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are unclean, and shall be unclean ye shall therefore sanctify your

selves, and ye shall be holy: for 36 Nevertheless, a fountain or I am holy: neither shall ye defile pit, wherein there is plenty of water, yourselves with any manner of shall be clean: but that which creeping thing that creepeth upon toucheth their carcase, shall be the earth. unclean.

45 For I am the LORD that 37 And if any part of their bringeth you up out of the land of carcase fall upon any sowing-seed Egypt, to be your God: ye shall which is to be sown; it shall be therefore be holy, for I am holy. clean.

46 This is the law of the beasts, 38 But if any water be put and of the fowls, and of every upon the seed, and any part of living creature that moveth in the their carcase fall thereon; it shall waters, and of every creature that be unclean unto you.

creepeth upon the earth. 39 And if any beast of which 47 To make a difference between ye may eat, die; he that toucheth the unclean and the clean, and the carcase thereof, shall be un- between the beast that may be clean until the even.

eaten, and the beast that may not 40 And he that eateth of the be eaten. carcase of it, shall wash his clothes,

CHAP. XII. and be unclean until the even : he 1 Women's purifications, 6 and also that beareth the carcase of it,

offerings. shall wash his clothes, and be unclean until the even.

ANDthe Lord spake unto Moses, 41 And every creeping thing saying, that creepeth upon the earth, shall 2 Speak unto the children of be an abomination : it shall not Israel, saying, If a woman have be eaten.

conceived seed, and born a man42 Whatsoever goeth upon the ehild: then she shall be unclean belly, and whatsoever goeth upon seven days, according to the days all four, or whatsoever hath more of the separation for her infirmity feet among all creeping things shall she be unclean. that creep upon the earth; them 3 And in the eighth day, the ye shall not eat, for they are an

flesh of his fore-skin shall be abomination.

circumcised. 43 Ye shall not make yourselves 4 And she shall then continue abominable with any creeping in the blood of her purifying three thing that creepeth, neither shall and thirty days: she shall touch ye make yourselves unclean with no hallowed thing, nor come into them, that ye should be defiled the sanctuary, until the days of thereby,

her purifying be fulfilled. 44 For I am the LORD your God: 5. But if she bear a maid-child,

tion; so that I cannot think it would be prudent to pretend to alter it: and, in order to surmount the difficuly, we must have recourse to the explanation of the Rabbins, since they adopt the same meaning as is rendered in the present translation ;-therefore it may not be improper to examine what they suggest. Now some of them say, that this goat, that was burnt, was not that which is mentioned in chap. ix. ver. 3, belonging to the consecration of the tabernacle, for, that they did eat, as well as the meat-offering mentioned in verse 12, on account of its being an extraordinary sacrifice, and therefore it set aside the objection of their being mourners, but that this, which was burnt, was the sacrifice of the new-moon, and, not being an extra sacrifice, the restriction of their mourning was in its full force in regard to their not being permitted to eat it, which Moses did not recollect, and was well pleased with Aaron's excuse for burning it;--though it is hard to





וּטְמֵאִים יְהִיוּ לָכֶם : 36 אָךְ מַעְיָן וּבוֹר מִקְנֵה־־מַיִם יהיה טָהוֹר וְנֹגֵעַ בְּנִבְלָתָם יִטְמָא : 37 וְכִי יִפּל מָנְבְלָתָם עַל־כָּל־זֶרַע זַרִיעַ אֲשֶׁר יִזְרְעַ טָהוֹר הוּא : 38 וְכִי, יִתַּן־ מים על־־רָע וְנָפַל מִנִּבְלָתָם עָלָיו טָמֵא הוּא לָכֶם:

וְכִי יָמוּת מִן־הַבְּהֵמָה אֲשֶׁר־הִיא לָכֶם לְאָכְלָה הַכֹּנֵעַ בְּנִבְלָתָהּ יִטְמָא עַד־־הָעֶרֶב : 40 וְהָאֹכֵל מִנִּבְלָתָהּ יְכַבֵּס בְּגָדָיו וְטָמֵא עַד־־הָעֶרֶב וְהַנֹשֵׂא אֶת־נִבְלָתָהּ יְכַבֵּס בְּגָדָיו וְטָמֵא עַד-הָעָרֶב :

