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or refusal of visas or permits to enter the United States shall be considered confidential and shall be used only for the formulation, amendment, administration, or enforcement of the immigration, nationality, and other laws of the United States, except that in the discretion of the Secretary of State certified copies of such records may be made available to a court which certifies that the information contained in such records is needed by the court in the interest of the ends of justice in a case pending before the court.

REENTRY PERMITS

Sec. 223. [8 U.S.C. 1203] (a)(1) Any alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence, or (2) any alien lawfully admitted to the United States pursuant to clause 6 of section 3 of the Immigration Act of 1924, between July 1, 1924, and July 5, 1932, both dates inclusive, who intends to depart temporarily from the United States may make application to the Attorney General for a permit to reenter the United States, stating the length of his intended absence or absences, and the reasons therefor. Such application shall be made under oath, and shall be in such form, contain such information, and be accompanied by such photographs of the applicant as may be by regulations prescribed.

(b) If the Attorney General finds (1) that the applicant under subsection (a)(1) has been lawfully admitted to the United States for permanent residence, or that the applicant under subsection (a)(2) has since admission maintained the status required of him at the time of his admission and such applicant desires to visit abroad and to return to the United States to resume the status existing at the time of his departure for such visit, (2) that the application is made in good faith, and (3) that the alien's proposed departure from the United States would not be contrary to the interests of the United States, the Attorney General may, in his discretion, issue the permit, which shall be valid for not more than two years from the date of issuance and shall not be renewable. The permit shall be in such form as shall be by regulations prescribed for the complete identification of the alien.

(c) During the period of validity, such permit may be used by the alien in making one or more applications for reentry into the United States.

(d) Upon the return of the alien to the United States the permit shall be presented to the immigration officer at the port of entry, and upon the expiration of its validity, the permit shall be surrendered to the Service.

(e) A permit issued under this section in the possession of the person to whom issued, shall be accepted in lieu of any visa which otherwise would be required from such person under this Act. Otherwise a permit issued under this section shall have no effect under the immigration laws except to show that the alien to whom it was

as the Freedom of Information Act). Section 405(bX2) of the State Department Basic Authorities Act

of 1956 (as added by $ 198(a) of the Foreign Relations Authorization Act, Fiscal Years 1992 and 1993 (Pub.L. 102-138, Oct. 28, 1991) provides as follows:

(2) Records described in section 222(f) of the Immigration and Nationality Act (relating to visa records) shall be excluded from publication in the FRUS series under section

403 and, to the

extent applicable, exempted from the declassification requirement of section 404..

issued is returning from a temporary visit abroad; but nothing in this section shall be construed as making such permit the exclusive means of establishing that the alien is so returning.

IMMEDIATE RELATIVE AND SPECIAL IMMIGRANT VISAS SEC. 224. [8 U.S.C. 1204] A consular officer may, subject to the limitations provided in section 221, issue an immigrant visa to a special immigrant or immediate relative as such upon satisfactory proof, under regulations prescribed under this Act, that the applicant is entitled to special immigrant or immediate relative status.

CHAPTER 4-PROVISIONS RELATING TO ENTRY AND EXCLUSION

LISTS OF ALIEN AND CITIZEN PASSENGERS ARRIVING OR DEPARTING;

RECORD OF RESIDENT ALIENS AND CITIZENS LEAVING PERMANENTLY FOR FOREIGN COUNTRY

SEC. 231. [8 U.S.C. 1221] (a) Upon the arrival of any person by water or by air at any port within the United States from any place outside the United States, 138 it shall be the duty of the master or commanding officer, or authorized agent, owner, or consignee of the vessel or aircraft, having any such person on board to deliver to the immigration officers at the port of arrival typewriten or printed lists or manifests of the persons on board such vessel r aircraft. Such lists or manifests shall be prepared at such time, e in such form and shall contain such information as the Attorney General shall prescribe by regulation as being necessary for the lentification of the persons transported and for the enforcement of

immigration laws. This subsection shall not require the master ommanding officer, or authorized agent, owner, or consignee of ssel or aircraft to furnish a list or manifest relating (1) to an crewman or (2) to any other person arriving by air on a trip ating in foreign contiguous territory, except (with respect to irrivals by air) as may be required by regulations issued purto section 239.

