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(1) any reference in any law to chapter 1 of this part (including references to sections 103 through 106) shall be deemed to include a reference to this section; and

(2) assistance under this section shall be provided consistent with the policies contained in section 102.

(e) PRIVATE AND VOLUNTARY ORGANIZATIONS.—

(1) CONSULTATION TO ENSURE LOCAL PERSPECTIVES.-The Agency for International Development shall take into account the local-level perspectives of the rural and urban poor in subSaharan Africa, including women, during the planning process for project and program assistance under this section. In order to gain that perspective the Agency for International Development should consult closely with African, United States, and other private and voluntary organizations that have demonstrated effectiveness in or commitment to the promotion of local, grassroots activities on behalf of long-term development in sub-Saharan Africa as described in subsection (c).

(2) DEFINITION OF PRIVATE AND VOLUNTARY ORGANIZATIONS. For purposes of this section, the term "private and voluntary organization" includes (in addition to entities traditionally considered to be private and voluntary organizations) cooperatives, credit unions, trade unions, women's groups, nonprofit development research institutions, and indigenous local organizations, which are private and nonprofit.

(f) LOCAL INVOLVEMENT IN PROJECT IMPLEMENTATION.-Local people, including women, shall be closely consulted and involved in the implementation of every project under this section which as a local focus.

(g) PARTICIPATION OF AFRICAN WOMEN.-The Agency for International Development shall ensure that development activities assisted under this section incorporate a significant expansion of the participation (including decisionmaking) and integration of African women in each of the critical sectors described in subsection (i). (h) TYPES OF ASSISTANCE.—

(1) PROJECTS AND PROGRAMS TO ADDRESS CRITICAL SECTORAL PRIORITIES.—Assistance under this section shall emphasize primarily projects and programs to address critical sectoral priorities for long-term development described in subsection (i). (2) REFORM OF ECONOMIC POLICIES.

(A) USE OF PROGRAM ASSISTANCE.-Assistance under this section may also include program assistance to promote reform of sectoral economic policies affecting long-term development in sub-Saharan Africa as described in subsection (c), with primary emphasis on reform of economic policies to support the critical sectoral priorities described in subsection (i).

(B) PROTECTION OF VULNERABLE GROUPS.-Assisted policy reforms shall also include provisions to protect vulnerable groups (especially poor, isolated, and female farmers, the urban poor, and children including displaced children) and long-term environmental interests from possible negative consequences of the reforms.

(3) 59 591 DEMOCRATIZATION AND CONFLICT RESOLUTION CAPABILITIES.—Assistance under this section may also include program assistance—

(A) to promote democratization, good governance, and strong civil societies in sub-Saharan Africa; and

(B) to strengthen conflict resolution capabilities of governmental, intergovernmental, and nongovernmental entities in sub-Saharan Africa.

(4) 5 591 OTHER ASSISTANCE.-Funds made available to carry out this section shall be used almost exclusively for assistance in accordance with paragraphs (1), (2), and (3).592 Assistance consistent with the purpose of subsection (c) may also be furnished under this section to carry out the provisions of sections 103 through 106 of this Act.

(i) CRITICAL SECTORAL PRIORITIES.-The critical sectoral priorities for long-term development, as described in subsection (c), are the following:

(1) AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION AND NATURAL RESOURCES.—
(A) AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION.-Increasing agricultural
production in ways which protect and restore the natural
resource base, especially food production, through agricul-
tural policy changes, agricultural research (including
participatory research directly involving small farmers)
and extension, development and promotion of agriculture
marketing activities, credit facilities, and appropriate pro-
duction packages, and the construction and improvement
of needed production-related infrastructure such as farm-
to-market roads, small-scale irrigation, and rural elec-
trification. Within this process, emphasis shall be given to
promoting increased equity in rural income distribution,
recognizing the role of small farmers.

(B) NATURAL RESOURCE BASE.-Maintaining and restoring the renewable natural resource base primarily in ways which increase agricultural production, through the following:

(i) Small-scale, affordable, resource-conserving, lowrisk local projects, using appropriate technologies (including traditional agricultural methods) suited to local environmental, resource, and climatic conditions, and featuring close consultation with and involvement of local people at all stages of project design and implementation. Emphasis shall be given to grants for African local government organizations, international or African nongovernmental organizations, and United States private and voluntary organizations.

(ii) Support for efforts at national and regional levels to provide technical and other support for projects of the kinds described in clause (i) and to strengthen the capacities of African countries to provide effective

591 Sec. 127(c)(1) of the African Growth and Opportunity Act (title I of Public Law 106–200; 114 Stat. 273) redesignated para. (3) as para. (4) and added a new para. (3).

