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bodly ; that without co-existence there is no life, only sean- those who had undertaken to direct the art of this country. blance of life; that this gift of imagination is the rightseeing | It was the duty of the Royal Academy-and what have of a thing ; no accidental gift of one man, no favouritism | they done to arrest this? What has their influence becn? of Nature, but the result--as all great powers are a result

Hitherto it has been chiefly this-in leading on our young the result of living in harmony with Nature ; the reault of men to waste their powers as th‘y have done, sacriobedience to that moral law which is the life-pulse that ficing their principles for their purse. They have made art beats at the head of all great human endeavour whatso- a trade when it is not one. Depending on public taste

instead of directing it; trading on the ignorance it was It has been said that " whatsoever the artist touches he their duty to enlighten ; denying to the people the means beautifies;” it had been truer to say that he sces the beauty of education which it was in their power to give, they that is contained in everything. And it is this that marks have thrown contumely on the noblest work ; they have the difference between a great painter and a base one. The deliberately rejected it; they have denied to art all high former desires to be true, the latter to be beautiful. The significance. They have made it a fashion. Is it a one desire arising out of vanity--vanity in supposing he shall surprise to them that the few thoughtful men hold add to God's handiwork. The other out of reverence-- aloof altogether ; that they remain unrepresented at the reverence in the knowledge of his own insufficiency ; and Exhibition? as the further the one searches out truth the deeper will be his meaning, so as the other strives to beautify, the less will his work be true, and his power tɔ understand the

CHRISTIAN SOCIALISM. truth abated ; for inasmuch as the beautiful can only consist in the true, so will his knowledge of what con

“ The business for which God sends a Christian priest in stitutes the true ideal of beauty be less and less as he seeks a Christian nation is to preach freedom, equality, brotherto beautify.

hood, in the fullest, deepest, widest meaning of those To be beautiful ; yes, perhaps that is the end of all three great words.”--C. KINGSLEY. desirable endeavour whatsoever. But what is beauty ? What has this Acudemy to tell us of beautiful humanity? | During the last half century the three principal What ideals of beauty have they created for us? Let us countries of Western Europe have witnessed the have done with these ideals of beauty. For the real is the rise of a Christian Socialist movement, not contrne ideal, and we have no patience with that art, which not representing humanity as we know it,does not represent any.

nected with a new sect, like the Socialism of the thing that is nobler. If such painters are dissatisfied with sixteenth century. Anabaptists, but proceeding humanity as they find it, they must show us that they directly from the historical Church of each nation. have something better in its place.

We think it more

In France, the famous group, which included likely to be of interest to portray the sorrows, the sufferings, and the joys of our lot, rather than-like these Lamennais, Lacordaire, Montalembert, and Frédéric painters to remove all traces of animation, intelligence, Ozanam, chose for their motto,“ God and Liberty," joy, or sorrow-to create an ideal of beauty not of this and boldly called upon the Church to separate herworld, and certainly of no higher one-to attract and self from kings, and join hands with the people. give pleasure alone through the medium of the senses.

Their efforts were crushed under the iron discipline There is, we think, a far higher isleal in some men's minds than this ; the faces that attract through in of the Papacy; and the Papacy has its reward in telligence to beauty, which grow upon us as we know the revolt of Republican France from a religion them, not those that with time we shall weary of, the which could be Bourbonist or Bonapartist, but not repose and peace which is the result of struggles and

Democratic. Had the appeal of the great French sorrows borns and overcome; the beauty that is born of goodness, passing into the forms and irradiating them, Catholic been echoed rather than silenced by the face that is illumined by the soul that is within it--we Gregory XVI., not only would the fiery zeal and count this a far higher beauty than any that can be pro- gifted intellect of Lamennais have been saved from duced by the abstracting of all thes: qualities.

Then why is it, as we said before, that there is this shipwreck, but the present extraordinary vehemence absence of all poetical work, of all high endeavour, in the of French hostility to all forms of religion would Royal Acad: my? Are these powers gone from us? Has never, we are convinced, have been developed. Nature been unfaithful? Alas! no.

In Germany, the land of Karl Marx and Ferdi“Nature never did betray

nand Lassalle, both the Catholic and the Protestant The heart that loved her.”

