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telles ! Turn — turn your eyes on the functionaries, to whom we owe these vanities. This one has passed from misery to opulence; that one, from obscurity to splendor. Another has built for himself sumptuous palaces, which look down upon the edifices of the State. Indeed, the more the public fortunes have declined, the more have theirs ascended. Tell us the meaning of these contrasts! Why is it, that formerly all prospered, while now all is in jeopardy? It is because formerly the People, itself, daring to wage war, was the master of its functionaries, the sovereign dispenser of all favors. It is because individual citizens were then glad to receive from the People honors, magistracies, benefits. How are the times changed ! All favors are in the gift of our functionaries ; everything is under their control; while you you, the People ! — enervated in your habits, mutilated in your means, and weakened in your allies, stand like 80 many supernumeraries and lackeys, too happy if your worthy chiefs distribute to you the fund for the theatre — if they throw to you a meagre pittance! And — last degree of baseness ! the hand which thus makes largess to you of your own! Do they not imprison you within your own walls
, beguile you to your ruin, tame you and fashion you to their yoke? Never, O! never can a manly pride and a noble courage impel men, subjected to vile and unworthy actions ! The life is necessarily the image of the heart. And your degeneracy - by Heaven, I should not be surprised if I, in charging it home upon you, exposed myself, rather than those who have brought you to it, to your resentment! To be candid, frankness of speech does not every day gain the entrance of your ears; and that you suffer it now, may well be matter of astonishment !
3. A DEMOCRACY HATEFUL TO PHILIP. - 1d. Original Translation. There are persons among you, O Athenians, who think to confound a speaker by asking, "What, then, is to be done?” To which I might answer : · Nothing that you are doing — everything that you leave undone!” And it would be a just and a true reply. But I will be more explicit ; and may these men, so ready to question, be equally ready to act! In the first place, Athenians, admit the incontestable fact, that Philip has broken your treaties, - that he has declared war against you.
Let us have no more crimination and recrimination on this point! And then, recognize the fact, that he is the mortal enemy of Athens, — of its very soil, — of all within its walls, - ay, of those even who most flatter themselves that they are high in his good graces. For, what Philip most dreads and abhors is our liberty — our Democratic system. For the destruction of that, all his snares are laid, all his projects are shaped! And in this is he not consistent? He is well aware that, though he should subjugate all the rest of Greece, his conquest would be insecure, while your Democracy stands. He knows that, should he experience one of those reverses to which the lot of humanity is so liable, it would be into your arms that all those Nations, now forcibly held under his yoke, would rush. Is there a Tyrant to be driven back ?- Athens is in the field! Is there a People to be enfranchised ? — Lo, Athens, prompt to aid ! What wonder, then, that Philip should be impatient while Athenian liberty is a spy upon his evil days ? Be sure, O my countrymen, that he is your irreconcilable foe; that it is against Athens that he musters and disposes all his armaments; against Athens that all his schemes are laid.
What, then, ought you, as wise men, convinced of these truths, to do? You ought to shake off your fatal lethargy, contribute according to your means, summon your allies to contribute, and take measures to retain the troops already under arms; so that, if Philip has an army prepared to attack and subjugate all the Greeks, you may also have one ready to succor and to save them. Tell me not of the trouble and expense which this will involve. I grant it all. But consider the dangers that menace you, and how much you will be the gainers by engaging heartily, at once, in the general cause. Indeed, should some God assure you that, however inactive and unconcerned you might remain, yet, in the end, you should not be molested by Philip, still it would be ignominious, – be witness, Heaven! - it would be beneath you — beneath the dignity of your
State — beneath the glory of your ancestors to sacrifice, to your own selfish repose, the interests of all the rest of Greece. Rather would I perish than recommend such a course! Let some other man urge it upon you, if he will ; and listen to him, if you can. But, if my sentiments are yours, - if you foresee, as I do, that the more we leave Philip to extend his conquests, the more we are fortifying an enemy, whom, sooner or later, we must cope with, why do you hesitate? What wait you? When will you put forth your strength? Wait you
the constraint of necessity ? What necessity do you wait? Can there be a greater for freemen than the prospect of dishonor ? Do you wait for that? It is here already; it presses it weighs on us now. Now, did I say? Long since — long since, was it before us, face to face. True, there is still another necessity in reserve — the necessity of slaves — blows and stripes! Wait you for them? The Gods forbid ! The very words, in this place, are an indignity!
