Vulnerability and Human Rights
Penn State Press, 10 aug. 2006 - 160 pagini
The mass violence of the twentieth century’s two world wars—followed more recently by decentralized and privatized warfare, manifested in terrorism, ethnic cleansing, and other localized forms of killing—has led to a heightened awareness of human beings’ vulnerability and the precarious nature of the institutions they create to protect themselves from violence and exploitation. This vulnerability, something humans share amid the diversity of cultural beliefs and values that mark their differences, provides solid ground on which to construct a framework of human rights.
Bryan Turner undertakes this task here, developing a sociology of rights from a sociology of the human body. His blending of empirical research with normative analysis constitutes an important step forward for the discipline of sociology. Like anthropology, sociology has traditionally eschewed the study of justice as beyond the limits of a discipline that pays homage to cultural relativism and the “value neutrality” of positivistic science. Turner’s expanded approach accordingly involves a truly interdisciplinary dialogue with the literature of economics, law, medicine, philosophy, political science, and religion.
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These social rights, which are typically related to corresponding duties, are what I shall call ''contributory rights,'' because effective claims are associated with contributions that citizens have made to society through work, ...
The paradoxical consequence of this concentration on empirical studies of income inequality is that sociology typically does not study equality directly. Equality is merely the absence of inequality, and not an independent phenomenon, ...
Historical accounts of the growth of human rights typically concentrate on the evolution of rights as such, but in this introduction I want also to consider the rise of the notion crimes against humanity 13.
Bombing can typically take place without actually seeing the enemy. This technology obviously creates an emotional division between dropping ''smart bombs'' on an unknown enemy and 16 vulnerability and human rights.
First, while old wars were typically between states, new wars take place outside the parameters of the state, and this privatization of warfare is made possible by the reduced costs of armaments. For example, the Kalashnikov rifle is a ...