriving by aircraft any of the ports of entry for civil aircraft designated as such in accordance with law; (2) by regulation to provide such reasonable requirements for aircraft in civil air navigation with respect to giving notice of intention to land in advance of landing, or notice of landing, as shall be deemed necessary for purposes of administration and enforcement of this Act; and (3) by regulation to provide for the application to civil air navigation of the provisions of this Act where not expressly so provided in this Act to such extent and upon such conditions as he deems necessary. Any person who violates any regulation made under this section shall be subject to a civil penalty of $2,000 146 which may be remitted or mitigated by the Attorney General in accordance with such proceedings as the Attorney General shall by regulation prescribe. 147 In case the violation is by the owner or person in command of the aircraft, the penalty shall be a lien upon the aircraft, and such aircraft may be libeled therefor in the appropriate United States court. The determination by the Attorney General and remission or mitigation of the civil penalty shall be final. In case the violation is by the owner or person in command of the aircraft, the penalty shall be a lien upon the aircraft and may be collected by proceedings in rem which shall conform as nearly as may be to civil suits in admiralty. The Supreme Court of the United States, and under its direction other courts of the United States, are authorized to prescribe rules regulating such proceedings against aircraft in any particular not otherwise provided by law. Any aircraft made subject to a lien by this section may be summarily seized by, and placed in the custody of such persons as the Attorney General may by regulation prescribe. The aircraft may be released from such custody upon deposit of such amount not exceeding $2,000 146 as the Attorney General may prescribe, or of a bond in such sum and with such sureties as the Attorney General may prescribe, conditioned upon the payment of the penalty which may be finally determined by the Attorney General.

RECORDS OF ADMISSION

SEC. 240. [8 U.S.C. 1230] (a) The Attorney General shall cause to be filed, as a record of admission of each immigrant, the immigrant visa required by section 221(e) to be surrendered at the port of entry by the arriving alien to an immigration officer.

(b) The Attorney General shall cause to be filed such record of the entry into the United States of each immigrant admitted under section 211(b) and of each nonimmigrant as the Attorney General deems necessary for the enforcement of the immigration laws.

146

46 § 543(a)(3) of the Immigration Act of 1990 (P.L. 101-649, Nov. 29, 1990, 104 Stat. 5058) substituted $2,000 for $500, effective for actions taken after November 29, 1990.

147 See also 49 U.S.C. App. 1471(a)(2), relating to compromise of overlapping civil penalties by Secretary of Transportation.

CHAPTER 5-DEPORTATION; ADJUSTMENT OF STATUS

GENERAL CLASSES OF DEPORTABLE ALIENS

SEC. 241. [8 U.S.C. 1251] (a) 148 CLASSES OF DEPORTABLE ALIENS.—Any alien (including an alien crewman) in the United States shall, upon the order of the Attorney General, be deported if the alien is within one or more of the following classes of deportable aliens:

(1) EXCLUDABLE AT TIME OF ENTRY OR OF ADJUSTMENT OF STATUS OR VIOLATES STATUS.

(A) EXCLUDABLE ALIENS.—Any alien who at the time of entry or adjustment of status was within one or more of the classes of aliens excludable by the law existing at such time is deportable.

(B) ENTERED WITHOUT INSPECTION.—Any alien who entered the United States without inspection or at any time or place other than as designated by the Attorney General or is in the United States in violation of this Act or any other law of the United States is deportable.

(C) VIOLATED NONIMMIGRANT STATUS OR CONDITION OF ENTRY.

(i) NONIMMIGRANT STATUS VIOLATORS.—Any alien who was admitted as a nonimmigrant and who has failed to maintain the nonimmigrant status in which the alien was admitted or to which it was changed under section 248, or to comply with the conditions of any such status, is deportable.

(ii) VIOLATORS OF CONDITIONS OF ENTRY.—Any alien whom the Secretary of Health and Human Services certifies has failed to comply with terms, conditions, and controls that were imposed under section 212(g) is

deportable. (D) TERMINATION OF CONDITIONAL PERMANENT RESIDENCE.

