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(c) "Substandard" is the quality of canned applesauce that fails to meet requirements for "U.S. Grade B".

FILL OF CONTAINER

§ 52.337 Fill of container.

The fill of container is not incorporated in the grades of the finished product since fill of container, as such, is not a factor of quality for the purpose of these grades. The standard of fill of container as specified in the Standard of Fill of Container for Canned Applesauce (21 CFR 27.81) issued pursuant to the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, is a fill not less than 90 percent of the total capacity of the container, as determined by the general method for fill of containers prescribed in 21 CFR 10.6(b); except that in the case of glass containers having a total capacity of 62 fluid ounces or less, the fill is not less than 85 percent. FACTORS OF QUALITY

§ 52.338 Ascertaining the grade.

(a) The sample unit size for evaluating the factors of defects and consistency is the amount of applesauce required to fill level full a cylinder measuring 3 inches inside diameter and 34 inches high.

(b) The grade of canned applesauce is ascertained by considering the respective ratings for the factors of color, consistency, defects, finish, and flavor, in

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(a) (A) Classification. Canned applesauce that possesses a good color may be given a score of 18 to 20 points. "Good Color" means that the color of the finished product is bright, practically uniform, and in addition has the following meanings with respect to the following types:

(1) Natural. (i) The color is typical for the variety or varieties used and may range from a white color that may be slightly translucent to a light golden color; such color is free from tinges of pink or gray and free from discoloration due to oxidation, scorching, or other

causes.

(ii) With respect to spice flavored applesauce, the color is characteristic of the color imparted, if any, by the added spice. Such color is free from tinges of pink or gray and from discoloration due to oxidation, scorching, or other causes.

(2) Artificially colored. The color is bright and distinct but not saturated.

(b) (B) Classification. Canned applesauce that possesses a reasonably good color may be given a score of 16 or 17 points. Canned applesauce that falls into this classification shall not be graded above U.S. Grade B, regardless of the total score for the product (this is a limiting rule). "Reasonably good color" means that the color of the finished

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product may be dull, is reasonably uniform, and in addition has the following meanings with respect to the following types:

(1) Natural. (i) The color is typical for the variety or varieties used and may be slightly brown, slightly pink, or slightly gray, but is not off color.

(ii) With respect to spice flavored applesauce, the color imparted by the added spices may be no more than slightly affected by pink or grey color but is not off color.

(2) Artificially colored. The color may be fairly bright and is distinct but not saturated.

(c) (SStd) Classification. Canned applesauce that fails to meet the requirements of paragraph (b) of this section may be given a score of 0 to 15 points. Canned applesauce that falls into this classification shall not be graded above Substandard, regardless of the total score for the product (this is a limiting rule).

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(a) General. Consistency refers to the flow characteristics of the product and to the degree of separation of free liquor when determined in accordance with the procedure prescribed under § 52.346 of this subpart.

(b) (A) Classification. Canned applesauce that has a good consistency may be given a score of 18 to 20 points. "Good consistency" has the following meanings with respect to the following styles:

(1) Regular (or comminuted). The product does not flow more than 6.5 centimeters; and there is not more than 0.7 centimeter free liquor present.

(2) Chunk (or chunky). The product does not flow more than 7.5 centimeters; and there may be no more than a slight amount of free liquor present.

(c) (B) Classification. Canned applesauce that has a reasonably good consistency may be given a score of 16 or 17 points. Canned applesauce that falls into this classification shall not be graded above U.S. Grade B, regardless of the total score for the product (this is a limiting rule). "Reasonably good consistency" has the following meanings with respect to the following styles:

(1) Regular (or comminuted). The product does not flow more than 8.5 centimeters; and there is not more than 1 centimeter free liquor present.

(2) Chunk (or chunky). The product flows not more than 9.5 centimeters; and there may be no more than a moderate amount of free liquor present.

(d) (SStd) Classification. Canned applesauce that fails to meet the requirements of paragraph (c) of this section may be given a score of 0 to 15 points and shall not be graded above Substandard, regardless of the total score for the product (this is a limiting rule).

§ 52.342 Defects.

