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Smelling. I PROPOSE to give my readers some the mind, these nerves extend to it, and remarks upon the five senses; and I convey to that organ every impression shall begin with smelling. The seat of that is made upon them. The nerves are this sense is the nose, and the chief in- like sentinels or messengers stationed in strument by which it operates is a soft all parts of the body, whose duty it is to membrane, lining the interior of the nos- communicate to the seat of power—to the trils. This is covered over with an infi- brain, and thus to the intellect-everynite number of organs, too delicate to be thing that happens to the body. Thus, seen by the naked eye, called the olfac- if you pinch your finger, or stub your tory nerves. As the brain is the seat of toe, or put your hand in the fire, or taste



of an apple, the nerves carry the story to of twenty different ingredients, have not the mind; and thus it is that we feel and their senses thus blunted and corrupted. find out what is going on.

The cow, the sheep, the horse, all are So it is with the olfactory nerves ; they guided, as they graze among a thousand have the power of perceiving what efflu- kinds of herbs, by the certain and effecvia is in the air, and they tell the mind tual power of smell, to choose those of it. At first thought, it might not seem which are wholesome, and to reject those that smelling was a very important sense. which are hurtful. Now if mankind The lady in the preceding picture ap- were as natural and simple in their habpears to think that the nose is made its as these animals, no doubt the sense only that she may enjoy the perfume of of smell would be a good counsellor as the rose; and there are others who take to what food is good and what is bad. a very different view of the matter. I There is one very curious thing to be once knew a fellow who insisted upon noticed here, which is, that what is it that there were more bad smells than pleasant to one is offensive to another. good ones in the world, and therefore he Now putrid meat is wholesome to a dog ; said that the sense of smelling was a it sets well upon his stomach; and acnuisance, as it brought more pain than cordingly it smells good to him. But pleasure. I am inclined to think that such food would produce disease in man; this view was not singular, for I know and to him the smell of it is loathsome. several people who go about with their This shows, very clearly, that the sense noses curled up, as if some bad odor was of smell is a kind of adviser to tell always distressing them. I make it a creatures how to select their food. It point, when I meet such discontented also induces us to avoid places where people, to cross over, and go along on the air is tainted or impure; for we are t'other side of the way.

liable to contract diseases in such an atBut, however others may feel, I main- mosphere. Thus it is obvious that the tain that the nose is, on the whole, a sense of smelling is important not only good thing—that smelling is a conveni- as a guide to health, but as a guardian ent sense, and that we could not get against disease and death. along very well without it. Let us con- In many animals the sense of smell is sider the matter.

The dog will trace his mas. It must be remarked, in the first place, ter's footsteps, by the scent alone, through that in man, as well as animals, the the streets of a city, and amid a thousense of smelling is placed very near sand other footsteps; he will follow the the sense of taste and the organs of eat- track of the fox, or the hare, or the bird, ing. We may, therefore, infer that for hours after it has passed along. The smelling is a guide to us in the choice vulture scents the carrion for miles; and of food, that what is of a good flavor, in the wolf, the hyæna, and the jackal, seem general, is wholesome, and that what is to possess a similar acuteness of scent. of an offensive smell is unwholesome. While the sense of smell is thus sharp The fact, doubtless, is, that we abuse the in some animals, others, which need it sense of smelling so much by the artifi- less, possess it in an inferior degree. cial tastes we cultivate, by eating spices Fishes have only a simple cavity on and pickles, and a great variety of con- each side of the nose, through which diments, that it ceases to aid us as much water, impregnated with odors, flows, and as nature intended it should. Brutes, communicates the sensation of smell. who never eat cooked dishes, composed Many of the inferior animals, as worms,

very acute.


reptiles, and insects, have still less per- city, Cortez began to reflect on the danfect organs of sensation, and probably ger of his situation. Shut up, with a possess the sense of smell only to a cor- handful of men, in a vast city, whose responding extent.

sovereign was perhaps only restrained by fear from inflicting punishment on his audacious visiters, he saw that,

should they once lose their hold on the Sketches of the Manners, Customs, utmost peril from his resentment at their

mind of the king, they would be in the &c. of the Indians of America. open contempt of his authority. Ac

cordingly he resolved to render himself CHAPTER XVI.

secure by a bold and ingenious plan.

