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house and home by his visiters. After of the mountain, like a dome upon a taking some refreshment we all started gigantic edifice. It is too steep to be together, taking a soldier with us for a climbed, even by donkeys or mules, beguide and defence, being told this was sides, being of too loose materials to indispensable, for fear of robbery. These afford a footing for these animals. It people have a thousand cunning practices consists of coarse gravel, loose stones by which they obtrude their services and cinders, thrown out by the mountain upon you for a small compensation; and with as steep a slope as such loose matravellers generally put up with their terials can possibly lie in. tricks, to save themselves the trouble found a large number of the above menand delay of a dispute. My companions tioned animals waiting for their riders, were all mounted on donkeys, but on who had gone up. Our party dismountthis steep road, they never go faster than ed and began the ascent. I found it a common walk, so that I had no diffi. exceedingly toilsome. What with the culty in keeping up with them. One of steepness of the surface and the treach. our number was à lady, who rode her erous footing to my steps, I was congallant dapple in a queer, snug little sort stantly slipping backward, and losing of a pannier, or side-saddle, by the help by one step what I had gained in a dozen. of which she maintained her seat in But what was done with our fair comsafety, while the animal tottered and panion ? Ladies without number had scrambled over the crags and gullies. gone to the top of the mountain, and she

In a short time the vineyards disap- was resolved not to be outdone by any peared, and the road passed over broken one of them. Ladies have never been heaps of lava. The great cone of Vesu- considered deficient in curiosity; and vius lay before us, towering over our the mountaineers have a contrivance by heads. On the left we looked down into which they can be gratified in their dea deep, rocky gull, beyond which rose sire to visit the summit of Vesuvius. the long, craggy,

red ridge of Monte Three or four stout fellows harness Somma, the twin peak of Vesuvius. On themselves with a strong leather strap, our right, the

eye wandered over an im- which they pass around the lady's waist mense field of black lava, which dark- and then march onward, drawing her ened the sides of the mountain up to the after them. In this manner our fair atvery top of the cone. The road now tendant managed to ascend the steep grew every moment steeper, and wound and slippery road up to the crater. through a wild region, among craggy About half way up we met another party, and ponderous masses of lava which likewise with a lady. She had less covered the ground in every direction. strength or resolution than our friend, All this tract was impassable for a long for she had given out, and was on the time, after the last eruption; the lava point of returning. being as hard as the firmest rock, and This great cone, when viewed from a rent into abrupt chasms and crags like a distance, seems to taper off almost to a field of broken ice. A path was at point; yet, on reaching the top, we found length made by cutting through these ourselves among heaps of enormous lava masses and beating the lava up into a crags extending widely around, with sort of Mac Adam. We passed a mile columns and jets of white smoke streamor two on this wild road, and at length ing up from the clefts and spiracles here reached the foot of the cone.

and there. We groped our way among This rests upon the main body these black and threatening masses, and


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presently came upon a party of travellers, suddenly but that a man may escape from seated upon a crag, eating their dinner. the top of the mountain to the foot, in The air was cool on the mountain top, season for his safety. Generally, some and they had fixed themselves in a com- days before the mountain begins to burn, fortable spot, where they were roasting it gives warning by subterranean noises, eggs in a hot crack of the lava! It costs slight shakings, and increased volumes nothing for fire here. The mountaineers of smoke. Whenever lives have been came round us with baskets of fruit, bot- lost, it has been owing to the disregard tles of wine, &c., to sell. They drive a of these symptoms, and the presumptuous profitable trade with hungry travellers curiosity of those who dare to ascend at the top of Vesuvius. People whose the mountain when on fire. heads are full of curiosity, are not apt to Heavy columns of smoke now rose higgle about prices, when they can pur- before us, pouring off horizontally chase a comfortable mouthful in so through the air over an abrupt and long strange a place as the summit of a vol- ridge of lava. On climbing this last

ascent, the view of the great crater burst CHAPTER XVIII:

upon us, with its yawning depths, puffing

out smoke and steam. Here we stopped Description of the crater.- Prospect from the top. to contemplate the spectacle. We stood

- Accident in the descent of the mountain. on the edge of the crater, which was wide Visit to Torre del Grecco. Singular life led enough to enable us to walk along By the inhabitants.-- Remarkable situation of a with safety. The smoke concealed one ponder-house.