4l וְכָל־הַשֶׁרֶץ הָשׁרֶץ עַל־הָאָרֶץ שֶׁקֶץ הוּא לֹא יֵאָכֵל : ליבת 42 כֹּל הוֹלֵךְ עַל־־גָדרן וְכַלי הוֹלֵךְ עַל־אַרְבַּע עֶר כָּל־ באתר מַרְבֵּה רַגְלַיִם לְכָל־הַשֶׁרֶץ הַחֹרֶץ עַל־הָאָרֶץ לְאתִאַכְלוּם

כִּי־שֶׁקֶץ הֵם : 43 אַל־תְּשַׁקְצוּ אֶת־נַפְשְׁתֵיכֶם בְּכָל־ הַשֶׁרֶץ הַשָּׂרֶץ וְלֹא תְטַמְּאוּ בָּהֶם וְנִטְמֵתָם בָּם: 4 כִּי

אֲנִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם וְהִתְקַדַּשְׁתֶּם וֶהְיִיתֶם קְדָשִׁים כִּי . קָדוֹשׁ אָנִי וְלֹא תְטַמְאוּ אֶת־נַפְשֹׁתֵיכֶם בְּכָל־־הַשֶׁרֶץ מפטיר הָרְמֵשׂ עַל־הָאָרֶץ : 45 כִּי אֲנִי יְהוָה הַמַעֲלֶה אֶתְכֶם

מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרַיִם לְהִית לָכֶם לֵאלֹהִים וִהְיִיתֶם קֶדְשִׁים כִּי קָדוֹשׁ אֶנִי : 46 זְאת תּוֹרַת הַבְּהֵמָה וְהָעוֹף וְכל נֶפֶשׁ הַחַיָּה הָרְמֶשֶׂת בַּמָּיִם וּלְכָל־נֶפֶשׁ הַשׁרָצֶת עַל־ הָאָרֶץ: 47 לְהַבְדִיל בֵּין הַטָּמֵא וּבֵין הַטָּהֵר וּבֵין הַחַיָּה

הַנאָכלֶת וּבֵין הַחַיָּה אֲשֶׁר לֹא תֵאָכֵל :







סדר וַיְדַבֵּר יְהוָה אֶל-משֶׁה לֵּאמֹר: 2 דִּבֶּר אֶל-בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל לֵאמֹר אִשָּׁה כִּי תַזְרִיעַ וְיָלְדָה זָכָר וְטָמְאָה

שִׁבְעַת יָמִים כִּימֵי נִדַת דְּוֹתָה תִּטְמָא : 3 וּבַיּוֹם הַשְׁמִינִי יִמְוֹל בְּשָׂר עֶרְלָתוֹ : 4 וּשְׁלֹשִׁים יוֹם וּשְׁלֹשֶׁת יָמִים תֵּשֶׁב בִּדְמִי טַהֵרָה בְּכָל־־קֶדֶשׁ לֹא־תִנָּע וְאֶלהַמִּקְדָּשׁ לֹא תָבֹא עַד־מְלֹאת יְמֵי טָהֲרָה: 5 וְאִם־



17 And the little owl, and the cormorant, and the great owl,

18 And the swan, and the pelican, and the gier-eagle,

19 And the stork, the heron, after her kind, and the lapwing, and the bat.

20 All fowls that creep, going upon all four, shall be an abomination unto you.

21 Yet these may ye eat of every flying creeping thing that goeth upon all four, which have legs above their feet, to leap withal upon the earth :

22 Even these of them ye may eat: the locust after his kind, and the bald-locust after his kind, and the beetle after his kind, and the grass-hopper after his kind.

23 But all other flying creeping things, which have four feet, shall be an abomination unto you.


24 And for these ye shall be unclean whosoever toucheth the carcase of them, shall be unclean until the even.

25 And whosoever beareth ought of the carcase of them, shall wash his clothes, and be unclean until the even.

26 The carcases of every beast which divideth the hoof, and is not cloven-footed, nor cheweth the cud, are unclean unto you: every one that toucheth them, shall be unclean.