Churches have given birth to a Christian Socialist To the loving hearts and reverend who seek her for school. The late Archbishop Ketteler, of Mayence, herself, who value her not as a means for gain, but and Canon Monfang, though differing as to the because in her is contained all joy and happiness, she manner of application of Socialist principles, founded is ever present; but with those who would hawk her organisations which fully justified Bismarck's dread in the market place, who would seek her for gain, of a possible alliance between the Black Interwho set a price upon her virtue, she holds no

They have sold their birthright for a mess of national and Red. The Jew-baiting court chaplain, pottage, they have given their hearts away. Yes ; the Stöcker, and Pastor Todt, are the leaders of the fault lies not in the lack of ability, but in the direction of Protestant movements, which is strongly monarchiit ; and the question is a vital one. Art not more than the cal, and looks for the solution of social problems by whole of society is affected. For great powers are not developed independently of society, but are an accurate the agency of a benevolent despotism. Both schools gauge of that society in which they exist. By the one we have been reduced to comparative silence by the may measure the other.

anti-Socialist legislation of Bismarck, and the inThen on whom does the responsibility lie? Whose duty fluence of the Protestant section seems to lack the first of all was it to arrest by all means in their power elements of permanence. The Catholic division this downward tendency? It was the duty of those who have been false to themselves, who have been untrue to the may yet have a future. Leo XIII. may take responsibility of their high position. It was the duty of warning from the appalling results of his prede



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cessor's abandonment of Lamennais, and if he can- millions of struggling poor, and its few and not encourage and inspire the Christian Socialists luxurious' rich, is really a desirable or a beautiful of Germany, he may be persuaded to let them thing? whether indeed it be not utterly rotten and alone.

false? There are those who answer that the state The so-called Socialists of tne coair, a body chiefly of society is so hopelessly corrupt, that no improvemade up of German university professors, form a ment is possible until every existing institution is most interesting group, of which no more than bare destroyed from off the face of the carth. When notice can here be taken. They include men of pan-destruction ” has been accomplished, and widely different convictions; from the banker society reduced to a condition of " amorphism,' Samter, who would nationalise land, to Held, whose then the rebuilding may begin. Till then, at whatonly claim to the name of Socialist would seem to ever cost, by whatever means, destruction, say the lie in his rejection of the Individualist principle in Anarchists, must be the work of all who desire a economy. We are only now concerned, however, change. Dynamite, poison, the knife, the revolver; with Socialist endeavours which are born of the all are lawful weapons in the belief of a Nibilist or Church.

an Invincible. In England, the great names of Frederick There are others who feel as keenly as the Maurice and Charles Kingsley connect themselves Anarchists that modern society is built upon a with the Chartist movement of thirty-five years foundation of selfishness and wrong. But they ago. There could be no greater mistake than to aim at reconstruction rather than destruction. suppose that this movement was a failure. Un- They believe that the time has come when the doubtedly, the Charter has long since been for- régime of the few must give place to that of the gotten, and Kingsley admitted, without apparent many, and that the change can be wrought by regret, that Maurice's schemes and his own had not peaceful and bloodless means. They find the prinsucceeded in the exact shape in which they were ciples of the ideal society set forth in the teachings proposed. But Chartists and Christian Socialists of the Divine Man, and latent in the constitution alike did their work. The commanding position of the Church which bears His name. Because occupied by the Trades Unions to-day is a direct those teachings have been corrupted, and that result of the agitation of 1847-48. The move- Church chained to the footstool of thrones, therement towards co-operation is another result, and fore it is that modern society has become the thing the brave heart “Parson Lot” would have rejoiced we see it. The best hopes for the future of humanity to see Miss Hart's gallant experiment in the lie in a frank acceptance of the Christian idea promising field of co-operative production. The of free and equal brotherhood among men, with all “ Decorative Co-operative Association "

its consequences. There can be no true brotheravowed imitation of the famous Maison Leclaire, hood, as Maurice finely said, without a common but none the less is its establishment due to men Father. To work for the fuller realisation of that and women who have inherited the traditions of most noble of all human ideals, the Kingdom of the Christian Socialists of the English Church. God upon earth; to fight against the new idol of

