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"from piracy and highway robberies to suicide and the divinity of Christ."

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A Spy. The release from prison came directly from the government, which desired Defoe's aid. The manner in

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which he rendered this aid laid him liable to misunderstanding at the time, and has proved a stumbling-block to friendly biographers since. However much we may be disposed to give a favorable name to his position, we are forced at last to admit that he was a spy. Such service may be at times. indispensable and even patriotic; but it does not appear that Defoe was always actuated by high motives.

Publication of "Robinson Crusoe.". self almost as late in life as did Swift. the pamphleteer, the poet of the

Defoe found him. Defoe the journalist, populace, would call forth

small space in the his

THE

LIFE

AND

STRANGE SURPRIZING

ADVENTURES

OF

ROBINSON CRUSOE
Of TORK, MARINER:

Who lived Eight and Twenty Years,
all alone in an un-inhabited land on the
Coaft of AMERICA, near the Mouth of
the Great River of OROONOQUES

Having been caft on Shore by Shipwreck, where-
in all the Men perifhed but himself.
WITH

Ah Account how he was at laft as ftrangely deli-
ver'd by PYRATES.

Written by Himself.

LONDON:

Printed for W. TAYLOR at the Smp in Pater-Nofter
Row. MDCCXIX.

FACSIMILE TITLE-PAGE OF ROBINSON
CRUSOE, FIRST EDITION, 1719.
(Widener Memorial Library, Harvard
University.)

tory of English litera

ture. In 1719, however, at the age of sixty, he published The Life and Adventures of Robinson Crusoe of York, Mariner, by which he may be said to have founded the modern novel, and thereby secured for himself an illustrious place in not only England's, but the world's, literature.

Secret of Its Power. - It would be unreasonable to give a summary of Robinson Crusoe. The story of the English sailor who, wrecked and cast ashore on a desert island, makes for himlives in reasonable conhas been a universal

self all the necessaries of life and tentment for about thirty years, favorite for two centuries. In the preface we learn that "the Editor believes the thing to be a just history

of fact;" and as such it has been read by countless thousands.

That a man should have had such an experience would doubtless have seemed quite improbable to Defoe's contemporaries, or even to the young folks since, who accept it on the theory that "faith is believing things you know aren't so." But when the adventures are narrated by a definite person, who had a definite life-history, and who narrates the adventures as having happened to him, the result is much more convincing. It is to the perfect simplicity, naturalness, and straightforwardness of the narrative that Robinson Crusoe owes its lasting power.

Other Stories by Defoe. - Defoe followed Robinson Crusoe with other adventure" stories Moll Flanders, Colonel Jack, Captain Singleton. These deal with characters. from the lower ranks of society, thieves, pirates, and such; and while no one rises to the level of Robinson Crusoe in interest or art, all have in some degree the same characteristics that have given this book so long a life.

Last Years. For some years following the publication of his masterpiece, during which he wrote many works of many kinds besides the stories named above, Defoe seems to have been highly prosperous. About 1726 his fortune appears to have changed; and though the circumstances of his remaining five years and of his death are rather obscure, he certainly did not die in physical or mental comfort. He continued writing, however, almost to the end; and the complete list of his works numbers over two hundred and fifty.

RICHARD STEELE, 1672-1729; JOSEPH ADDISON, 1672-1719

A Question of Precedence? The names of two writers of the Augustan age invariably come together in one's

mind

Richard Steele and Joseph Addison. To the second is all but universally assigned the higher place in our literature; yet without the incentive supplied by Steele, Addison would not have been sure of a place among writers of the first rank. The fame of both rests on their productions in the field of the periodical essay; more specifically, of the character-essay. Now their first venture in this line, The Tatler, was conceived and carried out by Steele, Addison contributing a number of essays at Steele's request; and Sir Roger de Coverley, the lovable old knight so closely associated with Addison's name, originated in Steele's brain.

Perhaps it is idle to call either superior to the other. In view, however, of the fact that from Macaulay's time to the present Addison has generally been magnified at the expense of Steele, the credit due to the latter's invention should be recorded. Says one great voice in dissent from the chorus: "While Steele might under very inferior conditions have produced the Tatler and Spectator without Addison, it is highly improbable that Addison, as an essayist, would have existed without Steele." 1

Although it is well-nigh impossible to consider the work of these two apart, it is possible and desirable to record separately the chief events of their lives. Each will, of course, at times invade the other's narrative.

Ireland, London, Oxford, the Army. - Steele was Addison's elder by three months. He was born in Dublin, and certainly inherited more personal qualities from his Irish mother than from his English father. The first really important experience of his life was his entrance at the Charterhouse School, London, at the age of twelve; for it was there that two years later he made the acquaintance of Addison. From Charter

1 Dennis, The Age of Pope, page 125.

house, Steele went to Merton College, Oxford; and though he remained four years, he was not graduated. The call of the war with France was too strong; and instead of taking a degree at Oxford, he enlisted in the life-guards. A few years later a commission came to him; and he was always thereafter referred to as "Captain Dick."

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Beginning of the Periodical Essay. After writing a religious work called The Christian Hero, which gave him a

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reputation for piety neither desired nor deserved, he wrote a number of plays. In 1701 he began his career in the line of work which was to make him famous - journalism, becoming editor of The Gazette. Seeing possibilities in periodical writing, but finding government control irksome, he started The Tatler in 1709. Addison contributed forty-two of the 271 numbers of this journal, which appeared three times a week for nearly two years. Two months after the discontinuance of The Tatler, The Spectator appeared under the

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