27 And whatsoever goeth upon his paws, among all manner of beasts, that go on all four, those are unclean unto you: whoso

the sin-offering? But Aben Ezra observes, that, if the word was to mean, and if I had eaten, the accent ought to have been on the last syllable, but that, being on the penultima, it means positively and I have eaten. Also, the having a patah (-) and the a dagues (*), it can never mean a question, but a positive answer, as much as is pleasing in the sight of the Lord, which is a certain quantity with which he could not dispense, so that he renders this verse thus :"And Aaron said unto Moses, Behold, this day have they offered their sin-offering and their burnt"offering; and such things have befallen me, and I have eaten of the sin-offering to-day, as much


toucheth their carcase, shall be unclean until the even.

28 And he that beareth the carcase of them shall wash his clothes, and be unclean until the even: they are unclean unto you.

29 These also shall be unclean unto you among the creeping things that creep upon the earth: the weasel, and the mouse, and the tortoise after his kind.

30 And the ferret, and the chameleon, and the lizard, and the snail and the mole.

31 These are unclean to you among all that creep; whosoever doth touch them when they be dead, shall be unclean until the even.

32 And upon whatsoever any of them, when they are dead, doth fall, it shall be unclean; whether it be any vessel of wood, or raiment, or skin, or sack, whatsoever vessel it be, wherein any work is done, it must be put into water, and it shall be unclean until the even; so it shall be cleansed.

33 And every earthen vessel whereinto any of them falleth, whatsoever is in it shall be unclean; and ye shall break it.

34 Of all meat which may be eaten, that on which such water cometh *, shall be unclean: and all drink that may be drunk in every such vessel, shall be unclean.

35 And every thing whereupon any part of their carcase falleth, shall be unclean; whether it be oven, or ranges for pots, they shall be broken down: for they

as was pleasing in the sight of the Lord."-And, by this interpretation, all the difficulties before started are removed.

However, Aben Ezra himself is not bold enough to contradict the tradition which is so generally received, and rendered by every translator in the manner we have it in the present English transla

• This is injudicious; for, it means any kind of water, as that disposeth it to receive pollution.




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17 וְאֶת־הַכּוֹס וְאֶת־הַשְׁלָךְ וְאֶת־הַיַּנְשְׁוּף: 18 וְאֶת־ הַתִּנְשֶׁמֶת וְאֶת־הַכֶּאֶת וְאֶת־הָרָחָם: 19 וְאֵת הַחֲסִידָה הָאֲנָפָה לְמִינָהּ וְאֶת־הַרְוּכִיפַת וְאֶת־הָעֲטלֵּף: 20 כּל שֶׁרֶץ הָעוֹף הַהלֵךְ עַל־אַרְבַּע שֶׁקֶץ הוּא לָכֶם: אַךְ

אֶת־־זֶה תּאכְלוּ מִכּל שֶׁרֶץ הָעוֹף הַהלֵךְ עַל־אֵרְבַּע לו קרי אֲשֶׁר־לֹא כְרָעִים מִמַּעַל לְרָגְלָיו לְנַתֵּר בָּהֵן עַל־הָאָרֶץ

