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many magnificent edifices, and added cited the admiration and awe of the namuch, by his conquests, to the extent of tives, were no other than Cortez and his his dominions.

companions. In a war, however, with the brave re- On the second of April, 1519, this bold publicans of Tlascala, he did not meet and enterprising Spaniard entered the with his usual success. The Tlascalans harbor of Saint Juan de Ulua, on the having sent an embassy to the Mexican eastern coast of Mexico, with eleven court, to complain of grievances which small vessels, containing only about six they suffered from their neighbors, re- hundred men; and of these, more than ceived for answer, that the king of Mex- a hundred were sailors. With this ico was lord of all the world, and all small force was he about to make war mortals were his vassals; and that, as upon a monarch, whose dominions were such, the Tlascalans should render him more extensive than all the kingdoms due obedience, and acknowledge him by subject to the Spanish crown. On the tribute; if they refused, they were to be following day he landed his troops, and utterly destroyed, and their country having selected a suitable place for a given to another people.

camp, began to fortify it; in which he To this arrogant demand, the Tlasca- was zealously assisted by the unsuspectlans returned a brave and spirited refusal, ing natives. Here he was soon visited and both nations immediately prepared by the governors of the district. He for war.

The Mexicans were, by far, received them with many demonstrations the most numerous, but they wanted the of respect, and informed them that he courage which their enemies derived had come as ambassador from Don Carfrom the feeling that they fought for life los, of Spain, the greatest king of the and liberty, for their homes and their East, with proposals which he could only country.

The Tlascalans were victo- declare to their monarch himself. He rious in two pitched battles, and their therefore demanded to be led immediopponents were compelled to retire from ately to his presence. the contest in disgrace.

The governors attempted to dissuade With this exception, the first years of him from visiting the capital, but at the Montezuma's reign were in every re- same time laid before him a rich present spect prosperous. But suddenly a great of gold and silver articles, which had reverse took place; a large army of only the effect of increasing his desire Mexicans, on an expedition to a distant to proceed. He therefore repeated his country, after suffering severely from a demand in a determined tone. Seeing storm, were utterly destroyed by their among his visiters several painters, who enemies. At the same time, a comet were busily engaged in taking down, for made its appearance, spreading the greate the information of their sovereign, everyest consternation throughout the nation; thing remarkable in the appearance of for, according to their diviners, it por- the strangers, he resolved to give them a tended the downfall of the empire. specimen of his warlike power. He

While the king and his subjects were ordered his troops to be drawn up in in this state of anxiety and dread, news battle-array, and to go through the evoarrived, that a number of huge vessels, lutions of a mock battle. While the nabearing men speaking an unknown tives were gazing in astonishment at the tongue, and clothed in glittering armor, spectacle, the cannon, pointed towards had arrived on the coast of his empire. the thick woods which surrounded the These strangers, who so naturally ex- camp, were suddenly fired, and made terrible havoc among the trees. At the allegiance to the king of Spain. Cortez dreadful sound, some fled, others fell to eagerly accepted their services, and artthe ground, overcome by amazement and fully represented that he had been deterror; and the painters had now to exer- puted, by his sovereign, to redress the cise their ingenuity to invent figures and grievances which they had suffered at symbols by which to represent the new the hands of the Mexicans. These new and surprising things they had seen. allies afterwards proved extremely useful.

In a few days an answer was received After proceeding for several days from the emperor, refusing an audience, without obstruction, the Spaniards arand commanding the Spaniards to leave rived at the confines of Tlascala. Knowthe country; but, at the same time, di- ing the implacable enmity of the inhabrecting that they should be supplied with itants to the Mexicans, he expected that all things requisite for their voyage. he should meet from them a friendly Notwithstanding this prohibition, Cortez reception. The Tlascalans, however, resolved to proceed, and his followers were far differently disposed. Having eagerly joined in the determination. heard that he was on his way to visit They first set about founding a colony the Mexican king, they probably suson the place where they had landed, as pected, that, notwithstanding all his prothis was one of the objects of the expe- fessions, he courted the friendship of a dition. The whole army labored with monarch whom they both hated and the utmost* diligence; a number of feared. The ambassadors whom he sent houses, or rather huts, were soon erected, to them with proposals of alliance, they and the whole strongly fortified. The seized, and, regardless of their sacred infant settlement received the name of character, prepared to sacrifice them to “ Villa rica de la Vera Cruz ;" “ the their gods. At the same time they colrich town of the true cross."

