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Exceptional character of Bengal and its people—The Bengal Lieutenant-

Governorship—Natural features, area, and population-Products

Scenery-Climate-Cities—Art- Hindus and Mohammedans-

Lord Macaulay's description of the Bengalis—Their extraordinary

effeminacy—The Permanent Settlement-Zemindars and ryots—The

consequences of the Permanent Settlement-Loss of public revenue

- Confiscation of the rights of the peasantry-Weakness of the

Government-Absence of records of agricultural rights-Former

constitution of the Bengal Government—Its inefficiency-A separate

Government constituted - Improvements in the administration-

Difficulty of problems to be solved-Great increase in rentals of

the zemindars and loss by the ryots—Consequent injustice to other

provinces --Maintenance of conditions of the Permanent Settle-

ment-Claims of the zemindars for exemption from taxation - The

proper remedies for existing evils—Rates on the land-Changes in the

Bengal rent law-Condition of the people in Behar— The Tenancy

Act—Effects of English education—Attitude of the English-speak-

ing Bengális-Political agitation—Neglect of social questions-

Reasons for avoiding discussion—The employment of Natives in the

public service—The principles to be observed and avoided—Poli-

tical hypocrisy-The duty of maintaining our dominion-Offices to

be retained by Englishmen—. The so-called Natives of India often as

much foreigners as Englishmen—The manlier races of India cannot

be ruled through Bengális-Conclusion—The results of British

government–The popularity of our government–Lord Lawrence's

opinion-Reasons why our government cannot be popular– The

principles on which our government must be carried on.

328

INDIA.

LECTURE I.

12

INTRODUCTORY.

ENGLISH IGNORANCE REGARDING INDIA-INDIA NOT A COUNTRY BUT A

CONTINENT-THE NAME HINDUSTAN-THE GREAT DIFFERENCES BE-
TWEEN THE COUNTRIES OF INDIA-BENGAL AND NORTHERN INDIA-NO
COUNTRIES OR NATIONS OF THE EUROPEAN TYPE-SIR ALFRED LYALL'S

ASIATIC STUDIES '-NO UNITY IN INDIA, PHYSICAL, POLITICAL, SOCIAL,
OR RELIGIOUS-PROFESSOR SEELEY ON THE CONQUEST OF INDIA--THE
ENGLISH NOT FOREIGNERS—THE BRITISH GOVERNMENT-THE GROWTH
OF A SINGLE INDIAN NATIONALITY IMPOSSIBLE-DANGER OF GENERALI-
SATIONS THE MAIN FEATURES OF INDIAN GEOGRAPHY-THE INDO-
GANGETIC PLAIN—THE COUNTRIES INCLUDED IN IT-PRESIDENCIES AND
PROVINCES---THE TABLE-LAND OF CENTRAL AND SOUTHERN INDIA-AREA
AND POPULATION OF BRITISH PROVINCES AND NATIVE STATES-PHYSICAL
CAUSES OF THE GREAT DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THE COUNTRIES OF INDIA
-SINDH AND BENGAL-METEOROLOGY-THE MONSOONS---THE PERIODICAL
RAINS AND THEIR DISTRIBUTION-MR. BLANFORD ON THE CONTRASTS
BETWEEN INDIAN CLIMATES—THE HIMÁLAYA-ITS INFLUENCE ON INDIA

ITS GEOGRAPHY-THE GREAT RIVERS OF INDIA-THE GANGES AND GOGRA-BRITISH AND NATIVE HIMÁLAYAN DISTRICTS—THE KUMKON HIMALAYA-SCENERY OF THE HIMÁLAYA.

Sir Henry MAINE, referring to the ignorance regarding India which prevails even among educated men in England, has declared his conviction that for one who desires to unveil the stores of interest which India contains, the first necessity is that he should not shrink from speaking on matters which appear to him too elementary to deserve discussion, that he should sympathise

B

with an ignorance which few felicitous efforts have yet been made to dispel, and that he should remember that the language of administration and government in India has become so highly specialised and technical that it forms an imperfect medium for the communication of ideas to Englishmen. Believing this, I make no apology for beginning these lectures with some very elementary matters, and I ask at starting this elementary question, What is India? What does this name India really signify? The answer that has more than once been given sounds paradoxical, but it is true. There is no such country, and this is the first and most essential fact about India that can be learned.

India is a name which we give to a great region including a multitude of different countries. There is no general Indian term that corresponds to it. The name Hindustan is never applied in India, as we apply it, to the whole of the Indian continent; it signifies the country north of the Narbada River, and especially the northern portion of the basins of the Ganges and Jumna.

I have been told by intelligent Natives of India who have visited Europe that they could see little difference between the European countries through which they had travelled ; the languages being equally unintelligible offered to them no marks of distinction; the cities, the costumes, the habits of life, the manners and customs of the people, so far as a passing oriental traveller could judge, seemed much the same in England, in France, and in Italy. The differences between the countries of India, between, for instance, Bengal and the Punjab, or between Madras and Rájputána, seemed to them, on the other hand, immense, and beyond comparison greater than those existing between the countries

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