22 אֶת־אֵלֶה מֵהֶם תּאכֵלוּ אֶת־הָאַרְבֶּה לְמִינוֹ וְאֶת־ הַפָּלְעָם לְמִינֵהוּ וְאֶת־הַחַרְגָּל לְמִינֵהוּ וְאֶת־־הֶחָגָב לְמִינֵהוּ: 23 וְכל שֶׁרֶץ הָעוֹף אֲשֶׁר־לוֹ אַרְבַּע רַגְלָיִם שֶׁקֶץ הוּא לָכֶם: 24 וּלְאֵלֶה תִּטְמָאוּ כָּל־הַכֹּגֶעַ בְּנִבְלָתָם יִטְמָא עַד-הָעֶרֶב: 25 וְכָל־הַנֹשֵׂא מִנִּבְלָתָם יְכַבֵּס בְּגָדָיו וְטָמֵא עַר־הָעֶרֶב: 26 לְכָל־הַבְּהֵמָה אֲשֶׁר הִוא מַפְרֶסֶת פַּרְסָה וְשֶׁסַע אֵינֶנָּה שֹׁסַעַת וְנֵרָה אֵינֶנָּה מַעֲלָה טְמֵאִים הֵם לָכֶם כָּל־הַנֹגֵעַ בָּהֶם יִטְמָא : 27 וְכָל הוֹלֵךְ עַל־ כַּפָּיו בְּכָל־הַחַיָּה הָבְלֶכֶת עַל־אַרְבַּע טְמֵאִים הֵם לָכֶם כָּל־הַנֹגֵעַ בְּנִבְלָתָם יִטְמָא עַד-הָעֶרֶב: 28 וְהַנֹשֵׂא אֶת־ נִבְלָתָם יְכַבֵּס בְּגָדָיו וְטָמֵא עַד-הָעֶרֶב טְמֵאִים הֵמָּה לכס:

29 וְזֶה לָכֶם הַטָּמֵא בַּשֶׁרֶץ הַשׁרֶץ על־הָאָרֶץ הַחָלֶד וְהָעַכְבָּר וְהַיָּב לְמִינֵהוּ: 30 וְהָאֲנָקה וְהַכְּחַ וְהַלְטָאָה וְהַחֹמֶט וְהַתִּנְשֶׁמֶת: 31 אֵלֶה הַטְמֵאִים לָכֶם בְּכָל־הַשֶׁרֶץ כָּל־־הַנִּגְעַ בָּהֶם בְּמֹתָם יִטְמָא עַר־ הָעֶרֶב: 32 וְכָל אֲשֶׁר־יִפּל עָלָיו מֵהֶם בְּמֹתָם יִטְמָא מִכָּל־כְּלִי-עֵץ אִוֹ נֶגֶד אוֹ־עור אוֹ שֶׁק כָּל־כְּלִי אֲשֶׁר־

יַעֲשֶׂה מְלָאכָה בָּהֶם בַּמַּיִם וּבָא וְטָמֵא עַד־־הָעֶרֶב שביעי וְטָהֵר : 33 וְכָל־כְּלִי־חֶרֶשׁ אֲשֶׁר־יִפּל מֵהֶם אֶל־תּוֹכו

כֹּל אֲשֶׁר בְּתוֹכָן יִטְמָא וְאֹתוֹ תִשְׁבָּרוּ: 34 מִכָּל־הָאֹכֶל אֲשֶׁר יֵאָכֵל אֲשֶׁר יָבוֹא עָלָיו מַיִם יִטְמָא וְכָל־מַשְׁקֶה אֲשֶׁר יִשְׁתֶּה בְּכָל־־בְּלִי יִטְמָא : מִנְבְלָתָם עָלָיו יִטְמָא תַּגְוּר וְכִירַיִם וְפֶץ טְמֵאִים הֵם



35 וְכֹל אֲשֶׁר־יִפּל

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* This verse labours under a very great difficulty. The general acceptation of its meaning, is as translated in the English Bible, namely, that the purport of Aaron's excuse to Moses, for not eating the sin-offering, was, his being in mourning for the death of his sons, at which time no holy things were to be eaten. And, though there is no such command in the Pentateuch, yet we find something similar to it in Deuteronomy, chap. xxvi. ver. 14. But I cannot think Moses could be satisfied with this evasive answer; for, what is there mentioned refers only to the tithes; and, as there was a whole year's time to eat it, they were not to pick out just the time that they were lamenting their dead. But that is not a proof that it might set aside the eating of the sacrifice in its proper day besides, we see here in verse 12, that, after this inelancholy event, he is ordered to eat the meat-offering, &c. How, then, could Aaron alledge the mourning as an excuse for not eating

Though its hoof be not divided above, it coheres below, as Jarchi observes. In the Hebrew NT and N. Though most versions agree in the translation of the first word, yet the second is by some rendered the hawk or falcon.

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