(a) General. Defects refer to the degree of freedom from particles of seeds, discolored apple particles, peel, carpel tissue, stamens, and other objectionable particles. Compliance with requirements for Defects is determined by the method specified in § 52.347.

(b) Definition of terms-(1) Carpel tissue. The tough and sometimes hard and sharp tissue from the center portion (core) of the apple surrounding the seed cavity.

(2) Stamens. The dark hairlike substances from the blossom end of the apple.

(3) Seed particles. Whole seeds or any portion thereof from the core of the apple,

(4) Discolored apple particles. Apple particles that are discolored by bruise or other means to the extent that they do not blend well with the normal color of the product and are noticeable.

(5) Peel. Apple peel that does not blend well with the normal color of the product and is noticeable or that is tough whether or not it is visually noticeable.

(c) (A) Classification. Canned applesauce that is practically free from defects may be given a score of 18 to 20 points. "Practically free from defects" means that any carpel tissue that may be present is not noticeable upon eating the product and there is present not more than:

(1) Three dark stamens; and

(2) A total of one-half of 1 square centimeter of seed particles, peel, and/or discolored apple particles of which onefourth of 1 square centimeter may be medium and/or dark in color.

(d) (B) Classification. Canned applesauce that is reasonably free from defects may be given a score of 16 or 17 points. Canned applesauce that falls into this classification shall not be graded above

U.S. Grade B, regardless of the total score for the product (this is a limiting rule). "Reasonably free from defects" means that any carpel tissue that may be present is no more than slightly noticeable upon eating the product and there is present not more than:

(1) Five dark stamens; and

(2) A total of one square centimeter of seed particles, peel, and/or discolored apple particles of which one-half of 1 square centimeter may be medium and/ or dark in color.

(e) (SStd) Classification. Canned applesauce that fails to meet the requirements of paragraph (d) of this section may be given a score of 0 to 15 points and shall not be graded above Substandard, regardless of the total score for the product (this is a limiting rule).

§ 52.343 Finish.

(a) General. Finish refers to the texture and tenderness of the apple particles, and with respect to Regular (or comminuted) style, the evenness of division of the apple particles; with respect to Chunk (or chunky) style, the proportion of chunks or pieces of apple in relation to fine apple particles that may be present.

(b) (A) Classification. Canned applesauce that has a good finish may be given a score of 18 to 20 points. "Good finish" means that the apple particles are tender and in addition has the following meanings with respect to the following styles:

(1) Regular (or comminuted). The apple particles are evenly divided, granular to the extent that they are of a crisp texture upon eating; not lumpy; and the product is free from a "pasty” or “salvy" texture.

(2) Chunk (or chunky). There is a high proportion of apple chunks present and any fine apple particles that may be present no more than moderately affects the appearance and/or eating quality of the product.

(c) (B) Classification. Canned applesauce that has a fairly good finish may be given a score of 16 or 17 points. Canned applesauce that falls into this classification shall not be graded above U.S. Grade B, regardless of the total score for the product (this is a limiting rule). "Fairly good" finish means that the apple particles are fairly tender but not hard or mushy, and in addition has the following meanings with respect to the following styles:

(1) Regular (or comminuted). The apple particles are evenly divided; the product may lack granular characteristics, and the product may be slightly "salvy" or "pasty”.

(2) Chunk (or chunky). There is a fairly high proportion of apple chunks present and any fine apple particles that may be present do not seriously affect the appearance and/or eating quality of the product.

(d) (SStd) Classification. Canned applesauce that fails to meet the requirements of paragraph (c) of this section may be given a score of 0 to 15 points and shall not be graded above Substandard, regardless of the total score for the product (this is a limiting rule).

§ 52.344 Flavor.

Flavor refers to the degree of excellence of the natural flavor and aroma of the apple ingredient; to the apparent relationship of acidity to sweetness; to the freedom of undesirable flavors; and with respect to flavored and spiced types, to the flavor balance of the apple ingredient and the flavor or spice ingredients.