shall be the duty of the master or commanding officer or zed agent of every vessel or aircraft taking passengers on t any port of the United States, who are destined to any tside the United States, to file with the immigration offire departure from such port a list of all such persons board. Such list shall be in such form, contain such infor

mpanied by such documents, as the Attorney by regulation as necessary for the identifiransported and for the enforcement of the aster or commanding officer of any such - granted clearance papers for his vessel or authorized agent has deposited such list or documents with the immigration officer at

nih

'assenger Service Act (45 U.S.C. 545(i)) requires the Attorney ik in providing en route immigration procedures aboard trains y rail passenger service in a manner convenient to passengers ssible transit of such service.

such port and made oath that they are full and complete as to the information required to be contained therein, except that in the case of vessels or aircraft which the Attorney General determines are making regular trips to ports of the United States, the Attorney General may, when expedient, arrange for the delivery of lists of outgoing persons at a later date. This subsection shall not require the master or commanding officer, or authorized agent, owner, or consignee of a vessel or aircraft to furnish a list or manifest relating (1) to an alien crewman or (2) to any other person departing by air on a trip originating in the United States who is destined to foreign contiguous territory, except (with respect to such departure by air) as may be required by regulations issued pursuant to section 239.

(c) The Attorney General may authorize immigration officers to record the following information regarding every resident person leaving the United States by way of the Canadian or Mexican borders for permanent residence in a foreign country: Names, age, and sex; whether married or single; calling or occupation; whether able to read or write; nationality; country of birth; country of which citizen or subject; race; last permanent residence in the United States; intended future permanent residence; and time and port of last arrival in the United States; and if a United States citizen or national, the facts on which claim to that status is based.

(d) If it shall appear to the satisfaction of the Attorney General that the master or commanding officer, owner, or consignee of any vessel or aircraft, or the agent of any transportation line, as the case may be, has refused or failed to deliver any list or manifest required by subsection (a) or (b), or that the list or manifest delivered is not accurate and full, such master or commanding officer, owner, or consignee, or agent, as the case may be, shall pay to the Commissioner the sum of $300 139 for each person concerning whom such accurate and full list or manifest is not furnished, or concerning whom the manifest or list is not prepared and sworn to as prescribed by this section or by regulations issued pursuant thereto. No vessel or aircraft shall be granted clearance pending determination of the question of the liability to the payment of such penalty, or while it remains unpaid, and no such penalty shall be remitted or refunded, except that clearance may be granted prior to the determination of such question upon the deposit with the Commissioner of a bond or undertaking approved by the Attorney General or a sum sufficient to cover such penalty.

(e) The Attorney General is authorized to prescribe the circumstances and conditions under which the list or manifest requirements of subsections (a) and (b) may be waived.

DETENTION OF ALIENS FOR OBSERVATION AND EXAMINATION

SEC. 232. [8 U.S.C. 1222] For the purpose of determining whether aliens (including alien crewmen) arriving at ports of the United States belong to any of the classes excluded by this Act, by reason of being afflicted with any of the diseases or mental or physical defects or disabilities set forth in section 212(a), or whenever the Attorney General has received information showing that any aliens are coming from a country or have embarked at a place where any of such diseases are prevalent or epidemic, such aliens shall be detained by the Attorney General for a sufficient time to enable the immigration officers and medical officers to subject such aliens to observation and an examination sufficient to determine whether or not they belong to the excluded classes.

139 $ 543(a)(1) of the Immigration Act of 1990 (P.L. 101-649, Nov. 29, 1990, 104 Stat. 5057) substituted payment of $300 to the Commissioner for payment of $10 to the collector of customs, effective for actions taken after November 29, 1990.

[TEMPORARY REMOVAL FOR EXAMINATION UPON ARRIVAL] [SEC. 233. Repealed by $ 206 of the Department of Justice Appropriation Act, 1987 (as contained in section 101(b) of Pub. L. 99-500, Oct. 18, 1986, 100 Stat. 1783-56).]

