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gether in a point at the top; movable place to the top of the house, and come out houses were also made of the skins of through the roof, above which they are beasts, stretched over a pole of a similar carried up several feet; on their top is form. These were the earliest tents; often an earthen pot, called a chimney-pot. but how long ago it is since the eastern The use of a chimney is to carry off the nations, who were the first inhabitants smoke. Chimneys have not been thought of this earth, had such kinds of habita- of above a thousand years; before this tions, is not known.
time the smoke used to go out at a hole We know that, at the present day, all in the roof. This is the case now in savage nations have rude houses. The the worst of Scotch and Irish cabins. Icelanders build them of snow, as seen The doors of houses are made of pine in pictures; and the Indians of Amer- or oak, and sometimes of mahogany ; ica, as well as the savages of the South they swing on hinges, and have locks Sea islands, of the wilds of Africa and and catches to fasten them. Their use is New Holland, form their huts in the to keep the cold out, and to connect one rudest manner. We know, also, that room with another, or the house with the Irish mud cabins, and the Scotch the street. hovels, and some of the English cottages, The rooms of houses are of various are not a great deal better than the huts kinds. The houses of very poor people
serve them for parlor and kitchen, and But, if you look at the buildings in bed-room, which is very unhealthy. The our towns and cities, you will find them house of a tradesman generally consists to be very different from the rude hut, of a shop, a back parlor, a drawing-room, wigwam, or snowhouse; you will ob- and several bed-rooms, with kitchen and serve that they are much larger, and of cellar. far greater beauty.
The houses of people who are rich It is of some interest for us to inquire consist of a great variety of apartments : how houses are built, and about the mate- -a saloon, a hall, a picture-gallery, a rials of which they are made ; and, lastly, large dining-room, library, dressingof the different styles of architecture: rooms, breakfast-rooms, and many others. for houses and temples were built of The house, or dwelling, of a king, a different forms in different ages, and are prince, is called a paluce, which is gennow very different in Asia from what erally very large, and contains many they are in Europe and America. other apartments, fitted up in the most
Houses have walls, roofs, doors, chin- splendid manner. neys, rooms, passages, stairs, floors, closets, The passages in a house lead from sinks, cellars, pantries, kitchens.
one room to another; the stairs lead to The roof of a house is the top of it, the bed-chambers, or other upper apartand is built aslant, so that when it rains ments; the floors of the rooms are genthe water may run off. A frame-work erally made of pine or oak. The former of wood is made, which is first covered are usually covered with painted canvass with boards, and afterwards with shin. called oil-cloth, and the latter with carpet. gles or slates.
The cellar of a house is generally The walls of a house are made either under ground, and is used for keeping of bricks or stones, laid one on the top of coals, wood, beer, and wine in. Closets the other, and joined together by cement are for the purpose of placing clothes or mortar, or of wood.
and linen in security; the pantry and The chimneys proceed from the fire- larder are for provisions of various
kinds; and the kitchen is a place to 6. I am sure I should never neglect it, cook our food in.
mainma; and, if you will give me a shilling, I can buy a beauty-a real
white French rabbit, with red eyes, and Edwin, the Rabbit-Fancier.
a coat like swansdown. Do, dear mam
ma, give me a shilling.' “Edwin was a very tender-hearted “No, my dear,' said she, 'I really boy, and very eager about a thing when must refuse you.' he took it into his head; but his en- “Now, although Edwin was a little thusiasm very often left him just at the boy, he said to himself, 'I know it is time it ought to have remained with only because mamma wishes to save her him. Thus he never pursued any study money; 't is not because she really thinks or amusement for any length of time with I shall neglect the rabbit, but because profit to himself, and often fell into very she does not like to part with her money.' grievous errors.
-He thought himself very cunning ; “Oh! dear mamma,' said he one did he not? day to his mother, 'I do wish so that I “ So Edwin began to pout and whine, had something for a pet; there is and to tease his mamma, being deterCharles Jones has a sweet little bird, mined to let her have no peace. and cousin James has a squirrel. I “You know, mamma,' said he, 'I shall should so like something for a pet. Do, be so fond of it; I will make it a house ; mamma, buy me something—a Guinea and then I could cut down some grass, pig, or a couple of pigeons, or a rabbit. and dry it, and make hay for it to lie Oh! I saw such a beautiful white rabbit upon; and I could sow some oats for it yesterday!
in my garden; I should not want any· Ay, my dear,' said his mamma, 'I thing else to amuse me all the year am afraid
tired of round.' your rabbit, as you did of your gun, and “ Whether to humor Edwin, or to how and arrow, and ship, and rocking, teach him a lesson, I will not say, but horse.'