(a) (A) Classification. Canned applesauce that possesses a good flavor may be given a score of 18 to 20 points. "Good flavor" means that the product has a distinct, pleasing, and characteristic flavor that is free from flavors due to overripe apples, oxidation, fermentation, caramelization, or ground or musty flavors due to storage or other causes or any other undesirable flavor, and in addition has the following meanings with respect to the following types:

(1) Unsweetened. The product has a good natural sugar-acid balance in that it may be slightly tart or slightly bland but is free from astringent flavors; and it tests not less than 9° Brix, measured as prescribed in § 52.345.

(2) Sweetened. The product has a good sugar-acid balance in that it may range from slightly tart to sweet; is free from astringent flavors; and tests not less than 16.5 Brix, measured as prescribed in § 52.345.

(3) Flavored; spiced. In addition to meeting the flavor requirements for unsweetened or sweetened types, paragraph (a) of this section, as the case may be, the flavor is distinct and characteristic of the added flavoring ingredient or added spice(s) but is not strong.

(b) (B) Classification. Canned applesauce that possesses a reasonably good flavor may be given a score of 16 or 17

points. Canned applesauce that falls into this classification may not be graded above U.S. Grade B, regardless of the total score for the product (this is a limiting rule). "Reasonably good" flavor means that the product may possess flavors due to overripe apples, oxidation, caramelization, or ground or musty flavors due to storage or other causes that are not objectionable but is free from flavors due to fermentation and in addition has the following meanings with respect to the following types:

(1) Unsweetened. The product has a fairly good natural sugar-acid balance in that it may be moderately tart, or it may be bland, or it may be slightly astringent, but not to the extent that it is objectionable; and it tests not less than 9° Brix, measured as prescribed in § 52.345.

(2) Sweetened. The flavor of the product may be tart, is not excessively sweet, or it may be slightly astringent but not to the extent that it is objectionable; and it tests not less than 14.5° Brix, measured as prescribed in § 52.345.

(3) Flavored; spiced. In addition to meeting flavor requirements for unsweetened or sweetened types of paragraph (b) of this section, as the case may be, the flavor derived from the added flavoring ingredient or spice ingredient(s) may be slightly weak or slightly strong but is not objectionable.

(c) (SStd) Classification. Canned applesauce that fails to meet the requirements of paragraph (b) of this section may be given a score of 0 to 15 points and shall not be graded above Substandard, regardless of the total score for the product (this is a limiting rule).

METHODS OF ANALYSIS

§ 52.345 Soluble solids determination. The soluble solids content of canned applesauce is the soluble solids as determined by refractometric method prescribed in "Official Methods of Analysis of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists", 10th edition; page 309, section 20.016, except that no correction is made for water-insoluble solids. The soluble solids is expressed as “degrees Brix".

§ 52.346 Determination of consistency. (a) Equipment.

(1) USDA Flow Sheet No. 1.

(2) Cylinder-3 inches inside diameter; 314 inches high.

(3) Scraper.

The USDA Flow Sheet No. 1, cylinder, and scraper may be obtained from the licensed supplier:

Art and Industrial Lamination Corp., Room 202, 8425 Hilltop Road, Fairfax, Va. 22030.

(b) Procedure. (1) Stir contents of container thoroughly, with contents at approximately room temperature;

(2) Place the clean, dry cylinder exactly over the center of the flow sheetplaced on a flat surface under good lighting conditions-by aligning the inside of the cylinder with the periphery of the center circle;

(3a) Transfer the well-mixed sample to the cylinder so that the applesauce will fill the cylinder to level full; or

(3b) In the case of No. 10 containers, first transfer a well-mixed sample to a 600 ml. beaker or other suitable container (No. 303 or No. 21⁄2 can) sufficient to fill the beaker or container before transferring the applesauce to the cylinder as stated in subparagraph (3a) of this paragraph;

(4) Remove any excess applesauce with a spatula or other suitable instrument, leveling off the top. (Do not remove any free liquor that accumulates around the bottom of the cylinder);

(5) With a smooth, even motion, lift the cylinder straight up, permitting the applesauce to spread freely;

(6) Permit the mound of applesauce thus formed to stand for exactly 1 minute;

(7) Determine the extent of flow by averaging the readings taken at the four quadrants of the flow sheet. (Readings are taken at the edge of the applesauce exclusive of any free liquor);

(8) In the case of Regular (or comminuted) style, determine the amount of free liquor, if any, by measuring the liquor from the edge of the applesauce at the four quadrants and averaging these measurements.