PHYSICAL AND MENTAL EXAMINATION

SEC. 234. [8 U.S.C. 1224] The physical and mental examination of arriving aliens (including alien crewmen) shall be made by medical officers of the United States Public Health Service, who shall conduct all medical examinations and shall certify, for the information of the immigration officers and the special inquiry officers, any physical and mental defect or disease observed by such medical officers in any such alien. If medical officers of the United States Public Health Service are not available, civil surgeons of not less than four years' professional experience may be employed for such service upon such terms as may be prescribed by the Attorney General. Aliens (including alien crewmen) arriving at ports of the United States shall be examined by at least one such medical officer or civil surgeon under such administrative regulations as the Attorney General may prescribe, and under medical regulations prepared by the Secretary of Health and Human Services. Medical officers of the United States Public Health Service who have had special training in the diagnosis of insanity and mental defects shall be detailed for duty or employed at such ports of entry as the Attorney General may designate, and such medical officers shall be provided with suitable facilities for the detention and examination of all arriving aliens who it is suspected may be excludable under paragraph (1) 140 of section 212(a), and the services of interpreters shall be provided for such examination. Any alien certified under paragraph (1) 140 of section 212(a) may appeal to a board of medical officers of the United States Public Health Service, which shall be convened by the Secretary of Health and Human Services, and any such alien may introduce before such board one expert medical witness at his own cost and expense.

INSPECTION BY IMMIGRATION OFFICERS

SEC. 235. [8 U.S.C. 1225] (a) The inspection, other than the physical and mental examination, of aliens (including alien crewmen) seeking admission or readmission to, or the privilege of passing through the United States shall be conducted by immigration officers, except as otherwise provided in regard to special inquiry officers. All aliens arriving at ports of the United States shall be examined by one or more immigration officers at the discretion of the Attorney General and under such regulations as he may prescribe. 141 Immigration officers are hereby authorized and empowered to board and search any vessel, aircraft, railway car, or other conveyance, or vehicle in which they believe aliens are being brought into the United States. The Attorney General and any immigration officer, including special inquiry officers, shall have power to administer oaths and to take and consider evidence of or from any person touching the privilege of any alien or person he believes or suspects to be an alien to enter, reenter, pass through, or reside in the United States or concerning any matter which is material and relevant to the enforcement of this Act and the administration of the Service, and, where such action may be necessary, to make a written record of such evidence. Any person coming into the United States may be required to state under oath the purpose or purposes for which he comes, the length of time he intends to remain in the United States, whether or not he intends to remain in the United States permanently and, if an alien, whether he intends to become a citizen thereof, and such other items of information as will aid the immigration officer in determining whether he is a national of the United States or an alien and, if the latter, whether he belongs to any of the excluded classes enumerated in section 212. The Attorney General and any immigration officer, including special inquiry officers, shall have power to require by subpena the attendance and testimony of witnesses before immigration officers and special inquiry officers and the production of books, papers, and documents relating to the privilege of any person to enter, reenter, reside in, or pass through the United States or concerning any matter which is material and relevant to the enforcement of this Act and the administration of the Service, and to that end may invoke the aid of any court of the United States. Any United States district court within the jurisdiction of which investigations or inquiries are being conducted by an immigration officer or special inquiry officer may, in the event of neglect or refusal to respond to a subpena issued under this subsection or refusal to testify before an immigration officer or special inquiry officer, issue an order requiring such persons to appear before an immigration officer or special inquiry officer, produce books, papers, and documents if demanded, and testify, and any failure to obey such order of the court may be punished by the court as a contempt thereof.

140 8 603(a)(10) of the Immigration Act of 1990 (P.L. 101-649, Nov. 29, 1990, 104 Stat. 5083) substituted a reference to paragraph (1) for a reference to paragraphs (1) through (5).

(b) Every alien (other than an alien crewman), and except as otherwise provided in subsection (c) of this section and in section 273(d), who may not appear to the examining immigration officer at the port of arrival to be clearly and beyond a doubt entitled to land shall be detained for further inquiry to be conducted by a special inquiry officer. The decision of the examining immigration offi

141 Under regulations, 8 C.F.R. § 235.5, the Attorney General has provided for preinspection and preclearance of travelers from Guam, Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, Canada, Mexico, and other countries.

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