Nuclear, Biological, Chemical, and Missile Proliferation Sanctions: Selected Current Law
Nova Publishers, 2004 - 64 pagini
The use of economic sanctions to stem weapons proliferation acquired a new dimension in the 1990's. While earlier legislation required the cut-off of foreign aid to countries engaged in specified nuclear proliferation activities and mentioned other sanctions as a possible mechanism for bringing countries into compliance with goals of treaties or international agreements, it was not until 1990 that Congress enacted explicit guidelines for trade sanctions related to missile proliferation. In that year a requirement for the President to impose sanctions against US persons or foreign persons engaging in trade of items or technology listed in the Missile Technology Control Regime Annex (MTCR Annex) was added to the Arms Export Control Act and to the Export Administration Act of 1979. Subsequently, Congress legislated economic sanctions against countries that contribute to the proliferation of chemical, biological, and nuclear weapons in a broad array of laws. This book offers a listing and brief description of legal provisions that require or authorise the imposition of some form of economic sanction against countries, companies, or persons who violate U.S. non-proliferation norms. For each provision, information is included on what triggers the imposition of sanctions, their duration, what authority the President has to delay or abstain from imposing sanctions, and what authority the President has to waive the imposition of sanctions.
ATOMIC ENERGY ACT OF 1954
CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL WEAPONS CONTROL AND WARFARE ELIMINATION ACT OF 1991
CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION IMPLEMENTATION ACT OF 1998
EXPORT ADMINISTRATION ACT OF 1979
EXPORTIMPORT BANK ACT OF 1945
FOREIGN ASSISTANCE ACT OF 1961
IRAN AND LIBYA SANCTIONS ACT
IRANIRAQ ARMS NONPROLIFERATION ACT OF 1992
IRAN NONPROLIFERATION ACT OF 2000
IRAQ SANCTION ACT OF 1990
NATIONAL EMERGENCIES ACT
NORTH KOREA THREAT REDUCTION ACT OF 1999
NUCLEAR PROLIFERATION PREVENTION ACT OF 1994
KENNETH M LUDDEN FOREIGN OPERATIONS EXPORT FINANCING AND RELATED PROGRAMS APPROPRIATIONS ACT 2002
INTERNATIONAL EMERGENCY ECONOMIC POWERS ACT
acquire action activities added by sec AECA agreements amended application Appropriations approved October Arms Export Control Assistance Act authorizes the President certifies changes Chapter chemical weapons civil Committee Congress contracts contribute Convention cooperation defense definition economic effect efforts Emergency enacted engaged equipment essential to U.S. establish Executive Order Export Administration Act export licenses Export-Import Bank financing Fiscal foreign assistance foreign government foreign person Foreign Relations Authorization funding further Implementation important imposition of sanctions individual international terrorism Iran Iraq issued January Legislation on Foreign List military missiles MTCR adherent non-nuclear-weapon nonproliferation North Korea November nuclear explosive device nuclear material otherwise President determines President may waive production programs prohibits pursuant reference Relations Authorization Act requires restrictions sanctionable person Secretary Senate September terminate transactions transfer U.S. government U.S. national security United violation waiver
Pagina v - ... United States, or the lack of recognition by the United States, and attendant circumstances thereto, shall be construed in any administrative or judicial proceeding as a basis for any United States Government agency, commission, or department to make a finding of fact or determination of law, under the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 and the Nuclear NonProliferation Act of 1978, to deny an export license application or to revoke an existing export license for nuclear exports to Taiwan.
Pagina x - States commits or attempts to commit torture shall be fined under this title or imprisoned not more than 20 years, or both, and if death results to any person from conduct prohibited by this subsection, shall be punished by death or imprisoned for any term of years or for life.