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$ 55. Twofold office of Logic

159

$ 56. What is truth? Truth is the form of our intelligence.—Truth and

being synonymous terms. Criticism

159

$ 57. Confirmation of the same doctrine.- Meaning of truth

162

$ 58. Transcendental scepticism objects to the doctrine that the mind by

its nature possesses the first truth. Reply. In the case of uni.

versal being, illusion is impossible. Two kinds of being. Proof

of the impossibility of the first illusion.—No concept illusory 163

$ 59. The impossibility of the second illusion proved

165

$ 60. Transition from observation to the proof that observation is a valid

source of knowledge. Meaning of abstract ...

166

$ 61. Error impossible in ideas generic and specific. Ideas the exemplary

truths of things ..

167

§ 62. There can be no error without a judgment.–Aristotle cited 168

$ 63. There are judgments absolutely free from error.-Nouns and verbs 169

$ 64. Such are the judgments expressing what is contained in an idea.

What are principles? Meaning of absurd.Principle of con-

tradiction. Aristotle cited

172

$ 65. Primitive judgments affirming that what is felt exists are free from

The child affirms being only, not its modes.- No doubt

respecting feeling as such. Individuum vagum

174

§ 66. In perception we add the essence of being to the felt activity, but

we never confound the two.—Perception distinguished from sen-

sation. Theories of Reid and Hamilton

176

$ 67. Judgments respecting the mode of perceived beings. Condition of

their validity. Three possibilities with regard to this condition.

We may be deceived in determining the modes of perceived

being ; but we are not necessarily so.—Origin of error

180

$ 68. We have a faculty for affirming exactly what we feel, and this

faculty is only another function of the faculty whereby we affirm

being apart from its modes. Deception arises, not from this

faculty, but from the faculty of error which I allow to disturb it.

-St. Thomas on faith

182

§ 69. The error possible in the perception of real being. Perception is

followed by reflection, which tries to determine the exact mode

of the perceived being. Error begins with reflection and keeps

pace with the complication and extent of it.— Nature of reflec-

tion ...

184

$ 70. Perception infallible. Reflection may be rendered so by Logic. -

Province of Logic

186

§ 71. Error is always voluntary. Reflection does not, save accidentally,

produce error. The faculty of persuasion does not always de-

pend, as it ought, on that of reasoning. Hence error. Various

causes that produce persuasion, in spite of reasoning. Error,

though always voluntary, is not always culpable.—Occasional

causes of error

$ 72. Three kinds of remedies against error, corresponding to its three

189

$ 73. Sophistic. - Various kinds of Sophisms

189

$ 74. More on perception. Analysis of corporeal sensations. Law of

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187

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intellectual attention. The necessary nexus of objects does not
enter into perception.–Sensation, sensitive perception and in-
tellective perception distinguished. Perception limited to its
object. Object and term

... 190

$ 75. Source of Fichte's error, confusion between feeling and perception.

Perception separates, reflection distinguishes, its object from

others.-Refutation of Fichte's system. Distinction between

knowledge and consciousness. Nature of the Ego

194

$ 76. Schelling's error in asserting that the finite cannot be perceived

without the infinite. Origin of this error, confusion between

intellective perception and reasoning

$ 77. How reason finds the limits, contingency, etc., of perceived beings.

Schelling saw dimly, but could not express the fact that the mind,

prior to all reasonings, must have something complete and uni-

versal. --Refutation of Pantheism. Albertus Magnus on the

active intellect...

204

$ 78. Defence of the laws of perception and reasoning against the objec-

tions of sceptics. In external sensation we feel within us a force

which is not ourselves. This enables us to affirm that a being

exists without confounding it with ourselves. -Objects of per-

ception. Intellective imagination. Subject and extra-subject ... 207

$ 79. Perception is the bridge between us and the external world, and

the difficulties of idealism arise from considering the world apart

from perception.- Meaning of external world

209

$ 80. Perception yields the important ontological truth that beings, in so

far as agents, may exist in each other without intermingling.–

Definitions of body, force. Perception of our own bodies and of

external bodies ...

$ 81. Our perception of ourselves is posterior to our perception of the

external world.—Intellective perception of the Ego

214

§ 82. Reflection would be unable to compare perceived beings together,

if it had not universal being, by means of which it knows the

mode and quantity of its realization in those beings, and, hence,

if they belong or not to the same species. Principle of the dis-

cernibility of individuals.—Individual and idea of individual 217

§ 83. Origin of the ideas of numbers

218

$ 84. Difference of the mode of realization constitutes difference of

species ; difference in quantity or actuality constitutes accidental

differences.-Origin of Species. Reality; two kinds of it.

Various kinds of real form

219

$ 85. When may we say that the Ego and the non-Ego mutually limit

each other?- Affirmation does not include negation ...

$ 86. The mind rises to the infinite neither in the primal perception, nor

in the reflection which compares the Ego and the non-Ego, but in

that which considers the limitation, contingency, and relativity of

either.—Max Müller on the manner in which the infinite is per-

ceived ...

223

§ 87. The supreme principle of all our reasoning

224

$ 88. The principle of substance one of the conditions of real being falling

under perception.—Modes of our idea of substance. Herbert

Spencer on the substance of mind ...

224

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§ 89. We cannot perceive sensations pure, but only as modifications of

ourselves

230

$ 90. Does perception take place directly or through reasoning ?-

Cognition and recognition

232

§ 91. Process by which reflection translates the perception of ourselves.