The school of Maurice and Kingsley was by no competition, which is but old selfishness writ large; means without opposition from some in authority. to maintain the original unison of the followers of But happily, England had neither a Pope nor an Christ; the bettering the condition of the poorest iron Chancellor to stamp out free movement and and most numerous class; to substitute for the silence free speech. Hence, with us, the principles ignoble motto, “Every man for himself, and God set forth in 1847-50 have had fair play, and are for us all,” that which proclaims, “ All for each, working in men's minds to this day. It is not too and each for all,” on the modern reading of the old much to say that but for the Christian Socialist of command, “Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thy 1850, the Christian Socialist of 1883 would never self,”—here is work enough and to spare for the have seen the light. But the work to be done is Christian Socialist of to-day. different now. Old questions have been answered,

A LONDON PARSON. or have taken new forms, and the questions to-day are others than those of thirty years ago. We

PREACHING AND PRACTICE. —"Those who agree with the have not to vindicate the right of to and without reserve, reject as false the whole system of

present writer are not sceptics. They positively, absolutely, combine for their own protection, or claim for their objective propositions which make up the popular belief unions recognition by the law. The social problems of the day, in one and all of its theological expressions." of to-day are of wider and more far-reaching

“ The first advance towards either the renovation of one significance. Men are beginning to ask why work of those habits of hypocritical conformity and compliance

faith or the growth of another must be the abandonment men should continue to be the slaves of capital; which have filled the air of the England of to-day with why the State should not secure them free gross and obscure mists." These be brave words. Their

to the implements of labour; why writer, Mr. John Morley, is the Member of Parliament the soil of England should remain in the abso- who, while Mr. Bradlaugh was still excluded from the lute possession of a privileged minority ? Men Houses for his want of religious opinions, took his seat

quietly, without rejecting the necessary theological are inquiring whether modern society, with its expression,”

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OBJECT—To advance the principles laid down by Established to advocate the Nationalisation of the Land Henry George for the restitution of the land to the people.

of the United Kingdom. MEMBERSHIP OF THE UNION open to all who approve its objects, and pay an Annual Subscription of not less President-AlF. RUSSEL WALLACE, LL.D., F.R.G.S. than 28. 6d.

Treasurer--A. C. SWINTON.
Hon. TREASURER-H. H. Champion, 17, Harewood-square,

Hon. Sec. (pro, tem.)-H. W. LEY.
London, N.W.

Secretary-John S. H. Evans, Hendon, London, N.W.
Hox. SECRETARY - R. P. B. Frost, 30, Woburn-place,
London, W.C.

The Annual Meeting of this Society will be held at the ALL WHO ARE Willing to organise Branches of the City Club, Ludgate Circus, London, on Wednesday, Union, no matter how small, in any town in the United June 27, 1883, at 4 p.m. The attendance of members and Kingdom are requested to communicate with the Secretary. supporters is cordially invited.

CARDS OF MEMBERSHIP are issued to every Subscriber The publications of the Society can be had at W.Reeves', of not less than 2s. 6d. annually.

185, Fleet Street, or from the Secretary. AN INAUGURAL CONFERENCE will be held at Anderton's

THE DECORATIVE CO-OPERATORS' Hotel, Fleet-street, on Tuesday, June 5th, at 7.15, to which Land Reformers are invited.


405, Oxford-street, W. HIGHLAND LAND LAW REFORM


Albert Grey, Esq., M.P., | A. H. Dyke Acland, Esq. The First Annual Meeting will be held at toe Memorial Chairman.

Hon. Edward Majoribanks, Hall, Farringdon-street, on Wednesday, May 30th, at 8 p.m. A. Cameron Corbett, Esq. M.P. Chairman-D. H. Macfarlane, Esq., M.P.

Hon. SECRETARY-Miss Hart, 86, Hamilton-terrace, N.W. Speakers - Professor J. S. Blackie, LL.D., Daniel The Decorative Co-operators' Association is open to Grant, Esq., M.P., Jesse Collings, Esq., M.P., S. Storey, undertake work of the best class in House Painting, Esq., M.P., Rev. J. Kennedy, D.D., G. B. Clark, Esq., Artistic Decoration, Paper Hangings, Furniture, Upholstery, F.R.C.S.E., C. R. Macclymont, Esq., Barrister-at-Law, &c., specially designed or selected. All work done by the Angus Mackintosh, Esq., of Holme, Roderick Macdonald, Association will be of the most thorough character; and Esq., F.R.C.S.E., and others.

one of the managers being an accomplished decorative The object of the Association is—" To effect such changes artist, it will be one of its aiins to promote the truest in the Land Laws as will secure Fair Rents, Durability of artistic principles. Every workman having a direct interest Tenure, and Compensation for Improvements, with such in the business, orders entrusted will be carried out an Apportionment of the Land as will promote the welfare economically and well

. -— Applications to the Business of the people throughout the Highlands and Islands of Manager, E. W. SEARLE. Scotland,” and membership "is open to all who approve of its object and subscribe to its funds.” Palace Chambers, 9, Bridge-street, Westminster, S.W. GUILD OF S. MATTHEW. OBJECTS.