592 Sec. 127(c)(1) 2f the African Growth and Opportunity Act (title I of Public Law 106-200; 114 Stat. 273) struck out "paragraphs (1) and (2)" and inserted in lieu thereof "paragraphs (1), (2), and (3)".

extension and other services in support of environmentally sustainable increases in food produc

tion.

(iii) Support for special training and education efforts to improve the capacity of countries in sub-Saharan Africa to manage their own environments and natural resources.

(iv) Support for low-cost desalination activities in order to increase the availability of fresh water sources in sub-Saharan Africa.

(2) HEALTH.-Improving health conditions, with special emphasis on meeting the health needs of mothers and children (including displaced children) through the establishment of primary health care systems that give priority to preventive health and that will be ultimately self-sustaining. In addition, providing training and training facilities, in sub-Saharan Africa, for doctors and other health care providers, notwithstanding any provision of law that restricts assistance to foreign countries.593

(3) VOLUNTARY FAMILY PLANNING SERVICES.-Providing increased access to voluntary family planning services, including encouragement of private, community, and local government initiatives.

(4) EDUCATION.-Improving the relevance, equity, and efficiency of education, with special emphasis on improving primary education.

(5) INCOME-GENERATING OPPORTUNITIES.-Developing income-generating opportunities for the unemployed and underemployed in urban and rural areas through, among other things, support for off-farm employment opportunities in micro- and small-scale labor-intensive enterprises.

(j) MINIMUM LEVELS OF ASSISTANCE FOR CERTAIN CRITICAL SECTORS.-The Agency for International Development should target the equivalent of 10 percent of the amount authorized to be appropriated for each fiscal year to carry out this chapter for each of the following:

(1) The activities described in subsection (i)(1)(B), including identifiable components of agricultural production projects.

(2) The activities described in subsection (i)(2).

(3) The activities described in subsection (i)(3).

(k) EFFECTIVE USE OF ASSISTANCE.-Assistance provided under this section shall be concentrated in countries which will make the most effective use of such assistance in order to fulfill the purpose specified in subsection (c), especially those countries (including those of the Sahel region) having the greatest need for outside assistance.

(1) PROMOTION OF REGIONAL INTEGRATION.-Assistance under this section shall, to the extent consistent with this section, include assistance to promote the regional and subregional integration of African production structures, markets, and infrastructure.

593 Sec. 111(b) of the Global AIDS and Tuberculosis Relief Act of 2000 (Public Law 106-264; 114 Stat. 752) added this sentence.

(m) DONOR COORDINATION MECHANISM.-Funds made available to carry out this section may be used to assist the governments of countries in sub-Saharan Africa to increase their capacity to participate effectively in donor coordination mechanisms at the country, regional, and sector levels.

(n) RELATION TO OTHER AUTHORITIES.—

(1) ASSISTANCE UNDER OTHER AUTHORITIES.-The authority granted by this section to provide assistance for long-term development in sub-Saharan Africa is not intended to preclude the use of other authorities for that purpose. Centrally funded programs which benefit sub-Saharan Africa shall continue to be funded under chapter 1 of part I of this Act.

(2) TRANSFER AUTHORITIES.

(A) The transfer authority contained in section 109 of this Act shall not apply with respect to this section.

(B) The transfer authority contained in section 610(a) of this Act may not be used to transfer funds made available to carry out this section in order to allow them to be used in carrying out any other provision of this Act.

(3) REPROGRAMMING NOTIFICATIONS.-Section 634A of this Act does not apply with respect to funds made available to carry out this section.

(4) PROCUREMENT OF GOODS AND SERVICES.-In order to allow the assistance authorized by this section to be furnished as effectively and expeditiously as possible, section 604(a) of this Act, and similar provisions relating to the procurement of goods and services, shall not apply with respect to goods and services procured for use in carrying out this section. The exemption provided by this paragraph shall not be construed to apply to the Comprehensive Anti/Apartheid 594 Act of 1986. (0) SUPPORT FOR SADCC PROJECTS.

(1) AUTHORITY TO PROVIDE ASSISTANCE.-To the extent funds are provided for such purpose in the annual Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, funds made available to carry out this chapter may be used to assist sector projects, in the sectors specified in paragraph (2), that are supported by the Southern Africa Development Coordination Conference (SADCC) to enhance the economic development of the member states forming that regional institution.

(2) SECTORS.-The sectors with respect to which assistance may be provided under this subsection are the following: transportation; manpower development; agriculture and natural resources; energy (including the improved utilization of electrical power sources which already exist in the member states and offer the potential to swiftly reduce the dependence of those states on South Africa for electricity); and industrial development and trade (including private sector initiatives).

