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keep the commandments of God, and have the testimony of Jesus Christ." Truth and error are the very opposites of each other, and from this verse we may see that Satan is still going about as a roaring lion seeking whom he may devour. He is still the enemy of man, and will continue so until the earth, or its inhabitants, are renovated. And until the beast and false prophet are both taken alive, and cast into the bottomless pit and bound a thousand years. May my brethren, they and the inhabitants of this Christian. state, put on the true Christian armor, and be able to make war against Satan and all the principalities and powers of darkness, and become members of that true and infallible church, whose sun is the pure gospel light, whose moon is universal charity and brotherly love, and whose crown the doctrines and examples of Christ and his apostles.

CHAPTER XIII.

THIS chapter contains a short but curious history of the Roman empire, with its varied forms of government, from its foundation to its overthrow by the northern barbarians, and from thence to its rise under the universal dominion of papacy.

sea,

Verse 1: "And I stood upon the sand of the sea, and saw a beast rise up out of the sea, having seven heads and ten horns, and upon his horns ten crowns, and upon his heads the name of blasphemy." It appears, by considering this passage, that the apostle John stood upon the sand of the that is, he examined the annals and registers of the heathen, and saw a beast rise up out of the sea, or infidel ocean of mankind. This beast represented a great earthly power. When we consult the history of Rome, we find that it was founded about seven hundred and fifty years before the Christian era, by a party of poor adventurers, who had escaped from Troy at its destruction. These, sailing from the ruins of that city, wandered along the western shores of Italy, and at last landed near where Rome now stands. They soon after began to build a city, or rather a village, and called it Rome, from Romulus, their chief. It appears that their first form of government was regal; their second was consular; their third was dictatorial; their fourth was tribunitial, with consular authority; their fifth was dictatorship revived, which ended in the sixth or imperial head,

that existed at the time at which John wrote this book. See Rev. 1. It is to be noted that these six heads, or forms of government, were infidel, or heathen. The seventh assumed the name of Christian, under Constantine, the forty-first emperor of Rome. This head had also the name of blasphemy, because it apostatized from the truth, and laid the foundation of the papal head.

Verse 2: "And the beast which I saw was like unto a leopard, and his feet were as the feet of a bear, and his mouth as the mouth of a lion and the dragon gave him his seat, and his power, and great authority." What a beautiful and grand description the prophet gives of this vast empire.

First, he compares it to a leopard, as it was spotted by its different heads; it was spotted with different nations under its subjection; it was spotted with Jews and Gentiles; it was spotted with heathen and Christian; and under its seventh head it was spotted with Arians, Athanasians, monks of all descriptions, etc.

Second, its feet are compared to a bear's feet, as in all its conquests it held fast its prey, and its church conducted in the same manner.

Third, its mouth is compared to that of a lion, as heathen Rome was the terror of the nations, and its decrees were irrevocable. So also Christian Rome was guided by the same fierce impulses.

Fourth, the dragon, or Satan, gave him his power and seat, and great authority. By these words, the prophet proves that all these heads were idolators, and under the dominion of the devil.

Verse 3: "And I saw one of his heads as it were wounded unto death; and his deadly wound was healed; and all the world wondered after the beast.' The seventh or Christian head was wounded to death in 475, by the barbarous nations of the north, which sacked and plundered Rome, overturned the government, seated themselves in all

the western provinces, and by degrees formed themselves into ten kingdoms, which are the ten horns of the beast. The eastern empire remained, though much shattered, for several centuries afterwards.

During these calamities, the bishops were not idle, particularly the bishop of Rome. Bad as the state of religion was previous to these disorders, it now grew worse. These new inhabitants of Europe, as they may be called, being pagan idolators, the bishops had in view the establishment of a new spiritual empire among them, and so heal the deadly wound of the seventh head.

In order to attain this great end, that which remained of Christianity was partly relinquished by the bishops, to gain over this idolatrous people. The scheme succeeded so well that, as early as 494, the bishop of Rome began to assert his supremacy. About the year 557, the ordination of bishops. was considered as belonging to the Holy See. In 601, Pope Gregory the Great would not admit the ordination of a bishop by the Lombards, but placed the right in himself. About the year 800, this new spiritual empire extended itself over all Italy, Germany, Poland, Hungary, France, Spain, Britain, and Ireland - these nations all becoming willing subjects of the Romish power. Thus the wound which imperial Rome had received, papal Rome healed, and its dominions became more extensive than ever.

Let it be observed here that the Papal empire is the eighth head; and is of the seventh, because that under the seventh, or imperial head, the bishops first obtained earthly power and wealth, because the bottomless pit was opened to them. The prophet adds, and all the world wondered after the beast. The papal beast, or hierarchy of Rome, was and is the wonder, admiration, and astonishment of mankind. It is a wonder to behold the art and policy of the bishops, in the raising up and establishment of this antichristian empire. Jews and mahomedans have wondered at it, when they have

for the same reason.

experienced its cruelty. The Indian nations have wondered The protestants have wondered at and felt its infernal rage. And its own blind and crushed laity, even they wonder at its power and infallibility.

Verse 4: "And they worshipped the dragon which gave power to the beast; and they worshipped the beast, saying, Who is like unto the beast? who is able to make war with him." Here the prophet, inspired of the Most High, give a melancholy account of the unhappy people who submitted themselves to papal jurisdiction. It appears that the principles of popery are so odious in the sight of God, that they who adhere to them cannot expect mercy, they being here represented as worshippers of both Satan and the beast. A similar account is given of this dreadful apostacy by both Peter and Paul. See 2 Peter 2, and 2 Thess. 2. We in this age, even, have occular demonstration of it.

Let the meek and humble behavior of the primitive pillars of the church of Christ, and those of thee great church be compared, and see how horrid the contrast. The former enforced obedience to God, and faith in Jesus Christ for salvation the latter teach the doctrines, traditions and commandments of men, for that end. The immediate apostles of Christ preached remission of sins though faith in the Redeemer. The apostles of the Romish church will pardon sins without him, provided a little attention is shown, and obedience to the church. Christ's apostles prayed for grace, mercy and peace, to remain with all them that love the Lord Jesus Christ in sincerity. The pope and his disciples, condemned to the flames of hell all who denied their pretended authority, be their obedience to God ever so perfect. Peter declared that God is no respector of persons, but in every nation he that feareth God and worketh righteousness, is accepted of him.-Acts 10: 34 35. The pope and his adherants taught that all who disobeyed his Holiness and the church of Rome, could not be saved. Peter and

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