Two copies

Three copies I. To get rid, by every possible means, of the existing

Four copies

Five copies....
Six copies

Twelve copies.......... 155. 6d. prejudices, especially on the part of “Secularists,” against the Church-her Sacraments and Doctrines; and to

ADVERTISEMENTS SixpEXCE A LIXE. endeavour “to justify God to the people." II. To promote frequent and reverent worship in the Fleet Street, London.

Payments in Postal Orders to W. REEVES, 183, Holy Communion, and a better observance of the teaching of the Church of England as set forth in the Book of Com


P. P. (Birmingham).-Our next number will have some contributions III. To promote the study of Social and Political Ques

by Henry George, the well-known author of “Progress and tions in the light of the Incarnation.

Poverty." “THE CHURCH AND SECULARISM ; being some H. (London) writes :-"I like the title of your paper. It undermines

the prejudice that attaches to the word 'Socialist' alone." account of an attempt to justify God to the People.'

Miss H. (London) sends us a cheering letter, from which we extract Second Thousand. 20.

the following: -"Most heartily shall I welcome the C. S., and “REPORT OF THE WORK OF THE G. S. M., 1881-2” were I less busy and brain tired, I should be proud to contribute." (32 pp.) Second Thousand. 20.

SECULAR WORK OF JESUS CHRIST, His Apostles, THE TEMPLE OF MAMMON. and the Church of England.” An Address delivered to a Society of Secularists by Rev. S. D. Headlam (Warden

“( nations undivided G. S. M.) Second Edition. ld.

O single people and free, “CHARLES KINGSLEY, Poet, Reformer, and Divine."

We dreamers, we derided, By Rev. G. Sarson, M.A., Rector of Orlestone. ld.

We mad blind men that ce, “CHRISTIAN SOCIALISM.” By a Radical Parson. ld.

We bear you witness ere ye come that yo Rules, Forms of Nomination, a full list of the Publica

shall be.” tions of the Guild, and all information will be gladly supplied on application to

WE quote from a “Marching Song," but we do OLEN FREDK. VERINDER, Hon. Sec. not march to a material battle. Division is not a 5, Goldsmith-square, Stoke Newington, London, N. permanent feature of society, although it is a terribly Price SiXPENCE each.

persistent one. We seek peace and ensue it, that Coming REVOLUTION in ENGLAND. By H. M. HYNDMAN. peace on earth which has now been preached for SOCIAL RECONSTRUCTION of ENGLAND. By H. M. HYNDMAN.

more than eighteen hundred years in vain. The Text Book of DEMOCRACY; or, ENGLAND for ALL. By H. M. HYNDMAN.

sullen hate of class against class, the bitter anWILLIAM REEVES, 185, Fleet-street, London, E.C. tagonism between labour and capital, these things


The Christian Socialist.


3s. Od.
58. 6d.
Ss. Od.

1s 6D PER Axxum.

4s. Od. 68. 6d.