§ 52.347 Examination for defects.

(a) Sample preparation. (1) In the case of Regular (or comminuted) style, with the use of the spreader, spread the sample unit of applesauce used for evaluating consistency (as specified in § 52.346(b)) out over the flow sheet in an even layer holding the spreader in a vertical position in order to maintain an even, maximum depth permitted by the spreader.

(2) In the case of chunky style, spread the sample unit out in as shallow and

bactericidal treatment. Insofar as is practicable, all such equipment shall be made of corrosion-resistant material that will not adversely affect the processed product by chemical action or physical contact. Such equipment shall be kept in good repair and sanitary condition.

§ 52.86 Operations and operating procedures.

(a) All operations in the receiving, transporting, holding, segregating, preparing, processing, packaging and storing of processed products and ingredients, used as aforesaid, shall be strictly in accord with clean and sanitary methods and shall be conducted as rapidly as practicable and at temperatures that will not tend to cause (1) any material increase in bacterial or other micro-organic content, or (2) any deterioration or contamination of such processed products or ingredients thereof. Mechanical adjustments or practices which may cause contamination of foods by oil, dust, paint, scale, fumes, grinding materials, decomposed food, filth, chemicals, or other foreign materials shall not be conducted during any manufacturing or processing operation.

(b) All processed products and ingredients thereof shall be subjected to continuous inspection throughout each manufacturing or processing operation. All processed products which are not manufactured or prepared in accordance with the requirements contained in §§ 52.81 through 52.87 or are not fit for human food shall be removed and segregated prior to any further processing operation.

(c) All ingredients used in the manufacture or processing of any processed product shall be clean and fit for human food.

(d) The methods and procedures employed in the receiving, segregating, handling, transporting, and processing of ingredients in the plant shall be adequate to result in a satisfactory processed product. Such methods and procedures include, but are not limited to, the following requirement:

(1) Containers, utensils, pans, and buckets used for the storage or transporting of partially processed food ingredients shall not be nested unless rewashed before each use;

(2) Containers which are used for holding partially processed food ingredients shall not be stacked in such man

ner as to permit contamination of the partially processed food ingredients;

(3) Packages or containers for processed products shall be clean when being filled with such products; and all reasonable precautions shall be taken to avoid soiling or contaminating the surface of any package or container liner which is, or will be, in direct contact with such products. If, to assure a satisfactory finished product, changes in methods and procedures are required by the Administrator, such changes shall be effectuated as soon as practicable.

§ 52.87 Personnel; health.

In addition to such other requirements as may be prescribed by the Administrator with respect to persons in any room or compartment where exposed ingredients are prepared, processed, or otherwise handled, the following shall be complied with:

(a) No person affected with any communicable disease (including, but not being limited to, tuberculosis) in a transmissible stage shall be permitted;

(b) Infections or cuts shall be covered with rubber gloves or other suitable covering;

(c) Clean, suitable clothing shall be worn;

(d) Hands shall be washed immediately prior to starting work and each resumption of work after each absence from the work station;

(e) Spitting, and the use of tobacco are prohibited; and

(f) All necessary precautions shall be taken to prevent the contamination of processed products and ingredients thereof with any foreign substance (including, but not being limited to perspiration, hair, cosmetics, and medicaments).

Subpart-United States Standards for

Grades of Canned Apple Juice

SOURCE: $ 52.301 to 52.312 appear at 18 F.R. 7921, Dec. 9, 1953, unless otherwise noted.

PRODUCT DESCRIPTION, STYLES, AND GRADES § 52.301 Product description.

Canned apple juice is the unfermented liquid prepared from the first pressing juice of properly prepared sound, fresh apples, excluding the liquid obtained from any additional residual apple material. Such apple juice is prepared without any concentration, without dilution, or without the addition of sweet

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