4. VENALITY THE RUIN OF GREECE. — Id. Original Translalion. If ever, 0 men of Athens, the People of Greece felt the rigor of your rule, or of that of Sparta, their masters were at least their countrymen. But where is our just indignation against Philip and his usurpations ? — Philip, who is no Greek, and no way allied to Greece, Philip, who is not even a Barbarian of illustrious origin, but a miserable Macedonian, born in a country where not even a decent slave could be procured! And yet, has he not exhausted his resources of outrage against us? Without mentioning the Grecian cities which he has sacked, does he not take it upon himself to preside at the Pythian games, a celebration exclusively national ? And, if absent himself, does he not delegate his slaves to award the crowns ? Master of Thermopylæ, and of all the passes of Greece, does he not hold these posts by his garrisons and foreign troops? Does he not place governors over Thessaly, at his pleasure ? Has he not wrested Echinus from the Thebans? Is he not, at this moment, on his march against Byzantium — Byzantium, the ally of Athens ! And if such is his audacity towards collective Greece, what will it be when he has mastered us all in detail ?
And now, why is all this? For, not without a cause could Greece, once so jealous of freedom, now be resigned to servitude. The cause is here. Once, O Athenians, in the hearts of all our People, a sentiment presided, which is paramount no more; a sentiment which triumphed over Persian gold, and maintained Greece free, and invincible by land and sea ; but the loss of that sentiment has brought down ruin, and left the country in the dust. What was it - this senti. ment, so powerful ? Was it the result of any subtle policy of State ? No: it was a universal hatred for the bribed traitors, in the pay of those Powers, seeking to subdue or dishonor Greece! Venality was a capital offence, and punished with the extremest rigor. Pardon, palliation, were not thought of. And so, orators and generals could not with impunity barter those favorable conjunctures which Fortune oftentimes presents to negligence and inactivity, against vigilance and vigor. The public concord, the general hatred and distrust of Tyrants and Barbarians, all the guarantees of liberty, were inaccessible to the power of gold. But now all these are offered for sale in the open market! And, in exchange, we have an importation of morals which are desolating and destroying Greece. What do they exhibit ? Envy, for the recipient of base bribes; derision, should he confess his crime; pardon, should he be convicted; and resentment towards his accuser! - in a word, all the laxities which engender corruption.
In vessels, in troops, in revenues, in the various resources of war, in all that constitutes the ength of a State, we are richer than ever before; but all these advantages are paralyzed, crushed, by an infamous traffic. And all this you behold with your own eyes,
my testimony in regard to it is quite superfluous !
5. DEMOSTHENES DENOUNCED. - Æschines on the Crown. Original Translation.
Wuen Demosthenes boasts to you, O Athenians, of his Democratic zeal, examine, not his harangues, but his life; not what he professes to be, but what he really is; - redoubtable in words, impotent in deeds; plausible in speech, perfidious in action. As to his courage
has he not himself, before the assembled People, confessed his poltroonery? By the laws of Athens, the man who refuses to bear arms, the coward, the deserter of his post in battle, is excluded from all share in the public deliberations denied admission to our religious rites, and rendered incapable of receiving the honor of a crown. Yet now it is proposed to crown a man whom your laws expressly disqualify !
Which, think you, was the more worthy citizen, — Themistocles, who commanded your fleet when you vanquished the Persian at Salámis, or Demosthenes the deserter ? Miltiades, who conquered the Barbarians at Marăthon, or this hireling traitor ? — Aristides, surnamed the Just, or Demosthenes, who merits a far different surname? By all the Gods of Olympus, it is a profanation to mention in the same breath this monster and those great men! Let himn cite, if he can, one among them all to whom a crown was decreed. And was Athens ungrateful? No! She was magnanimous; and those uncrowned citizens were worthy of Athens. They placed their glory, not in the letter of a decree, but in the remembrance of a country, of which they had merited well, — in the living, imperishable remembrance !
And now a popular orator the mainspring of our calamities — a deserter from the field of battle, a deserter from the city — claims of us a crown, exacts the honor of a proclamation! Crown him? Proclaim his worth? My countrymen, this would not be to exalt Demosthenes, but to degrade yourselves, — to dishonor those brave men who perished for you in battle. Crown him! Shall his recreancy win what was denied to their devotion? This would indeed be to insult the memory of the dead, and to paralyze the emulation of the living!