his mamma gave him a shilling, and “Oh, but a rabbit is quite different, off he ran, and purchased the milk-white, mamma; you can love a rabbit, you red-eyed rabbit. know, and coax it, and feed it, and make " Joyful enough was he when he it happy. I should go out early in the brought it home: he paraded it round morning, and pick some nice clover for the house, showed it to every member it, and some thistle, and dandelion, and of the family, housemaid, gardener, footmarsh-mallows. I know how to feed man, and cook; and everybody praised rabbits, I have learned all about it. I the rabbit, and said it was a most must not give them too much green stuff, beautiful creature. but some nice bran and oats; and then “ The next morning Edwin rose beI could make a little trough for it to eat times, and began to look for wood to you know; and-and
build his rabbit-hutch. He procurea “I am sure, my dear, it would be too saw, nails, and hammer; and at last much trouble to you ; rabbits require a found some old planks, and began to great deal of care and attention, and you saw them, and cut them, and chisel and so soon get tired of anything you take plane, till his little arms ached again. up, that I fear it would soon suffer from • He had soon cut two or three pieces neglect.'
of board up, but to no purpose; one was
too short, and another too long; a third “ The fact was, Edwin was getting had a knot in it; and a fourth was tired of his rablot; he, however, bought spoiled in splitting. Vexed with his it a few oats, and gave it a little hay. want of success, Edwin said, 'I shall He went out for a few mornings and not make him a house to-night-he gathered a little clover, but in less than must be content with being fastened in a week this was thought to be a great the coal-hole to-night-he will have deal of trouble ; besides which, the rabplenty of room to run about.'
bit seemed lame, and did not look so “So Bunny was put into the coal-hole pretty as it did at first. with a handful of cabbage-leaves, and “At last, Edwin quite forgot his rabbit told to make himself happy till the morn- for two days, and when he went to look ing; and, as it happened to be a holiday, at it he was surprised to find it lying on Edwin went to amuse himself by letting its side. He called, Bunny, Bunny. off fireworks.
The poor thing looked at him, and "In the morning Edwin went to the seemed pleased to see him, for its long coal-hole to look after Bunny. There ears moved as if it was. it was, sure enough; but instead of its " Edwin took it up; it seemed to have being a beautiful white rabbit, by hop- lost the use of its hind legs; it squeaked ping about among the coals it had be. when it was touched; and so the little come almost as black as the coals them- boy laid it down again. He felt it all selves.
over-it was very thin, and seemed half “. Well, I never !' said the little boy - starved. what a dirty little thing it is ;' and so he “Edwin now ran and got a saucertried to catch it; but Bunny, not liking full of oats, and placed it beside the poor to be caught, led the youngster a fine thing; he also ran to the next field, and dance in the coal-hole, and at last he fell plucked some nice sow-thistle, and gave over a large lump of coal, and dirtied it to eat. Bunny looked grateful, and his clean frill and white apron
tried to eat, but could not. * It was difficult to
which was the “Edwin, in placing his hand down dirtiest of the two, Edwin or his rabbit. by its side, felt the beatings of its heart; The little boy, however, being quite out it went beat, beat, beat-throb, throb, of patience, made no further effort, but throb, quicker than a watch; and every shut the coal-hole door, and in great now and then its head twitched, and the trouble ran to the nursery-maid to put skin of its jaw drew up, as if it were in him into cleaner trim. He did not go great pain. again into the place where the rabbit " And yet the poor animal seemed was that day, and so the poor thing was glad to have some one by its side, and kept without food, for Edwin totally for- rubbed its nose against Edwin's hand; got he had not fed his pet.
and then it panted again, and its eyes However, the next day he again grew dim: it was dying. Poor little repaired to the place, and, having caught Edwin now began to cry. Bunny, took it into the stable-yard, and “Oh! my poor dear, dear, dear Bunput it into an unoccupied pig-sty. The ny,' said he, what shall I do to make first intention of making a house was you well ?-oh! what would I give ? quite given up, and Edwin began to Oh! I have killed you, for I know I have. think his rabbit a great plague; he, Oh! my poor dear Bunny-let me kiss however, gave it some more cabbage- you, dear Bunny. Here the little fellow leaves, and left it.
stooped down to kiss his rabbit.
at that moment it gave a struggle-in My child,' said his mamma, who the next it was dead.
watched him at his sorrowful task, “if “ Edwin's eyes were full of tears, and you had taken half the trouble for Bunny, when he could see through them, and when alive, as you do now he is dead, found out what had happened, he broke he would have been alive now.' out into loud sobs and cries, till he “ Yes, yes, dear mamma,-I knowroused the whole house. • Oh!
my I know; but do tell me, pray do,—will dear rabbit-oh! I have killed my rabbit not rabbits go to heaven? Is there not -oh! what shall I do?' he uttered in some place where they can be happy? deepest grief.