(i) IN GENERAL.–Any alien with permanent resident status on a conditional basis under section 216 (relating to conditional permanent resident status for certain alien spouses and sons and daughters) or under section 216A (relating to conditional permanent resident status for certain alien entrepreneurs, spouses, and children) who has had such status terminated under such respective section is deportable.

(ii) EXCEPTION.Clause (i) shall not apply in the cases described in section 216(c)(4) (relating to certain

hardship waivers). (E) SMUGGLING.

148 Subsection (a) was amended in its entirety by $ 602(a) of the Immigration Act of 1990 (P.L. 101-649, Nov. 29, 1990, 104 Stat. 5077), effective March 1, 1991, under $ 602(d) of that Act. For savings provision, see § 602(c) of that Act. For subsection (a) as in effect before that date, see Appendix II.A.2. See Appendix VII.B.1. for disqualification of certain deported aliens from certain benefits under title II of the Social Security Act. Also, $ 301 of the Immigration Act of 1990 (P.L. 101-649, Nov. 29, 1990, 104 Stat. 5029), shown in Appendix II.A.1., exempts from deportation on certain grounds certain spouses and unmarried children of legalized aliens.

(i) IN GENERAL.-Any alien who (prior to the date of entry, at the time of any entry, or within 5 years of the date of any entry) knowingly has encouraged, induced, assisted, abetted, or aided any other alien to enter or to try to enter the United States in violation of law is deportable.

(ii) 149 SPECIAL RULE IN THE CASE OF FAMILY REUNIFICATION.—Clause (i) shall not apply in the case of alien who is an eligible immigrant (as defined in section 301(b)(1) of the Immigration Act of 1990), was physically present in the United States on May 5, 1988, and is seeking admission as an immediate relative or under section 203(a)(2) (including under section 112 of the Immigration Act of 1990) or benefits under section 301(a) of the Immigration Act of 1990 if the alien, before May 5, 1988, has encouraged, induced, assisted, abetted, or aided only the alien's spouse, parent, son, or daughter (and no other individual) to enter the United States in violation of law.

(iii) WAIVER AUTHORIZED.-The Attorney General may, in his discretion for humanitarian purposes, to assure family unity, or when it is otherwise in the public interest, waive application of clause (i) in the case of any alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence if the alien has encouraged, induced, assisted, abetted, or aided only the alien's spouse, parent, son, or daughter (and no other individual) to enter the

United States in violation of law. (F) FAILURE TO MAINTAIN EMPLOYMENT.—Any alien who obtains the status of an alien lawfully admitted for temporary residence under section 210A who fails to meet the requirement of section 210A(d)(5)(A) by the end of the applicable period is deportable.

(G) MARRIAGE FRAUD.-An alien shall be considered to be deportable as having procured a visa or other documentation by fraud (within the meaning of section 212(a (6)(C)(i)) and to be in the United States in violation of this Act (within the meaning of subparagraph (B)) if

(i) the alien obtains any entry into the United States with an immigrant visa or other documentation procured on the basis of a marriage entered into less than 2 years prior to such entry of the alien and which, within 2 years subsequent to any entry of the alien in the United States, shall be judicially annulled or terminated, unless the alien establishes to the satisfaction of the Attorney General that such marriage was not contracted for the purpose of evading any provisions of the immigration laws, or

(ii) it appears to the satisfaction of the Attorney General that the alien has failed or refused to fulfill

149 Clause (ii) was redesignated, and a new clause (ii) inserted, by $ 307(hX(4) of the Miscellaneous and Technical Immigration and Naturalization Amendments of 1991 (P.L. 102-232, Dec. 12, 1991, 105 Stat. 1755), effective as if included in the Immigration Act of 1990.

the alien's marital agreement which in the opinion of the Attorney General was made for the purpose of

procuring the alien's entry as an immigrant. (H) WAIVER AUTHORIZED FOR CERTAIN MISREPRESENTATIONS.—The provisions of this paragraph relating to the deportation of aliens within the United States on the ground that they were excludable at the time of entry as aliens described in section 212(a)(6)(C)(i), whether willful or innocent, may, in the discretion of the Attorney General, be waived for any alien (other than an alien described in paragraph (4)(D)) who—