He determined to induce the emperor, Cortez enters the city of Mexico.-Meeting with by entreaties or force, to take up his resi

Montezuma.Cortez seizes the emperor.- dence in the Spanish quarters, where he Effect on the Mexicans.-Cortez is attacked would always be in their power. The by the Mexicans, and Montezuma dies.Cortez retreats from the city.— Is victorious in next day, therefore, proceeding to the a battle.-- Obtains possession of Mexico. palace, accompanied by a few of his

officers, he demanded and obtained a AFTER remaining about twenty days private interview with the emperor; and in Tlascala, to recruit the strength of at last, by assurances of safety if he his soldiers, Cortez resumed his march complied, and threats of immediate for the capital. The emperor, convinced death if he refused, he prevailed upon by the fate which had overtaken the him to trust himself in the hands of the Tlascalans that it would be vain to Spaniards. oppose the advance of so powerful an The dejected king was carried to the embassy, consented at last to receive residence of Cortez by his weeping atthem into the city, and to allow them tendants, who naturally suspected that an audience. The Spaniards accordhe was to be held in custody, as a hostingly advanced with great care, for fear age for the safety of his jailers. They of surprise, and at last began to cross did not, however, dare to oppose the the causeway which led to Mexico, will of their sovereign ; and Montezuma through the lake.

remained thenceforth a close prisoner in As they drew near the city, they were the hands of Cortez.

Still he was met by a magnificent procession, in treated by the Spaniards with all the which Montezuma appeared, seated on respect due to his rank, and the operaa litter, which was carried on the shoul- tions of government went on as usual, ders of four of his chief favorites. He under the name of Montezuma, but princireceived Cortez with the greatest re- pally according to the directions of Cortez. spect, and conducted him to a palace, By means of the power thus acquired, built by his father, where he invited Cortez was able to collect a large amount him to take up his abode. It was of of gold and silver from the royal treasustone, and so large that the whole Span- ries, which appeared to the troops sufish force was quartered in it.

ficient to repay them for all the toils and After remaining quiet several days, hardships which they had undergone; during which he had several interviews but when two fifths had been subtracted with the emperor, and had time to per- for the king and Cortez, together with ceive the extent and grandeur of the the sums spent in fitting out the expedi

He was


tion, the share of a private soldier was returned to Mexico, as hastily as he found to be so small, that many rejected came; for he had received from Alvait with disdain, and all murmured loudly rado the alarming intelligence, that, in at the cruel disappointment-a just pun- consequence of the cruelty of the Spanishment for the greedy avarice which iards, the inhabitants had risen upon had prompted the undertaking.

them, killed several, wounded more, and In this state matters remained for were closely besieging them in their about six months. Montezuma now re- quarters. Cortez, however, was suffered minded his visiters, that since they had to enter the city unopposed. obtained all that they required, it was received by his countrymen with transtime for them to depart from the capital. ports of joy, but he found that the revCortez was not then in a situation openly erence, with which the Mexicans once to oppose this request. He, therefore, regarded him, was gone. The

very in order to gain time for reinforcements next day, they attacked him with the to arrive from Spain, replied that he in- utmost fury, and were not repulsed withtended to depart as soon as he should out the greatest difficulty. Two sallies, be able to build a sufficient number of which the Spaniards afterwards made, ships, in place of those which had been were ineffectual. burnt. This appeared so reasonable to Cortez now resolved to try a new expedithe king, that he ordered him to be sup- ent. When the Mexicans approached, the plied with all the materials that he might next morning, to renew the assault, they want for this purpose.

beheld their captive sovereign, who, in his While Cortez was in this state of sus- royal robes, advanced to the battlements, pense, he received the unwelcome news and, while every tongue was mute, adthat a body of Spaniards, more than a dressed them in behalf of the Spaniards, thousand in number, had landed on the and exhorted them to cease from hostilicoast, sent by the governor of Cuba, ties. For a moment, a profound silence who was his enemy, with orders to de- reigned; but the Mexicans had lost the prive him of his power, and send him, reverence which they bore toward their bound, to Cuba, to receive punishment monarch, and they soon broke out into as a traitor to his sovereign. This was a loud reproaches and execration of his cowcritical moment; but Cortez was not a ardice. A volley of stones and arrows man to be discouraged by any danger. He succeeded, one of which struck Monteleft a hundred and fifty men in the capi- zuma on the temple, and he fell. The tal, directing them to keep a most watch- Mexicans, seized with horror and reful eye upon the king, and to use every morse at the effects of their rage, fled in means to preserve the city quiet during terror from the walls.