When Demosthenes tells you that, as ambassador, he wrested Byzantium from Philip, — that, as orator, he roused the Acarnanians, and subdued the Thebans, - let not the braggart impose on you.
He flatters himself that the Athenians are simpletons enough to believe him, — as if in him they cherished the very genius of persuasion, instead of a vile calumniator. But, when, at the close of his defence, he shall summon to his aid his accomplices in corruption, imagine then, O Athenians, that you behold, at the foot of this tribune, from which I now address you, the great benefactors of the Republic arrayed against them. Solon, who environed our liberty with the noblest institutions, - Solon, the philosopher, the mighty legislator, — with that benignity so characteristic, implores you not to pay more regard to the honeyed phrases of Demosthenes than to your own oaths, your own laws. Aristides, who fixed for Greece the apportionment of her contributions, and whose orphan daughters were dowered by the People, is moved to indignation at this prostitution of justice, and exclaims: "Think on
Arthmius of Zelia brought gold from Media into Greece, and, for the act, barely escaped death in banishment; and now Demosthenes, who has not merely brought gold, but who received it as the price of treachery, and still retains it, Demosthenes it is unblushingly proposed to invest with a golden crown!” From those who fell at Marathon and at Plataa from Themistocles
from the very sepulchres of your ancestors - issues the protesting groan of condemnation and rebuke!
6. EXORDICM. - Demosthenes on the Crown. Lord Brougham's Translation.
Same authorities state that Æschines was born 397 years B. C.; and others, that he was born 389 B. C., and was only four years the senior of Demosthenes. During the war with Philip, Æschines became a strenuous advocate of compromise and peace - Demosthenes being as resolutely in favor of active resistance. After the battle of Cheronæa, Demosthenes was intrusted with the repairing of the fortifications of the city. The cost of the work was thirteen talents, of which he paid three from his own purse. Ctesiphon proposed that a golden crown should be voted him. Æschines maintained that, under the circumstances, the proposal was illegal, and brought a suit nominally against Ctesiphon, but really to crush' Demosthenes. From various causes, the trial was delayed eight years. At last it came on. The accuser's speech was a great effort. But Demosthenes was irresistible. “ The greatest oration of the greatest of orators," is the phrase which Lord Brougham applies to the Oration on the Crown. Ctesiphon was acquitted by a considerable majority. Eschines went into banishment at Rhodes, where he set up a school of rhetoric. He once read the oration of Demosthenes to his pupils. Upon their expressing their aulmiration of it, he said, “What would you have thought, had you heard the lion himself ?"
LET me begin, Men of Athens, by imploring, of all the Heavenly Powers, that the same kindly sentiments which I have, throughout my public life, cherished towards this country and each one of you, may now by you be shown towards me in the present contest! In two respects my adversary plainly has the advantage of me. First, we have not the same interests at stake : it is by no means the same thing for me to forfeit your esteem, and for Æschỉnes, an unprovoked volunteer, to fail in his impeachment. My other disadvantage is, the natural
proneness of men to lend a pleased attention to invective and accusation, but to give little heed to him whose theme is his own vindication. To my adversary, therefore, falls the part which ministers to your gratification, while to me there is only left that which, I may almost say, is distasteful to all. And yet, if I do not speak of myself and my own conduct, I shall appear defenceless against his charges, and without proof that my honors were well earned. This, therefore, I must do; but it shall be with moderation. And bear in mind that the blame of my dwelling on personal topics must justly rest upon him who has instituted this personal Impeachment.
At least, my Judges, you will admit that this question concerns me as much as Ctesiphon, and justifies on my part an equal anxiety. To be stripped of any possession, and more especially by an enemy, is grievous to bear; but to be robbed of your confidence and esteem,of all possessions the most precious, — is indeed intolerable. Such, then, being my stake in this cause, I conjure you all to give ear to my defence against these charges, with that impartiality which the laws enjoin, those laws first given by Solon, and which he fixed, not only by engraving them on brazen tables, but by the sanction of the oaths you take when sitting in judgment; because he perceived that, the accuser being armed with the advantage of speaking first, the accused can have no chance of resisting his charges, unless you, his Julges, keeping the oath sworn before Heaven, shall receive with favor the defence which comes last, and, lending an equal ear to both parties, shall thus make up your minds upon the whole of the case.
But, on this day, when I am about to render up an account, as it should seem, of my whole life, both public and private, I would again, as in the outset, implore the Gods, and in your presence pour out to