(i) is the spouse, parent, son, or daughter of a citizen of the United States or of an alien lawfully admitted to the United States for permanent residence; and

(ii) was in possession of an immigrant visa or equivalent document and was otherwise admissible to the United States at the time of such entry except for those grounds of inadmissibility specified under paragraphs (5)(A) and (7)(A) of section 212(a) which were a

direct result of that fraud or misrepresentation. A waiver of deportation for fraud or misrepresentation granted under this subparagraph shall also operate to waive deportation based on the grounds of inadmissibility at entry directly resulting from such fraud or misrepresen

tation. (2) CRIMINAL OFFENSES. (A) GENERAL CRIMES.(i) CRIMES OF MORAL TURPITUDE.—Any alien who

(I) is convicted of a crime involving moral turpitude committed within five years after the date of entry, and

(II) either is sentenced to confinement or is confined therefor in a prison or correctional institu

tion for one year or longer, is deportable.

(ii) MULTIPLE CRIMINAL CONVICTIONS.—Any alien who at any time after entry is convicted of two or more crimes involving moral turpitude, not arising out of a single scheme of criminal misconduct, regardless of whether confined therefor and regardless of whether the convictions were in a single trial, is deportable.

(iii) AGGRAVATED FELONY.–Any alien who is convicted of an aggravated felony at any time after entry is deportable.

(iv) WAIVER AUTHORIZED. Clauses (i), (ii), and (iii) shall not apply in the case of an alien with respect to a criminal conviction if the alien subsequent to the criminal conviction has been granted a full and unconditional pardon by the President of the United States

or by the Governor of any of the several States. (B) CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES. —

(i) CONVICTION.—Any alien who at any time after entry has been convicted of a violation of (or a conspiracy or attempt to violate) any law or regulation of a State, the United States, or a foreign country relating to a controlled substance (as defined in section 102 of the Controlled Substances Act (21 U.S.C. 802)), other than a single offense involving possession for one's own use of 30 grams or less of marijuana, is deportable.

(ii) DRUG ABUSERS AND ADDICTS.—Any alien who is, or at any time after entry has been, a drug abuser or

addict is deportable. (C) CERTAIN FIREARM OFFENSES.—Any alien who at any time after entry is convicted under any law of purchasing, selling, offering for sale, exchanging, using, owning, possessing, or carrying in violation of any law, any weapon, part, or accessory which is a firearm or destructive device (as defined in section 921(a) of title 18, United States Code) is deportable.

(D) MISCELLANEOUS CRIMES.-Any alien who at any time has been convicted (the judgment on such conviction becoming final) of, or has been so convicted of a conspiracy or attempt to violate

(i) any offense under chapter 37 (relating to espionage), chapter 105 (relating to sabotage), or chapter 115 relating to treason and sedition) of title 18, United States Code, for which a term of imprisonment of five or more years may be imposed;

(ii) any offense under section 871 or 960 of title 18, United States Code;

(iii) a violation of any provision of the Military Selective Service Act (50 U.S.C. App. 451 et seq.) or the Trading With the Enemy Act (50 U.S.C. App. 1 et seq.); or

(iv) a violation of section 215 or 278 of this Act, is deportable. (3) FAILURE TO REGISTER AND FALSIFICATION OF DOCUMENTS.

(A) CHANGE OF ADDRESS.-An alien who has failed to comply with the provisions of section 265 is deportable, unless the alien establishes to the satisfaction of the Attorney General that such failure was reasonably excusable or was not willful.

(B) FAILURE TO REGISTER OR FALSIFICATION OF DOCUMENTS.—Any alien who at any time has been convicted

(i) under section 266(c) of this Act or under section 36(c) of the Alien Registration Act, 1940,

(ii) of a violation of, or a conspiracy to violate, any provision of the Foreign Agents Registration Act of 1938 (22 U.S.C. 611 et seq.), or

(iii) of a violation of, or a conspiracy to violate, section 1546 of title 18, United States Code (relating to fraud and misuse of visas, permits, and other entry

documents), is deportable.

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