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PREFACE.

In 1884, on the invitation of the Historical Board, I gave a course of lectures on India before the University of Cambridge. They formed the basis of the present work, but they have been much altered and ampli

fied.

I have to thank Sir William HUNTER for allowing me to use for this book the map prepared for his * Imperial Gazetteer of India.'

JOIN STRACHEY.

October 1888.

CONTENTS.

LECTURE II.

THE CONSTITUTION OF THE GOVERNMENT IN INDIA AND AT HOME.

Presidencies and provinces - The Presidency of Bengal-First constitu-

tion of the Government–The Regulating Act of George III.-

Hastings and his Council-Changes between 1773 and 1833–Re-

newal of the East India Company's Charter in 1833– The Governor-

General of India in Council—Separation of the North-Western

Provinces from Bengal-Renewal of the Charter in 1853-A Lieu-

tenant-Governor appointed for Bengal—The mutiny of the Native

army--Transfer of the Government to the Crown-The Indian

Councils Act of 1861—The existing constitution of the Supreme and

Provincial Governments—The Governor-General in Council—The

Indian legislatures—Their powers—The Governments of Madras

and Bombay—The Lieutenant-Governors of Bengal, the North-

Western Provinces, and Punjab—The Chief Commissioners of

Burma, the Central Provinces, and Assam-Former cumbrous mode

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LECTURE V.

PUBLIC WORKS—THE PUBLIC DEBT-FAMINE INSURANCE.

Mr. J. S. Mill on the duties of Governments_Fanines in India–Neces-

sity for roads, railways, and canals--Absence of roads under Native

Governments—Their condition under the East India Company-

-Measures taken by Lord Dalhousie—Railway construction-

Creation of Public Works Department—Progress up to 1887–Irri-

gation works in Northern India-Canals of Mohammedan sovereigns

-The Ganges and other canals—Their value-Irrigation works in

Central and Southern India and in Sindh-Expenditure on railways

and irrigation works—The manner of providing funds—Guaranteed

companies—Policy of borrowing for investment in public works-

Barracks and hospitals for British troops— The Public Debt-Divi.

sion into Ordinary and Public Works Debt-Increase of debt owing

to the Mutinies of 1857—Subsequent decrease of Ordinary Debt-

Investments of the Government in railways—Railways constructed

by guaranteed companies—The financial results of the policy of

borrowing for public works—Expenditure from revenue on public

works-Insurance against famino-The policy adopted . . 120

LECTURE VI.

THE LAWS AND THE ADMINISTRATION OF JUSTICE.

The foundations of the existing judicial system-Regulations and Acts

-The laws and the courts before the transfer of the Government

to the Crown-- Regulation and Non-Regulation Provinces— The

Indian Law Commission-Lord Macaulay and the Penal Code --The

progress of codification-Sir Henry Maine on the Indian Codes -

Sir James Stephen on the Indian Penal Code The establishment of

High Courts—The Code of Criminal Procedure-Constitution of the

Criminal Courts—Criminal jurisdiction over European British sub-

jects—Changes in the law in 1884—The codification of the Civil Law

-Hindu and Mohammedan law-Chapters of the Civil Code already

enacted—Simplification and consolidation of the law–The Code of

Civil Procedure—Constitution of the Civil Courts—Civil jurisdic-

tion over Europeans—The Black Act of 1836-Lord Macaulay-

The Native judges—Defects in the existing judicial system • 143

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