lected their forces in order to prevent The next act of the troops appears de their unknown invaders from making serving of mention as a display of heroic good a passage by force of arms. and determined courage almost without This, however, was the only way by a parallel. Cortez, fearing lest, when which the Spaniards could hope to attain their enthusiasm should subside, the sol. the object of their expedition. Accorddiers should be seized with a desire to ingly, they entered the Tlascalan terreturn, by his arguments and represen- ritories, prepared to fight their way tations so wrought upon them, that, of through all opposition. They were imtheir own accord, to cut off all opportu. mediately attacked by the troops of the nity for retreat, they dragged the vessels enemy with great intrepidity; but courupon the beach, and burnt them to ashes. age and numbers availed little against

They had now no choice but to pro- the arms and discipline of the Spaniards, ceed; and, accordingly, much to the who were everywhere victorious, without dismay and dissatisfaction of the Indians, the loss of a man. The horses of the who did not, however, dare to oppose invaders contributed much to their sucthem by force, they set out on their cess. For a long time the horse and his march towards the capital. On their rider were considered as one animal ; way, they passed through the territories and terrible stories were circulated of his of several caziques or chiefs, who bore power and ferocity. Even when they with impatience the yoke of their Mexi- discovered their mistake, they still becan conquerors, and were glad to free lieved that the horse fought with his themselves from it, by transferring their teeth, and devoured the bodies of the slain. Hence, when they had the good that the small force, on which all their fortune to slay one of these terrible ani- numbers and boldness could make no mals, they cut off his head and carried impression, must be composed of beings it in triumph as the greatest trophy of of a superior order; and concluding that victory.

it would be in vain to contend longer But notwithstanding their constant with the children of the Sun, as they success, the Spaniards, at length, worn supposed them to be, they made proposals out by their continual exertions, and the of peace, which were joyfully accepted unceasing attacks of their determined by Cortez and his troops. They were foes, were almost ready to despair. But hospitably received into the capital of the Tlascalans, on a sudden, began to their former enemies, who ever after rerelax their exertions; they were convinced mained their most faithful allies.

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W110 has not watched with interest the summer dew, and alternately raising these little insects of the spring and sum- and lowering their long, and slender anmer? Who has not been struck with tennæ or feelers ? And who has not the elegant beauty of these creatures stopped to see them unroll their long

Which flutter round the jasmine stems, tube, coiled up like a French horn, and

Like winged flowers, or flying gems ? apply it to the sucking up of the nectar Who has not watched them, hovering of the flowers ? How beautiful are these over the flowers, more than rivalling creatures, and how beautifully did old these lovely creations of the garden and Spenser describe one of them almost the meadow, in the splendor of their three hundred years ago ! colors? And who has not seen them resting on the flower, with a touch so “The velvet nap which on his wings doth lie,

The silken down with which his back is light as not to make even the slender

dightest stalk bend? Who has not seen them His broad and outstretched horns, his airy reposing on the bosom of a flower, open- thighing and shutting their gaudy wings to His glorious colors and his glistening eye!


