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the world he begins to assume foreign titles to respect. He calls himself Khán, or Shaikh, or even Saiyad, a descendant of the Prophet.

In the Punjab,' writes Mr. Beames, where the process of conversion has been carried out on a very large scale, there used to be a proverbial couplet to this effect, supposed to be spoken by a convert, Last I was a weaver,

this

year I am a Shaikh, Next year, if grain is dear, I shall be a Saiyad, meaning that if he sold his crops well he should be wealthy enough to assume this latter title.'!

The chief classes of Mohammedans claiming foreign descent are the Saiyad, Moghal, Pathán, and Shaikh. Among these the Shaikhs are the most numerous, but the great majority of them are the descendants of Hindu converts. Politically, the Patháns, people of Afghán origin, are the most important. During the Mohammedan dynasties, and especially while the empire was breaking up, they poured into India as adventurers and soldiers of fortune, ready to sell their swords to the highest bidder. Their unscrupulous violence and courage gave them great influence, and they were the only Mohammedan foreigners who permanently established themselves in the plains of India in large numbers. These were the people, who, under their Indian name of Rohillas, fought against us in the time of Warren Hastings. The story of their cruel extermination has become an accepted fact of history, but, as I have already said, it is fabulous.

Recollections of their old dominion, and the splendid monuments which testify to the magnificence of their former sovereigns, have exercised a powerful influence in keeping alive among the higher classes of Mohammedans in Northern India feelings of pride in their religion and race; but their social and political importance has diminished since the mutinies of 1857, when many of their chief families became implicated in rebellion, and suffered in consequence. They still, however, bold a more influential position in the country than their mere numbers would give them ; they are more generally energetic than Hindus, and possess greater independence of character. In perfection of manner and courtesy a Mohammedan gentleman of Northern India has no superior.

1 Elliot's Races of the North-Western Provinces, vol. i. p. 185.

It is not possible to say what proportion of the 50,000,000 Mohammedans may be held to represent the classes once dominant in India. Sir George Campbell, whose knowledge entitles him to speak with unusual authority, thinks that on an outside estimate we may assume them to be 5,000,000. Whatever be the actual number, it is comparatively small, and this is the only section of the Indian Mohammedans which at the present time has much political importance. It doubtless includes many who feel for us and Government a deep and fanatical dislike, but it also includes a large number of men who, perhaps above all others in India, deserve our confidence and respect. It is a mistake to suppose that the better classes of Mohammedans are as a rule disloyal; there are no people to whom such a term is less applicable. It is remarkable that English education, which not unfrequently seems to develop and bring into prominence the least admirable qualities of the feebler races of Hindus, seldom leads to such results among Mohammedans. Education does not dispose the more vigorous Mohammedan to indulge in the foolish political agitation, the

our

thinly veiled sedition, and the scurrility which have charms for the effeminate Bengáli ; it makes him more manly, independent, and self-reliant, and a more loyal citizen.

The fears that are sometimes expressed that we may see in India a general outburst of Mohammedan fanaticism, and a simultaneous rising of millions of Mohammedans against our power, seem to me, therefore, not only groundless but absurd. So far as any elements of political danger from the Mohammedans exist, they are completely nullified by the fact that the feelings of all true Mohammedans towards idolatrous Hindus are far more hostile than towards Christians, and any religious outburst on their part would be met by Hindus with equal animosity and with greater strength. The truth plainly is that the existence side by side of these hostile creeds is one of the strong points in our political position in India. The better classes of Mohammedans are already a source to us of strength and not of weakness, and a continuously wise policy might, I believe, make them strong and important supporters of our power. They constitute a small but energetic minority of the population, whose political interests are identical with ours, and who, under no conceivable circumstances, would prefer Hindu dominion to our own.

I have laid much stress on the fact that the majority of Indian Mohammedans differ little from Hindus; but I must add that there has undoubtedly been a growing tendency during the last half-century towards the purification of their faith from Hindu superstitions and from Brahmanical influence. We may hope that with the increase of knowledge and civilisation this progress towards a nobler religion will continue. It has been

Q

said that in some parts of India Mohammedanism is at the present time making many converts.

It is not possible to give statistics that have any value, but I have no reason to believe that any considerable change in this direction is going on.

227

LECTURE IX.

AN INDIAN PROVINCE (continued.)

AGRICULTURE IN NORTHERN INDIA-ERRONEOUS BELIEFS REGARDING CON

SUMPTION OF RICE IN NDIA-SIR HENRY MAINE ON MR. BUCKLE'S GENERALISATIONS—MILLETS THE CHIEF FOOD OF THE PEOPLE-THE AGRICULTURAL YEAR-THE BEGINNING OF THE RAINY SEASON--THE

SUMMER AND AUTUMNAL CROPS-THE WINTER CROPS-IRRIGATION FROM CANALS AND WELLS-ROTATION OF CROPS_TEA CULTIVATION-THE LAND REVENUE-TENURES OF LAND-SETTLEMENTS OF THE LAND REVENUE IN

SOUTHERN AND NORTHERN INDIA-VILLAGE COMMUNITIES-CLASSES OF

CULTIVATORS-AMOUNT AND INCIDENCE OF THE LAND REVENUE-THE

SYSTEM OF SETTLEMENT IN NORTHERN INDIA—THE TRIGONOMETRICAL, TO POGRAPHICAL, AND REVENUE SURVEYS—CADASTRAL SURVEYS-PRINCIPLES OF ASSESSMENT-THE SETTLEMENT OFFICER-THE RECORD OF

RIGHTS-VILLAGE ACCOUNTANTS-MAINTENANCE OF ACCURATE RECORDS

RECENT REFORMS IN THE SYSTEM OF SETTLEMENTS-REPORTS OF SETTLE

MENT OFFICERS- THE GREAT VALUE OF SURVEY AND SETTLEMENT OPERATIONS-SETTLEMENTS IN OUDH–THE TÁLUKDÁRS-LORD CANNING's P ROCLAMATION-CONFISCATION OF THE RIGHTS OF VILLAGE PROPRIETORS AND CULTIVATORS-MEASURES TAKEN BY LORD LAWRENCE-RECENT IMPROVEMENTS-CONDITION OF OUDH-CREATION OF AGRICULTURAL DEPARTMENTS-IMPORTANCE OF THEIR DUTIES.

CONTINUING my sketch of matters of interest in the North-Western Provinces, which I have taken as my example of an Indian province, I shall speak in this lecture of subjects connected with agriculture, the greatest of Indian industries.

During the winter, a large part of Northern India has a climate as cold as that of spring in the south of Europe, and the time between October and April is sufficiently long to bring to maturity many of the chief agricultural products of the temperate zone. During the summer months, on the other hand, the

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