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Last autumn, however, when after nearly five years a portion of the proof was ready, it appeared that, owing to the shattered state of his health, His Excellency Field-marshal Count Roon was for the time unable to examine the contents of the “Ethnology,” and that although he intended to do so when convalescent, yet if such delay should be prejudicial to the author and the publisher, he urged an immediate publication of the work, but that in this case any mention of his name on the title-page must be omitted. Any longer delay was indeed undesirable, for the rapidity with which writings grow old, owing to the present activity of science, more especially in the province of ethnology, was painfully impressed upon the author while his work was in the press, by the appearance of several new investigations, of which he was unable to make use. Thus in the early chapters the Mohammedan monarchy at Talifu was described as extant and prosperous, whereas, according to the latest intelligence, the Chinese destroyed it in 1872.

The original object of the undertaking, namely, to urge anew the scientific claims of A. von Roon's “ Völkerkunde als Propädeutik der politischen Geographie," thus came to naught, much to the regret of the author.


Leipsic, Jan. TO, 1874.


The issue of a Second Edition has been delayed for some time by
the author that he might avail himself of the opportunity completely
to rearrange his work. But owing to considerations of health
this intention must be postponed to a future time. Such addi-
tional material as has been gathered, as well as all elucidations
derived from critical discussions on ethnology in the press of
Germany and of other countries, and in private correspondence,
have been placed in the list of “Addenda and Corrections
before the list of “Contents."

.”* Although at present no alteration of
the systematic groups has been adopted, it must be remembered
that new arguments have lately been urged against the com-
bination of the Indo-European, Semitic, and Hamite nations into
a Mediterranean race. When, for instance, Professor R. Hart-
mann recognized a remarkable correspondence between the skulls
of the Shillook negroes and the heads of the old Egyptians and
of their descendants, the Fellaheen (Schweinfurth, The Heart of
Africa, vol. i. p. 96), such a fact could not fail to produce a
deep impression. On the other hand, in the absence of measure-

These have been inserted in the text of the English edition.

ments and distinct physical descriptions of many members of
these groups, a separation could not as yet be carried into effect :
nor is it indeed impossible that proof may yet be obtained of the
common origin. In the three great groups of languages it is
perhaps unadvisable hastily to replace an old and questionable
arrangement by one which, though new, is also questionable.


Leipzic, October, 1874.

V.--Skin and Hair. Pigment Cells. Colour of New-born Infants.

Odour. Origin of the Colour of the , Skin. Colour of the Hair. Section
of the Hair. Matting of the Hair. Hair on the Body.

1.-Evolutionary History of Human Language. Language of Animals.

Independence of Sound and Sense. Onomatopoetry. Interjections. Accentu-
ation. Gestures. Deaf-mutes. Infantine Language. Wealth of Words.

1.- Primitive Condition. No Animal Condition demonstrated. Discovery of

Fire. Fire-Drills. Bushmen. Veddahs. Mincopies. Fuegians. Botocudos.
Causes of the Extinction of Barbarous Nations.

II.— Food and its Preparation. Wild Nutritive Plants. Pantophagy.
Cannibalism. Alcoholic and Narcotic Articles of Food. Stone Cooking
Earthenware Vessels. Forks. Spoons. Salt.

III.-Clothing and Shelter. Sense of Modesty. Materials of Clothing.
Clothing of the Feet. Screens of Foliage. Leaf Huts. Stone Buildings.
Arched Vaulting

IV.-Weapons. Bows and Arrows. Blow Pipes. Arrow Poisons. Slings.
Weapons of Agricultural Nations.

V.-Boats and Navigation. Rivers and Inland Seas Phoenicians and
Arabs. Inhabitants of Fiords. Islanders.

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