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The Voyages, Travels, and Experiences of Thomas Trotter.


ling at the top with sharp iron spikes,

broken glass, and such formidable deNaples and the neighborhood. The palace of fences. These things reminded me, pero

Portici.-Herculaneum.- Comical scene at Resina.--Ascent of Vesuvius. - Fields of lava. petually, that I was in a country where Meeting with a party of travellers. - Reach a wide distinction existed between the the top of the mountain.

poor and the rich, and where property

has little security from public opinion, or THE country all round Naples is full the moral habits of the common people, of strange and interesting objects for the but must be maintained by force. "In curiosity of a traveller. Vesuvius is fact, the owners of these beautiful dwel. commonly the first among these to entice lings, have far less comfort in their poshim upon an excursion. One fine morn- session than one would imagine. They ing I took my trusty stick in hand, and are surrounded by a poor, ignorant, imset out on a pedestrian jaunt towards the moral, and degraded population, against mountain. The roads were crowded whom they must be constantly on their with country people driving their little guard, for nothing but walls and watchdonkeys to the city, with panniers of men can insure the rich man against greens, oranges, leinons, and all sorts of depredation and robbery. fresh eatables for the market. The A few miles from the city, my course beautiful country-seats of the rich Nea- brought me in front of a splendid palace politans excited my admiration, with where the road appeared to terminate. their finely ornamented gardens, lawns, I thought I must have mistaken my and pleasure-grounds. But all these de- route, but on inquiring of an old friar, lightful spots are surrounded by stone who happened to be passing, I was told walls, ten or fifteen feet high, often brist- to go straight on. I now found the road

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to pass directly under the palace, which opened, and the astonished and affrighted hung over it upon lofty arches, wide travellers remained fast penned up and · enough for several carriages to pass unable to stir. The tumult and clamor abreast. This was the royal palace of increased; the poor little donkeys, squeezPortici, the place where the antiquities ed up in the crowd, whisked their long of Pompeii were formerly kept; but they ears about, and bobbed their noses against are now removed to Naples. At a little everybody around them; presently they distance beyond this town I came to a began kicking and rearing up, and now village called Resina, under which, at the scramble and uproar rose to a pitch the depth of seventy or one hundred feet, that surpasses all description! Downı lies the ancient city of Herculaneum. tumbles one of the donkeys, upsetting Nothing of it is to be seen but by going two or three fellows in his fall; another down a dark pit, like the shaft of a mine; animal pitches head-foremost over him ; and as I meant to devote this day to the crowd scramble and push forward ; Vesuvius, I deferred my visit to these whoever tries to get up catches hold of subterranean regions till another time. another's leg and lays him sprawling too;

Resina is the point where all travel. donkeys and men lay scrambling and lers stop to take their start for the moun- floundering, pell-mell, with a roaring and tain. The people of the village live by braying, such as never was heard before letting donkeys and acting as guides. under the sun! I laughed till the tears Beyond the village, the roads become ran down my cheeks, and even to this rugged and steep. Most travellers hire day, I never can think of the scene withthese animals, but I preferred walking. out laughing for the hundredth time! While I was stopping a few moments to At length the carriages made a start forrest, I heard whips cracking and the ward, leaving the whole ragged regiment sound of wheels; and presently a couple behind in the most woful plight. How of carriages drove into the village, full they settled the matter among themselves of English travellers, going up the I never knew, but jogged on my way up mountain. The street was already the mountain. crowded with villagers, each with his The road now began to be pretty steep, donkey saddled and bridled, ready for and the country looked broken and rugthe journey. The moment the carriages ged, yet I passed a great many vineyards stopped, they all crowded round them on the way, which shows that the ashes and began pushing, struggling, pulling, and volcanic matter of Vesuvius can bauling, tugging, and scratching, one make the rocky soil of this region very another; bawling and screaming all the productive. After going two or three time like a pack of bedlamites. Never miles, I reached the station called the Herin my life did I witness so comical a mitage, which is another stopping-place hurly-burly. Each man scrambled and for travellers. It is a kind of rustic hopressed for the carriage door, thrusting tel standing in a lonely place, where the his donkey forward through the crowd, vineyards yield a species of wine which by main force, hoping to catch an is in high repute. I found half a dozen Englishman on his back as he stepped travellers stopping here to refresh, and out of the carriage. The first comer joined them. The keeper of this house was thrust away by the second, and this goes by the name of the Hermit, but one by the third ; the whole crowd of always expects pay for giving you a them were jammed so hard against the luncheon. This is fair enough, for, carriages that the doors could not be otherwise, he would soon be eaten out of


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