Vulnerability and Human Rights
Penn State Press, 10 aug. 2006 - 160 pagini
The mass violence of the twentieth century’s two world wars—followed more recently by decentralized and privatized warfare, manifested in terrorism, ethnic cleansing, and other localized forms of killing—has led to a heightened awareness of human beings’ vulnerability and the precarious nature of the institutions they create to protect themselves from violence and exploitation. This vulnerability, something humans share amid the diversity of cultural beliefs and values that mark their differences, provides solid ground on which to construct a framework of human rights.
Bryan Turner undertakes this task here, developing a sociology of rights from a sociology of the human body. His blending of empirical research with normative analysis constitutes an important step forward for the discipline of sociology. Like anthropology, sociology has traditionally eschewed the study of justice as beyond the limits of a discipline that pays homage to cultural relativism and the “value neutrality” of positivistic science. Turner’s expanded approach accordingly involves a truly interdisciplinary dialogue with the literature of economics, law, medicine, philosophy, political science, and religion.
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I want also to consider the rise of the notion of ''humanity'' as itself a result of the globalization of the technical means of violence. We need to understand the growth of human rights against this broader historical context.
Violent combat in premodern societies and the use of torture have often been regarded as evidence of a lack of moral ... Historians and sociologists have frequently thought that the ''primitive warrior'' enjoyed the violence that he ...
Elias has undoubtedly produced one of the most influential theories of the transformation of violence in human societies in terms of the civilizing process. His argument is well known. It states that with the transformation of feudal ...
An alternative view is that modern societies, as opposed to modern people, are more violent than premodern societies. ... and slavery, and they are characterized by extreme violence against the bodies of women and children.
Technological developments in the twentieth century enhanced the capacity of states and their militaries to inflict systematic violence on civilian populations. Hiroshima and the Holocaust were both instances of the violent application ...