side of it from our view. We judged it ALTHOUGH we were now on the top of about half a mile across; but in this lofty the mountain, yet the crater was still at region, with no neighboring objects for some distance, and we followed a rude the eye to light upon and form a compathway which ran for nearly a quarter parison, the measurement cannot be deof a mile among the lava crags. Every- pended on. It goes shelving down on where the rents and fissures sent up all sides, with

a fearful

showstreams of white smoke from beneath our ing great bright crags of brimstone and feet, and the smell of sulphur loaded the red fire-stones jutting out from the black air. The masses of lava were heaped lava surface. The great spiracle in the confusedly around us. The surface had centre appeared to be choked up; ihe evidently been once a smooth bed of this smoke rising through minor clefts ani hard material, which had cooled on the chinks all round the sides and bottom of spot after its ejection from the bowels of the crater. The edge on which we the mountain, and subsequently had been stood, and along which we walked for a split up and blown into fragments by quarter of a mile, was full of holes and another convulsion. There would be cracks sending out smoke ; and on no passing here had not a pathway been thrusting our sticks into them, they took made by levelling the crags and filling fire and were drawn out blazing. The up the

gaps which yawn at every step. windward side of the crater only, is acThe traveller is reminded at each mo- cessible; there is no going quite round, ment that he is walking over terrible on account of the suffocating smoke. fires which are at no great distance be- All the inner surface of the crater apneath his feet. For all this, no one peared to be firm and solid, and we need be afraid to go to the top of Vesu- judged, by throwing stones down, that a vius. Eruptions never break out so person might descend to the bottom in

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safety, were it not for the fumes of sul- great deal more dangerous. In the loose phur with which it is constantly filled. soil one is apt to move downward too I tried it for some distance, letting my. fast, and between walking and sliding, a self carefully down upon my hands and great deal of care must be taken lest you feet from crag to crag, until I became go heels over head. I had got about half stifed, when, being convinced that half way down, when I heard a loud cry no wise man would go any further, I above; I looked up and saw a great seized a fragment of the rock as a tro- stone coming down upon me. One of phy of my exploit, and clambered up the party above had loosened it, while again. The performance cost me the floundering and scrambling his way best part of a pair of boots, which were through the loose earth, and now gathpretty well crisped among the hot rocks. ering speed in its progress, it was rolling

The distant prospect from the top of down directly over my head, bouncing Vesuvius is most superb. The great, from heap to heap, and ploughing up the craggy red head of Monte Somma frowns soil in a most fearful manner. I scramwildly opposite, while far beneath are bled down hill much faster than before, the blue waters of the bay, the white but again casting my eyes upward, found clustering houses of Naples, the moun- that the stone was overtaking me. I tainous coast of Torrento, dotted with now began to feel seriously alarmed, for white houses, and the sweet blue islands I was in imminent danger of being of Capri, Ischia, and Procida, resting on crushed to death. The stone came the distant ocean. All around, on the thundering onward, but fortunately, just · land side, the eye wanders over green before it reached me, it struck a little fields, orchards, and gardens, fresh with knoll and bounded off obliquely, dashing flowers and herbage, even at this early the gravel and pebbles to the right and

Away in the east the long left and ploughing the ground into a fur· mountainous ridge of the Apennines is row, till it reached the bottom. A great seen skirting the horizon with their dark avalanche of earth and stones came poursides and snow-capped peaks. The ing after it, by which I was nearly car- . view is sublime, and worih, of itself, a ried off my legs and swept away; but voyage across the Atlantic.

by fixing my staff firmly into the ground We spent nearly an hour about the and resisting with main force, I checked crater, admiring the beauty and grandeur my slide till the danger was over. I of the scenery, and picking up curious reached the foot of the cone with no bits of lava and other minerals, which other mishap than to find myself comarrest the traveller's curiosity at every pletely out of breath. step. I found, among other things, a The guides told me that many accilump of salt, about the size of my fist, dents had happened and much injury most beautifully crystallized into the been occasioned to travellers by the tricks shape of a tree. As we were preparing of frolicsome and imprudent people, who to descend, I cast my eyes downward frequently set the stones rolling down · and discovered our donkeys at the foot hill for their own amusement. These

of the cone, standing huddled together are always the travellers themselves, for . in a cluster. They were almost directly the natives are too well acquainted with · under our feet, but at such a distance - the dangerous nature of such sport to that they were diminished to the size of allow themselves to practise it. young rabbits. To descend the cone is On our way homeward we went to quite as toilsome as to climb


