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My 11, 8, 10, 4, is an article of food.

My 6, 14, 4, 15, is the name of a once celeMy 7, 12, 5, is much used by farmers.

brated tragedian. My 18, 6, 12, 14, 18, is a kind of fish.

My 3, 8, 15, 15, is the name of a town not far My 18, 8, 3, is a valuable ore.

from Boston. My 9, 8, 15, 5, is a foreign fruit.

My 11, 12, 1, 15, 5, 9, is the name of a great Dy whole is a great ornament to the country: country.

My 3, 4, 6, 7, is a sheet of water.
I am composed of 16 letters.

My 11, 13, 12, 9, is one of the elements.

My 1, 13, 12, is another. My 2, 1, 8, is a portion of water.

My 11, 3, 8, is an insect. My 2, 12, 4, 15, 16, 8, has been the ruin of My 15, 13, 3, 7, is the name of a river justly thousands.

celebrated in ancient and modern history. My 16, 1, 15, 10, 8, is the most contemptible

C. B. F. of all animals.

Boston, February 1, 1842.

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Sketches of the Manners, Customs, &c. of the Indians of America. CHAPTER XV.

At the time of the discovery of the

New World, the region which is _at Description of Mexico.-Montezuma.-Landing

of Cortez.-His reception. Advances towards present known by the name of the Rethe Capitol.- War with the Tlascalans. public of Mexico, extending from the

Pacific to the Gulf of Mexico, and from In the first part I have related, briefly, the United States to Guatemala, was but with as much clearness as possible, called Anahuac. This vast country was the history of the Indians of the West inhabited by several independent nations, Indian Islands, and of South America. of which the Mexicans were by far the I have described their customs and man- greatest and most civilized. Their capners, and traced the progress of the ital city, Mexico, was situated on a Spaniards and other Europeans from the group of islands in the Lake of Tezcuco, " Landing of Columbus," till all the partly natural and partly formed by the islands, and the greater part of the south- labor of the inhabitants. The lake of ern continent were subjected to the in- Tezcuco lay in a large and beautiful vaders. We will now turn to North valley, called the Vale of Mexico, in the America, and pursue the fortunes of the central part of the country of Anahuac. Red Man from the burning clime of From the shore, three great dykes or Darien to the cold regions of the Artic causeways, formed of stone and earth,

led to the city, the appearance of which 7

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sea.

VOL. III.

was an

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must have been magnificent, even to men highly cultivated people, called Saltees, of enlightened Europe.

who formerly possessed the country, and The houses of the common people had been destroyed, or driven away by were mostly low wooden buildings, ar- famine and pestilence. To them are ranged with the greatest regularity. ascribed the pyramid of Cholula, and But the dwellings of the nobility were many other works of power and skill ; of stone, and some of them spacious and and to them the new comers were inmagnificent. The city was adorned with debted for their knowledge of many of numerous temples, the principal of which the arts of civilized life. was the great temple of their god Mex., “The Aztecs or Mexicans were the last itli, the Mars of the Mexicans. This of the emigrating nations who arrived

enormous four-sided pyramid, in this country. For a long time they one hundred and twenty feet high; on remained an insignificant tribe, living in one side were steps to ascend to the top, the most wretched condition, on the borwhich was a square platform. On this ders of the lake of Tezcuco, often in a

two small temples, containing state of slavery to the neighboring kings. images of their gods and altars, on which, At last, having regained their freedom, (horrible to relate !) great numbers of they settled, in the year 1325, on a group human victims were sacrificed every of islands in the lake, and here founded year, by this inhuman people.

the city of Mexico. The lake around was covered with " This city, after remaining for about vessels of all descriptions, and numbers twenty years a mere collection of wretchof floating gardens, filled with the most ed huts, suddenly began to increase with beautiful flowers. Numerous canals wonderful rapidity. By a long series were cut through the city, in which the of wars, undertaken partly through deboats of the natives were constantly pass. sire of conquest and partly for the horrid ing, as in the great towns of Holland. purpose of obtaining victims for their

But all this greatness and splendor human, or, rather, inhuman sacrifices, was not, as might be supposed, the the Mexicans rendered themselves masgrowth of many ages of prosperity; from ters of nearly all the country of Anahuac. the foundation of the city, according to A few states, however, among which was the account of the natives, to its capture the brave little republic of Tlascala, still by Cortez, in 1520, had elapsed a period maintained their independence, almost of only one hundred and ninty-five years. at the gates of the capital.” The ancient history of the Aztec or Mex- Such was the state of affairs at the ican nations, as given in their own an- time when Montezuma II. mounted the nals, is as follows:

throne, in the year 1502. Before, and • During the twelfth and thirteenth for a short time after his accession, he centuries after Christ, a great number of was esteemed a prince of a mild and nations or tribes arrived at Anahuac, humble disposition, and of the greatest from some country to the north ; they wisdom. But his real character soon are supposed by many to have come, began to appear. He showed himself originally, from Tartary, crossing over haughty, arrogant, and cruel, and a merto America at Bhering's straits ; but ciless oppressor of the common people. of this we have no certain proof. At the same time, he was liberal to those The first who arrived, found the country who faithfully served him, and a brave, entirely unoccupied, except by a few and successful warrior. He founded a stragglers, the remnant of a great and hospital for his disabled soldiers, built

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