Candide: The best of all possible worlds

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Nicolae Sfetcu, 27 oct. 2017 - 84 pagini

 Translated and illustrated by Nicolae Sfetcu.

 A philosophical tale, a story of a journey that will transform the eponymous hero into a philosopher.
 An important debate on fatalism and the existence of Evil. For a long time Voltaire has been fiercely opposed to the ideas of the philosopher Leibniz concerning God, the "principle of sufficient reason," and his idea of "pre-established harmony."
 God is perfect, the world can not be, but God has created the best possible world. Evil exists punctually, but it is compensated elsewhere by an infinitely great good. Nothing happens without there being a necessary cause.
 An encouragement to fatalism. Voltaire opposes to this optimism that he considers smug, a lucid vision on the world and its imperfections, a confidence in the man who is able to improve his condition.
 In Candide, Voltaire openly attacks Leibnizian optimism and makes Pangloss a ridiculous defender of this philosophy. Criticism of optimism is the main theme of the tale: each of the adventures of the hero tends to prove that it is wrong to believe that our world is the best of all possible worlds.
  
 

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Cuprins

CHAPTER I How Candide was brought up in a beautiful castle and how he was expelled from it
CHAPTER II What became Candide among the Bulgarians
CHAPTER III How Candide fled from the Bulgarians and what became of him
CHAPTER IV How Candide met his former master of philosophy Dr Pangloss and what happened
CHAPTER V Tempest shipwreck earthquake and what happened to Doctor Pangloss Candide and Anabaptist Jacques
CHAPTER VI How a beautiful autodafe was made to prevent the earthquakes and how Candide was spanked
CHAPTER VII How an old woman took care of Candide and how he found what he loved
CHAPTER VIII History of Cunegonde
CHAPTER XVII Arrival of Candide and his valet in the land of Eldorado and what they saw there
CHAPTER XVIII What they saw in the land of Eldorado
CHAPTER XIX What happened to them in Surinam and how Candide got to know Martin
CHAPTER XX What happened on the sea to Candide and Martin
CHAPTER XXI Candide and Martin are approaching the coasts of France and they are reasoning
CHAPTER XXII What happened in France to Candide and Martin
CHAPTER XXIII Candide and Martin go on the coast of England what they see
CHAPTER XXIV About Paquette and brother Giroflee

CHAPTER IX What happened to Cunegonde Candide the Grand Inquisitor and a Jew
CHAPTER X In what distress arrive at Cadiz Candide Cunegonde and the old woman and their embarkation
CHAPTER XI The history of the old woman
CHAPTER XII Continuation of the misfortunes of the old woman
CHAPTER XIII How Candide was forced to separate from the beautiful Cunegonde and the old woman
CHAPTER XIV How Candide and Cacambo were received by the Jesuits of Paraguay
CHAPTER XV How Candide killed his dear Cunegondes brother
CHAPTER XVI What happened to the two travelers with two daughters two monkeys and the wild ones named Mumps
CHAPTER XXV Visit to the Lord Pococurante Venetian nobleman
CHAPTER XXVI Of a supper that Candide and Martin made with six foreigners and who they were
CHAPTER XXVII Travel of Candide to Constantinople
CHAPTER XXVIII What happened to Candide Cunegonde Pangloss Martin etc
CHAPTER XXIX How Candide found Cunegonde and the old woman
CHAPTER XXX Conclusion
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Despre autor (2017)

François-Marie Arouet known as Voltaire, was born in Paris in 1694. He was educated by the Jesuits at the Collège Louis-le-Grand (1704-1711), where he learned Latin and Greek; later in life he became fluent in Italian, Spanish, and English. By the time he left school, Voltaire had decided he wanted to be a writer. His father then obtained a job for him as a secretary to the French ambassador in the Netherlands. Most of Voltaire's early life revolved around Paris. From early on, Voltaire had trouble with the authorities for critiques of the government and religious intolerance. These activities were to result in two imprisonments and a temporary exile to England. The name "Voltaire", which the author adopted in 1718, is an anagram of "AROVET LI," the Latinized spelling of his surname, Arouet, and the initial letters of "le jeune" ("the young"). The name also echoes in reverse order the syllables of the name of a family château in the Poitou region: "Airvault". The adoption of the name "Voltaire" following his incarceration at the Bastille is seen by many to mark Voltaire's formal separation from his family and his past. Voltaire continued to write plays, such as Mérope (or La Mérope française) and began his long research into science and history. From 1762, he began to champion unjustly persecuted people, the case of Jean Calas being the most celebrated. This Huguenot merchant had been tortured to death in 1763, supposedly because he had murdered his son for wanting to convert to Catholicism. His possessions were confiscated and his remaining children were taken from his widow and were forced to become members of a monastery. Voltaire, seeing this as a clear case of religious persecution, managed to overturn the conviction in 1765. n February 1778, Voltaire returned for the first time in 20 years to Paris. He soon became ill again and died on 30 May 1778.

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