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must utterly vanish away, and become "portion and for the desirability of the proposed slate railway parcel of the dreadful past,” unless we wish to see was the difficulty the quarry found in paying a divian awful reversal of the ancient myth of Saturn dend; but when we inquire a little further, and devouring his children. The monstrous creation of ask how this difficulty arose, we learn that Lord Frankenstein was mightier than he, and was well Leconfield is the landlord of mountain and valley, aware that such was the case. The labouring and that the rent which he exacts for the quarry monster of to-day, which has long been wielded at eats up all the profits of the quarrymen. This will by the capitalist, is at last becoming aware of being the case, we can sympathise with the House that same significant fact. The great blind giant of Landlords in their anxiety to keep Lord Leconis recovering his sight, and already his strong grasp field's rent at the highest possible point. “Perish is laid upon the twin pillars that support the Borrowdale," they say to themselves, “perish all mighty temple of Mammon; the pillars are shaken the beauties of the Lake District, sooner than that at the touch, and bowed by the stress and strain, one penny should be taken from Lord Leconfield's and the name of the one pillar is capital, the name rent.” Again, there is the question of the relief of the other land. The worshippers of that greedy god of local taxation, a subject which the landlords as a would do well to agree with their adversary quickly, class have very much at heart, and the reason is or they and their temple and the object of their plain. They perceive that the burden of the rates insensate idolatry will assuredly be involved in one falls finally upon them, and they are anxious to see common ruin, whose crash already almost deafens it shifted to other shoulders. Indeed, they seem the too prophetic ear. As yet the demands of the to have abandoned the attempt to prove that they toilers are just and reasonable. Their requests are are not the real ratepayers; at least, that is the limited to the prayer of Agur, “Give me neither only conclusion we can draw from their argument, poverty nor riches,feed me with food convenient for that if the rates were relieved they would be able me;" but if we persist in giving them stones for to make large reductions of rent. Thus, the relief bread, and instead of a fish a scorpion, they will of local taxation is resolved into our old acquaintsurely grow athirst for blood, and that thirst will ance, the confidence trick ; but we fear that this not be quenched by any compromise. The iniquity particular form of swindle has been already too of our present system of property in land has long much discredited in different law courts to be any been realised by the few, but, thanks to “Progress longer an effectual bait for a trustful public. and Poverty," that knowledge is rapidly becoming “Free us from the incidence of taxation," say the the property of all. Those seventy persons who landlords in effect, “and then see what we will do between them own half the soil of Scotland are for you in the way of reduction of rent!” Alas! beginning to have doubts about their right divine, the public is in the proverbial condition of “once and the wisdom of an interloper like Mr. Winans, bitten, twice shy," and the confidence trick has as displayed by the eviction of the crofters for the been played upon us before. The Tories in the sake of a deer forest, is seriously questioned in the House of Commons, who shouted “None at all,” highest and most respectable circles of landlordism when Mr. Goschen asked them to what extent they in this country. But then Mr. Winans is a Yankee, admitted the existence of hereditary burdens on and the slightest taint of foreign competition is sure land, are not to be congratulated on their practical to stink in the nostrils of a true-born British land- wisdom. They have got rid of a good many of its lord. The Sutherland clearances were apparently hereditary burdens, notably the Land Tax, but it not meant for imitation by other than native talent. would have been wiser not to be quite so barefaced Not that this makes any difference, however. in the expression of their intention to get rid of Mr. Winans is acting strictly within his legal rights, them all. Spoiling the English may be as pleasant and his action is only another apt exemplification and as profitable a task as spoiling the Egyptians, but of the excellence of our system of private property in the long run it is not likely to be quite so safe. in land. But there are plenty of instances to And this brings us to the consideration of the other choose from in proof of this wonderful doctrine. pillar of the temple of Mammon, capital, to wit. Take the case of the recent abortive attempt of a Egypt, already over burdened with debt, has just railway company to make a line along the Borrow- issued a new scan for five millions. This loan is to dale Valley, when our hereditary House of Land- carry interest at five per cent., and is to be applied lords did its best to assist them in their scheme of to the payment of indemnity claims, and the cost robbery of common lands. It would have been of the English army of occupation. These are the only reasonable to suppose that the Peers, being a results of our latest exploit "in the brave squares class of men who, in spite of their faults, have of war.” We have not the space to comment on some claim to culture and refinement, would resist them at length, but we will conclude with a quotawith all their might any proposal for the desecra- tion from Mr. Ruskin, the greatest living master tion of Borrowdale and Derwentwater. The ex- of English prose, whose words are well worth ponpectation, however, was delusive. The Peers are dering over at the present time. “There is nothing landlords, and must “do their level best ” to up- really more monstrous in any


sivagery or hold the landlords' interests. The alleged reason I absurdity of mankind than that governments


JUNE, 1883.