I hope my poor dear Bunny may; and Ay,' said his mamma, who was here the little fellow sobbed again. called to the spot by his outcries; 'I “Give me a kiss, my dear boy,' said feared it would be thus :—who would his mamma; come, leave this spot;' think a house-bred rabbit could live in and so she led him gently away from a damp pig-sty? The poor thing has the rabbit's grave." been destroyed by neglect.'
Oh, yes, dear mamma, do not scold me; I know I have been very naughty. Oh, I do love my dear rabbit ;-I love it Merry's Adventures. more now it is dead than I did when it was alive ;-but is it really dead, mam
CHAPTER XIX. ma ?-no; is it?—it is quite warm, and may get well again,-say it will, there's The next morning was fair, and we a dear, dear mother;' and then he cried glided rapidly down the river. The again.
banks on each side were hilly, and pre“ The rabbit was, however, dead; and sented several small towns to our view. had caught its death in the way Edwin's At length we noticed on the western mamma supposed, by being ill fed, and border a tall blue mountain, which kept in a damp place, by thoughtless, if seemed to rise up like a vast thundernot cruel neglect.
cloud. This I was told was called the “Edwin was overcome with grief,- Kattskill. It consists of many peaks, but it was now too late. Sad was the with deep ravines, and beautiful waternext night to him, for something told falls between them. The scenery among him he had been cruel to that which he these mountains is so wild and interesthad promised to love. He got no sleep; ing that many people visit them every and early in the morning he arose, and year. Opposite to these mountains is went to the place where his pet was laid. the city of Hudson. We stopped there
“He wept all the next day; and, in about an hour. I found it quite a small the evening, he dug a grave in his own place then, but now it has seven thoulittle garden, close by the side of a young sand inhabitants. rose tree. Then he wrapped the body Having taken on board three or four in some nice hay, and laid it in its nar- persons, with a quantity of butter, cheese, row cell, and placed rose-leaves upon it, and other articles for New York, we deand covered it gently with the earth ;- parted and proceeded down the river. and his heart was like to burst when he The scenery was still very beautiful. heaped the mould over it, and he was the river wound between tall mountains, forced to pause in his task by the full which came down to the water's edge, gushing of his tears.
and seemed sometimes to encircle it, so
as to make it appear like a lake. But, and, being convicted, was sentenced to as we proceeded, the vast mountains ap- death, this being according to the usages peared to recede, and open a passage for of war. André was a fine young officer, us. Frequently we passed close to the and Washington wished very much to shore, and I could not but admire the save his life. But this he could not acwonderful beauty of the trees that clothed complish consistently with his duty to the sides of the mountain. It was au- his country. tumn, you remember, and the leaves André was confined at a house in the were of many colors; some were yel- town of Bedford, next to Salem, and my low, some red, some purple, and some friend Mat Olmsted recollected perfectgreen. There was something sad about ly well to have seen him there. He deall this; for we knew that these bright scribed him as a tall young man, with hues are but the signs of coming death. blue eyes, his hair powdered white, and We knew that this coat of many colors wearing a red coat. Matthew told me which is thrown over the mountain, a great many stories about him. He making it appear so gay, is but a gaudy said all the people were very sorry to mantle that will soon give place to the have him executed. When he passed winter winding-sheet of snow. But along between the files of soldiers to the still, even though the woods in autumn scaffold, there was scarcely an individumay be a little melancholy, I do not like al who did not weep. Tears even rolled them the less for that. As I passed down the rugged cheeks of the soldiers, along the mountain slopes, catching who had been accustomed to scenes of glimpses between the trees into the val. battle and bloodshed. leys, or far away between the tops of the André alone seemed firm and collectpeaks, seeming to float in a sea of azure, ed. He walked erect, and such was his I felt as if I could make the woods my presence of mind when he ascended the home forever!
scaffold, that happening to soil his coat The next day we passed by a lofty by pressing against one of the posts, he cliff
, called West Point, where old Fort calmly took out his handkerchief and Putnam is situated, and where there is brushed the dust away.
This was a now an academy in which young men kind of sign and illustration of his life receive a military education. This was and character. Though he was a spy, a famous place in the revolutionary war. he did not die dishonored; but the dig. Here was the scene of Benedict Arnold's nity of his bearing brushed away the treachery. He was entrusted with the soil upon the soldier, and he perished command of this fort by Washington, amid the regrets of those whom war had who had great confidence in him; but made his enemies, leaving behind him Arnold was a bad man, and he secretly thousands of hearts to mourn his unagreed to give up the fort to the British, timely fate. if they would pay him a large sum of The day after we passed West Point money, and give him a command in their we saw something coming up the river, army. Major André, a British officer, paddling through the water, and smokcame up the river from New York, and ing away at a great rate. Mat said met Arnold one night to arrange the it must be a Dutchman, and a cousin to scheme.
our Captain Volcano; but we were told On his return, André was taken by it was a steamboat! I had heard of such some Americans, and brought before a thing, but had never seen one. There Washington. He was tried as a spy, had been a good deal said in the news