The unhappy his absence. He then marched with king was borne to his apartments by his the utmost celerity to the place where attendants, who strove to console him his enemies were encamped, took them for his misfortune ; but in vain. Brokenby surprise, and made them all prison- hearted at the disobedience of his subers, with the loss of only two men. He jects, and his own wretched situation, then, by kind and friendly treatment, he tore the bandages from his breast, and and glowing descriptions of the riches refused all nourishment, till death speedwhich they would obtain under his com- ily terminated his sufferings. mand, prevailed upon the whole army After the death of his royal captive, to enlist under his banners.

Cortez had no other resource than to With this welcome reinforcement, he retreat at once from the city. He made

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his preparations with all diligence, and, view, covered with a vast army, extendon the night of the 1st of July, 1520, ing as far as the eye could reach. At set out on his march, hoping to with- the sight of this great multitude, many draw unperceived. But he was fatally of the bravest Spaniards began to demistaken. All his motions were closely spair ; but, encouraged by the words watched by the natives, and before he and example of their undaunted genreached the middle of the causeway eral, they advanced; their enemies gave leading from the city, through the lake, way before them, but only to return he was suddenly attacked by them, both again to the combat in another quarter. in front and rear-while from the canoes Hundreds fell, but hundreds appeared to in the lake showers of arrows were supply their places; until the Spaniards poured upon them from unseen foes. were ready to sink under the fatigue of The Spaniards, confounded by the dark- their unavailing efforts. At this time, ness of the night, and the number of Cortez observed near him the great their enemies, after a slight resistance, standard of the Mexicans; and he recolbroke, and fled in utter confusion. Many lected to have heard, that upon the fate were slain ; a number perished in the of this depended the success of every lake, and some fell into the hands of the battle. Collecting a few of his brave enemy. The fate of the last was far the officers, whose horses were still capable worst-for they were reserved to be sa- of service, he dashed with tremendous crificed, with the most cruel tortures, to force through the ranks of the enemy, the gods of the Mexicans.

slew their general, and seized the stanThe next morning, when Cortez re- dard. The Mexicans, seeing the fall of viewed the miserable remnants of his their sacred banner, gave up at once all troops, now reduced to less than half hope of victory, threw down their arms, their former number, he is said to have and fled in every direction. wept at contemplating the ravages made Cortez now continued his march, and among his brave followers in a single soon arrived into the territories of the night, which was long known and re- Tlascalans. By these faithful allies he membered by the Spaniards, as the night was received with as much cordiality as of sorrow.

ever, notwithstanding his reverses, and But the spirit of the Spanish leader he immediately set about making prepawas still unconquered; he encouraged rations for the conquest of Mexico, with his dejected followers by the hopes of so much diligence, that, at the end of six future victories, and exhorted them to months, he found himself at the head of push on with all speed to Tlascala, more than 500 Spaniards, and about 10,where they would again be surrounded 000 Tlascalans and other Indians. He did by their faithful friends. For six days not, however, undertake immediately the

, they proceeded with the greatest diffi- siege; he began by reducing, or gaining culty, constantly skirmishing with small over to his cause, the smaller cities lying bodies of Mexicans, who shouted as near the capital, and thus he gradually they approached, “Go on, robbers, go to confined the Mexican power within the place where you shall soon meet the smaller limits. vengeance due to your crimes.” The In the meantime, the Mexicans were Spaniards were not long left in doubt as not idle; directly after the death of Monto the meaning of these words; for, tezuma, his brother, Quetlevan, was reaching the top of an eminence before raised to the throne. His reign was them, a spacious valley opened to their short; within a few months he was car

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