We are

should be able to get money for any folly they as they are now waging in the Highlands. We choose to commit by selling to capitalists the right would also remind them of the processes of the of taxing future generations to the end of time. fa mcus Sutherland clearance, were it not that we All the cruellest wars inflicted, all the basest are mindful of the danger of truth-telling in that luxuries grasped by the idle classes, are thus paid particular instance, and of the threatened prosecufor by the poor a hundred times over.”

tion of the author, who recently dared to describe anxious to know if the poor are really in favour of in plain terms what was there done by the landperpetuating this injustice. If not, let them speak lord and his factor. Fearful of a similar threat, now, unless, perchance, they prefer to hold their we avert our editorial eye from Sutherlandshire, peace for ever.

and turn to the islands on the wild western coast, those happy hunting grounds of irresponsible and

autocratic landlordism in its worst and most THE HIGHLAND CROFTERS.

wicked phases. Let us take the Isle of Arran,

not by any means as an extreme instance, but as The conditions of society in the Highlands and one of the most ludicrous in its practical results, Islands of Scotland are well worth the careful and one with which we are ourselves acquainted. study, not only of the inquiring sociologist, but Let the traveller perambulate the paths and glens also of the more enthusiastic socialist. Of the three of the island, and his admiration of the scenery most important products of those misty regions of will hardly be able to outdo his astonishthe north, grouse, deer, and landlordism, the two ment at the ruins which will be presented to his first may claim to be considered indigenous, and view. He will come upon one complete village the third an importation, though not of recent absolutely tenantless and deserted, from which the date, and now thoroughly acclimatised in the inhabitants were bodily shipped off to the other country. The orthodox theory, which in times side of the Atlantic some forty years ago.

But past even the crofters have implicitly believed, when the family property is entailed, the sins of maintains that the final cause of the creation of the the fathers are not visited upon the children, except two first was the profit and enjoyment which could in the way of their hereditary inclination to go be extracted from them by the third. This theory, i and do likewise. Consequently, the present holder however, though it enjoys the advantage of an i enjoys full opportunity to indulge in any vagaries immense weight of eminent authorities, does not he likes in the way of domineering over his tenants, altogether commend itself to Christian Socialists, These vagaries have not yet taken the form of and it is one on which we must confess ourselves forcibly expatriating any other of the inhabitants to be heterodox in the highest degree. In fact, we of Arran than lunatics and dogs. Such tenants as maintain, on the contrary, that the single word those he cannot abide, and consequently several of landlordism sums up in itself the wrongs of which the former have been recently deported across the the crofters justly complain, and supplies sufficient sea to the mainland, so that the laird alone retains cause for all the agitation which has been, is, or is the privilege of being an insular lunatic, while any to come in the Highlands. We shall be interested cur that may venture on the voyage, and have the to see whether that innocently inquisitive Commis- impudence to show its nose on the sacred precincts sion of landlords, which is at present traversing of the islınd, is incontinently drowned or knocked the distressed districts, will be able, in spite of its on the head by the keeper. Who is ignorant of prejudices, to come to a conclusion at all in accord- the case of the dweller in the hamlet of Corrie, ance with the facts. For the facts are there in where a more touching parting scene than that of plenty, if they will open their eyes to see them. Launce with his dog Crab was lately enacted ? The Let them visit Sutherlandsbire, and they will find i riscal had the audacity to attempt the surreptitious the Board of Guardians scarce risen from their introduction of a dog into the island, and for some recent wrangle about the decent interment of a time managed to avoid detection; but he could not Highlandman who died of starvation in their for ever evade the keeper's eye. That important district. In this case, landlordism, having starved functionary paid a domiciliary visit to the lawless its victim, did not see its way to the provision of a tenant, and though he pleaded with tears that it coffin for his remains, and the result of the con- an awful kind dog,” the keeper was as cruel sequent delay in his burial was, we fear, a pre- as the dog was kind, and the result of the visit was judice aroused in the public mind against that an expedition of the three to the shore of the quiet particular method of exterminating crofters. waters of the loch, from which only the keeper and Actuated, therefore, by the very friendliest feeling the tenant returned alive to tell the tale. Our for landlordism, we would suggest that its sub- reiders may imagine that the reason for the sequent victims should be put under ground as exclusion of the canine race from the island is a speedily as possible without any coffin at all; and paternal wish on the part of the laird to protect

assure the landlords that what is so the crofters who are legally committed to his care frequently done in an actual war would be perfecily from all risk of the terrible disease of hydrophobia. · justifiable in the case of such a social or civil war But it is not so, Curs are noisy creatures, and




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