Vulnerability and Human Rights
Penn State Press, 10 aug. 2006 - 160 pagini
The mass violence of the twentieth century’s two world wars—followed more recently by decentralized and privatized warfare, manifested in terrorism, ethnic cleansing, and other localized forms of killing—has led to a heightened awareness of human beings’ vulnerability and the precarious nature of the institutions they create to protect themselves from violence and exploitation. This vulnerability, something humans share amid the diversity of cultural beliefs and values that mark their differences, provides solid ground on which to construct a framework of human rights.
Bryan Turner undertakes this task here, developing a sociology of rights from a sociology of the human body. His blending of empirical research with normative analysis constitutes an important step forward for the discipline of sociology. Like anthropology, sociology has traditionally eschewed the study of justice as beyond the limits of a discipline that pays homage to cultural relativism and the “value neutrality” of positivistic science. Turner’s expanded approach accordingly involves a truly interdisciplinary dialogue with the literature of economics, law, medicine, philosophy, political science, and religion.
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Martin Shaw in War and Genocide (2003) has examined the consequences of ''organized killing'' in modern society. His historical narrative opens with the Armenian genocide in 1915 and concludes with the Rwandan genocide in 1994.
This notion of the closed boundary of traditional or preliterate societies raises a question about civilizing processes. Norbert Elias has argued that modern societies require greater self-regulation and that aggression in modern ...
It states that with the transformation of feudal society, the rise of bourgeois society, and the development of the modern state, interpersonal violence was increasingly regulated by social norms that emphasized self-restraint and ...
An alternative view is that modern societies, as opposed to modern people, are more violent than premodern societies. Technological change has made killing more efficient in modern societies, and wars are won by destroying civilian ...
The first is that modern warfare is characterized, in Mu ̈nkler's terms, by short wars between states and long wars within societies. Second, there is a very close association between new wars and epidemics and starvation.