– The Ego a substance and a feeling

233

$ 92. Perception does not take place blindly.—How sensation acts upon

intelligence

234

$ 93. Perception is governed by the principle of substance. —Difference

between substance and cause

235

$ 94. Substance and accident

236

$ 95. Why the child, which has not perceived itself, is compelled by the

principle of substance to attribute its own sensations to bodies ... 236

§ 96. It does not follow that the principle of substance is fallacious.

The errors we commit in referring accidents to the wrong sub-

stance may be corrected.-Subject as distinguished from extra-

subject

237

$ 97. The principle of substance is the intuition of the essence of being,

the first and universal truth.-Rosmini's idea of substance not

Spinozistic

238

§ 98. One of the conditions of reflection is the principle of cause. - Prin-

ciple of cause dependent on principle of contradiction, and this

on the principle of cognition

$ 99. Various orders of reflection. Reflection of the first order discovers

the different limitations and mutual dependence of real beings. --

Dependence the result of reflection

240

§ 100. Notions of cause and effect.-Refutation of scepticism with refer-

ence to the universality and necessity of cause

242

$ 101. The principle of cause is merely an application of the idea of being

to a perceived being, so as to see whether the latter has or has

not in itself subsistence.- Hypotheses. All causes either

physical or metaphysical

244

$ 102. What is contingent being ?-Concept of necessity

245

$ 103. The principle of integration is a development of the principle of

cause, and contains the reason why all peoples believe that

God exists.— The argument for the existence of God derived

from the impossibility of thinking an infinite number is entirely

fallacious

246

$ 104. All other principles of reflection are reducible in the same

way to the first universal truth, the essence of being naturally

intuited by us

247

§ 105. Purposes of the art of reasoning

247

§ 106. How errors in reasoning are avoided. - Descartes' four rules of

method. Rosmini's six norms

247

§ 107. Three aims of reasoning. Hence three methods—apodeictic,

heuristic, and didactic

248

§ 108. Artifice of the syllogism, to which the various forms of argument

are reducible.- Defence of the syllogism against Hegel

250

§ 109. Universal rule of the syllogism

250

$ 110. From the necessity of more than one middle term arises the Sorites 250

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1. Psychology.

$ 118. What is Psychology ?

256

$ 119. Parts of Psychology

§ 120. All reasoning on the essence of the soul sets out from the feeling of

the soul.—Being and feeling indefinable

256

§ 121. Difference between the feeling of our bodies and the feeling of our

souls.—The Ego different from sensations ...

257

§ 122. The human soul is a principle at once sensitive and intellective. —

Difference between sense and intelligence ...

260

§ 123. In what sense the Ego expresses the soul, and in what sense it is

called the principle and subject of Psychology.-The Ego is a

self-affirmed subject and belongs to the Science of Logic

261

§ 124. Complete definition of the human soul. —Definitions given by

Aristotle, St. Thomas, and Porphyry
$ 125. Hence are deduced the other properties of the human soul. Sim-

plicity. Immortality. - Various kinds of simplicity. The two

terms of the soul. Its immortality is due to the intuited term... 264

§ 126. In what sense the opinion of Plato, that the body is an obstacle to

the soul, is false.—Human knowledge is a series of determina-

tions of being

$ 127. The extended term of feeling is double, space and body, and these

have opposite characters.— Nature of space and extension. The

external world. Atoms

269

§ 128. Connection of soul and body. The incomprehensibility of this

connection does not give us the right to doubt the fact.-
Opinion of Plotinus. Of Professor Bain.

The soul not a
mathematical point. Porphyry on the incorporeal ...

278
$ 129. The sentient principle feels its own body with a passivity mingled

with much activity. The sentient principle feels a foreign body
if in the body subject to its power there comes a change inde.
pendent of, and opposed to it

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$ 136. Principle and term in the animal form a single being

295

§ 137. Three kinds of feeling in the animal corresponding to the three

conditions of the sensible term.— Feeling of Continuity. Feel-

ing of Excitation. Feeling of Organization

295

§ 138. Difference between animate and animal.-- Elementary and organic

souls. The unit of natural existence is sentience

301

$ 139. Laws of essential changes which the animate undergoes in respect

of its individuality.—Meaning of generation

302

§ 140. The human soul, in so far as it is intellective, is united to its own

body by an original, inborn perception of it.-Extra-subjective

real body and anatomical body

304

§ 141. There is a physical influence between soul and body.—Character-

istics of the fundamental animal feeling

305

§ 142. How the intellective and sensitive principles are one

306

$ 143. What is death ?-Separation of the body from its sensible term ... 307

$ 144. Second office of Psychology to deduce and classify the faculties of

the soul.---Powers of the intellect

309

§ 145. Questions that present themselves when we try to deduce the

powers of the soul from its essence

311

§ 146. Three classes of laws to which the soul is subject in its operations

---psychological, ontological, cosmological

312

$ 147. The supreme ontological law is the principle of cognition

312

$ 148. Cosmological laws are either laws of motion or laws of harmony 312

$ 149. Two classes of psychological laws, corresponding to the ontologi.

cal and cosmological.—Composition of Ego, non-Ego. Infinite 313

$ 150. The third and last aim of Psychology is to discover the destiny

of the human soul. The soul naturally tends to its own per-
fection, which consists in the full vision of the truth, full exer.
cise of virtue, and full attainment of happiness. These three

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