(3) RELATION TO DFA POLICIES AND AUTHORITIES.-To the maximum extent feasible, the assistance authorized by this subsection shall be provided consistent with the policies and

594 Should read "Anti-Apartheid".

authorities contained in the preceding subsection of this section.

Sec. 497.595 Authorizations of Appropriations for the Development Fund for Africa.-Funds appropriated to carry out this chapter are authorized to be made available until expended. It is the sense of the Congress that the authority of this subsection 596

595 22 U.S.C. 2294.

596 Congress did not enact an authorization for fiscal year 2003. Instead, the Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 2003 (division E of Public Law 108-7), waived the requirements for authorization, and title II of that Act (at 117 Stat. 161) provided the following:

"UNITED STATES AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT

"CHILD SURVIVAL AND HEALTH PROGRAMS FUND

"(INCLUDING TRANSFER OF FUNDS)

"For necessary expenses to carry out the provisions of chapters 1 and 10 of part I of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, for child survival, health, and family planning/reproductive health activities, in addition to funds otherwise available for such purposes, $1,836,500,000, to remain available until September 30, 2005: Provided, That this amount shall be made available for such activities as: (1) immunization programs; (2) oral rehydration programs; (3) health, nutrition, water and sanitation programs which directly address the needs of mothers and children, and related education programs; (4) assistance for displaced and orphaned children; (5) programs for the prevention, treatment, and control of, and research on, HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, malaria, polio and other infectious diseases; and (6) family planning/reproductive health: Provided further, That none of the funds appropriated under this heading may be made available for nonproject assistance, except that funds may be made available for such assistance for ongoing health activities: Provided further, That of the funds appropriated under this heading, not to exceed $150,000, in addition to funds otherwise available for such purposes, may be used to monitor and provide oversight of child survival, maternal and family planning/reproductive health, and infectious disease programs: Provided further, That the following amounts should be allocated as follows: $324,000,000 for child survival and maternal health; $27,000,000 for vulnerable children; $591,500,000 for HIV/AIDS including not less than $18,000,000 which should be made available to support the development of microbicides as a means for combating HIV/ AIDS; $155,500,000 for other infectious diseases; $368,500,000 for family planning/reproductive health, including in areas where population growth threatens biodiversity or endangered species; and $120,000,000 for UNICEF: Provided further, That of the funds appropriated under this heading, and in addition to funds allocated under the previous proviso, not less than $250,000,000 shall be made available, notwithstanding any other provision of law, for a United States contribution to the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, and shall be expended at the minimum rate necessary to make timely payment for projects and activities: Provided further, That the cumulative amount of United States contributions to the Global Fund may not exceed the total resources provided by other donors and available for use by the Global Fund: Provided further, That of the funds appropriated under this heading that are available for HIV/AIDS programs and activities, up to $10,500,000 should be made available for the International AIDS Vaccine Initiative, and up to $100,000,000 should be made available for the International Mother and Child HIV Prevention Initiative: Provided further, That of the funds appropriated under this heading, up to $60,000,000 may be made available for a United States contribution to The Vaccine Fund, and up to $6,000,000 may be transferred to and merged with funds appropriated by this Act under the heading 'Operating Expenses of the United States Agency for International Development' for costs directly related to international health, but funds made available for such costs may not be derived from amounts made available for contribution under the preceding provisos: Provided further, That notwithstanding any other provision of this Act, funds appropriated under this heading that are available for child survival and health programs shall be apportioned to the United States Agency for International Development, and the authority of sections 632(a) or 632(b) of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, or any comparable provision of law, may not be used to transfer or allocate any part of such funds to the Department of Health and Human Services including any office of that agency, except that the authority of those sections may be used to transfer or allocate up to $25,000,000 of such funds to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: Provided further, That of the funds appropriated under this heading, $5,000,000 shall be made available to continue to support the provision of wheelchairs for needy persons in developing countries: Provided further, That none of the funds made available in this Act nor any unobligated balances from prior appropriations may be made available to any organization or program which, as determined by the President of the United States, supports or participates in the management of a program of coercive abortion or involuntary sterilization: Provided further, That none of the funds made available under this Act may be used to pay for the performance of abortion as a method of family planning or to motivate or coerce any person to practice abortions: Provided further, That none of the funds made available under this Act may be used to lobby for or against abortion: Provided further, That in order to reduce reliance on abortion in developing nations, funds shall be available only to voluntary family planning projects which offer, either directly or through Continued

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