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up, see the little town of Torre del Greco,

and a

which stands at some distance up the destruction; yet the vicinity of so much mountain. In the neighborhood are im- danger gives them no more concern, on mense fields of lava and every mark of common occasions, than the dangers of the fearful ravages of the volcano. the sea cause to a sailor. When the Whenever a great eruption takes place, mountain shakes and bellows, and the this town is almost sure to suffer. Earth- flames begin to issue from the top, they quakes shake it, ashes and cinders over- prepare for a start; but it is not till the whelm it, and rivers of burning lava streams of lava pour

the back scorch its fields and sweep away its of the town, that they consider it time houses. How many times it has been to run. Then they snatch up their bundestroyed I do not remember ; but the dles and scamper for life. It is remarkinhabitants always go back and rebuild able that the only powder magazine about it when the lava cools. They live a Naples used to be here, and, for aught I strange life, constantly in the jaws of know, may be so still !

down upon

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Herschel's Telescope.

Herschel the Astronomer. SiR WILLIAM Herschel was born at of which was forty feet in length, and Hanover, in Germany, in 1738. At the which was surrounded with machines age of fourteen he entered the Hanoverian for turning it in all directions. Guards, as a musician, and in 1757, pro- observing a heavenly body, he sat at the ceeded to England in that capacity. top of the tube, and looked down to the Here he became a teacher of music. În bottoni, where, in a measure, he saw the 1770, he began to devote himself to the reflection of the object he wished to nostudy of astronomy. In 1781, he dis- 'tice. În 1989, he discovered the sixth covered the planet now called Herschel, and seventh znoons of Saturn. He died but which he called Georgium sidus, or in 1822, in the eighty-fourth year of his George's star, in compliment to George age. His son is now one of the most III., then king of England. In 1787, he famous of living astronomers. completed his great telescope, the tube

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vast estate.



No. III. Truth and Falsehood—an Alle enough for a time, but soon it became

less defined, and several other roads gory.

branched off to the right and left. He,

however, proceeded—but at length the In ancient days, there lived in Damas- road entered a forest, which grew deeper cus, a city of Syria, a youth whose as he avanced, while the track became name was Myron. His father, who was more obscure. At last he came to a very rich, died suddenly, leaving him a point where he was entirely in doubt as to

He had a great deal of the road he was to take ; and this doubt money, and a beautiful house, to which a was mingled with anxiety, for night was

, fine garden was attached. One day he now at hand, and a thunder-storm was was walking in this garden, and the air approaching. Already the ruddy lightbeing warm and pleasant, he sat down ning was flashing among the dark shadby a fountain, sheltered from the sun by ows of the pines, and the thunder was the overhanging branches of the cedar- growling over the distant hills. trees. The scene was tranquil and While the youth was looking anxioussoothing, and such was its effect upon ly around for some one to be his guide Myron, that he fell into a dream or in this dilemma, he was surprised as reverie, in which the following events well as pleased to see a comely youth seemed actually to come to pass.

approaching him. Scarcely had he He fancied that he was walking in one greeted the young stranger, when an of the paths of the garden, thinking upon aged and reverend man also joined the the death of his father, and the situation party. in which he was now placed. His mo- Myron looked at them both attentively, ther had been dead for some years : he for their appearance was remarkable ; was therefore an orphan, and must de- beside, he was now in a situation to pend upon himself to mark out his need counsel and direction, and he course of conduct. His wealth, indeed, wished, if possible, to learn from the aspect brought around him a host of friends, of these persons, which he might most real or pretended—but could he confide safely trust. He was, however, unable in them? Some of them spoke smooth to decide between them, and at last he words to him, and flattered him, and spoke to them as follows: made themselves very agreeable; while "I am travelling, my friends, to a disothers were less pleasing, but apparently tant city, and having lost my way, I beg

I more sincere. But which, of all these you to tell me which road I am to folpersons, could he confide in? This low." question often occurred to him, and The youth replied, with a bland smile, he felt anxious to decide and act “Fair friend, I know the way to the city according to the dictates of wisdom. you seek, and as it is my pleasure to While he was thinking on this subject, aid the unfortunate, I will lead you to the scene changed, and he appeared to be the end of your journey, if you will put on a journey alone, and travelling a road yourself under my care.” which was new and strange to him. Myron noticed, that as the youth

The path before him seemed plain spoke, his face grew more lovely, and

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