Vulnerability and Human Rights
Penn State Press, 10 aug. 2006 - 160 pagini
The mass violence of the twentieth century’s two world wars—followed more recently by decentralized and privatized warfare, manifested in terrorism, ethnic cleansing, and other localized forms of killing—has led to a heightened awareness of human beings’ vulnerability and the precarious nature of the institutions they create to protect themselves from violence and exploitation. This vulnerability, something humans share amid the diversity of cultural beliefs and values that mark their differences, provides solid ground on which to construct a framework of human rights.
Bryan Turner undertakes this task here, developing a sociology of rights from a sociology of the human body. His blending of empirical research with normative analysis constitutes an important step forward for the discipline of sociology. Like anthropology, sociology has traditionally eschewed the study of justice as beyond the limits of a discipline that pays homage to cultural relativism and the “value neutrality” of positivistic science. Turner’s expanded approach accordingly involves a truly interdisciplinary dialogue with the literature of economics, law, medicine, philosophy, political science, and religion.
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By contrast, human rights are rights enjoyed by individuals by virtue of being human—and as a consequence of their shared vulnerability. Human rights are not necessarily connected to duties and they are not contributory.
The paradoxical consequence of this concentration on empirical studies of income inequality is that sociology typically does not study equality directly. Equality is merely the absence of inequality, and not an independent phenomenon, ...
While many rights activists find the philosophical problems relating to relativism irrelevant, the issue of cultural relativism carries major practical implications and consequences. If there is a right to intervene in the internal ...
The great expansion of human rights legislation and culture over the last century has been a consequence of the mechanization of warfare, the growing number of civilian casualties in both civil and international wars, and the potential ...
Martin Shaw in War and Genocide (2003) has examined the consequences of ''organized killing'' in modern society. His historical narrative opens with the Armenian genocide in 1915 and concludes with the Rwandan genocide in 1994.