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the other (Hypnum fluitans, var. tenuissima) in marshy Alpine meadows and in Arctic America. These are facts which firmly convince every one versed in geology that man inhabited Suabia as early as the glacial period. The prevalence of glaciers in this district at an earlier period must not, however, be explained by the solar system having passed through colder regions of the heavens, less warmed by stellar light, nor yet by the precession of the equinoxes during a period of increased eccentricity of the earth's orbit, for in both cases the glacial period would have extended equally over every portion of the northern hemisphere, whereas its traces are very faint in the Caucasus, and totally wanting in the Altai.22 But the prevalence of glaciers in Switzerland and the neighbouring countries may be easily explained by a different distribution of land and water in Europe. Nevertheless, 'as changes in the outlines of continents require periods of extremely long duration, the presence of man in the glacial period of Suabia is quite sufficient to bespeak a high antiquity for the first appearance of our race.

Far more recent are the memorials which former inhabitants of the Baltic coast have piled up like embankments on the shores of Jutland and the Danish islands, of the shells of edible mussels; archæologists have bestowed on these the suitable name of kitchen-middens. Among this refuse of food were found stone implements, with roughly chipped or occasionally smooth surfaces, fragments of earthen vessels, the remains of dogs as domestic animals, and even a spindle, but no traces of extinct animals of the diluvial period. Hence, at the time of their accumulations, these eaters of shell-fish either did not yet practise, or were just beginning to exercise, the art of polishing flint. A better idea of the age of these shell heaps is suggested by the circumstance that Jutland and the Danish islands were at that time covered with pine forests. These fir-trees had disappeared by the time that the

21 O. Frass, Die neuesten Erfunde an der Schussenquelle, Wurtemb. naturwissensch. Jahreshefte, § i. pp. 7-24. 1867. In the Archiv für Anthropologie, vol. ii. p. 33, Fraas cites among the discoveries a third moss (Hypnum aduncum, var. Greenlandica Hedw.), now found only in the northern regions.

22 B. v. Cotta, Der Altai, p. 65. Leipzig, 1871.

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inhabitants had supplied themselves with bronze implements, and oaks took their place. But, since the bronze period, the oak forests have gradually been supplanted by the beech, which now occupies that district almost exclusively. The kitchen-middens, however, contain the bones of the black cock, which feeds on the sprouts of the fir-tree, and presupposes the presence of conifers. Since the time of the mussel-eating inhabitants of these shores, this region has therefore twice changed its vegetation, a process which assuredly must each time have required thousands of years.23 This is also confirmed by the occurrence of oyster-shells in the Danish kitchen-middens, for the oyster no longer thrives in the Baltic, on account of the small proportion of salt contained in its waters. Consequently, currents from the North Sea must then have reached the Danish islands by channels much wider than the Sound, as it now exists.

Among the most recent remains of prehistoric ages are the villages on the Alpine lakes, which were built over the water on platforms of piles as was Venice originally, and as is the case even now with the dwellings of the natives of the Gulf of Maracaibo with the town of Brunai in Borneo, and the huts of the Papuans on the northern coast of New Guinea. 24 The custom of building huts on platforms erected in the water, must have continued through long periods; for in the older lake dwellings there are stone blades polished, but not pierced or, in other wordsaxe prepared for the reception of a handle; in the more modern villages, on the contrary, the pointed stones are pierced; and in the most recent, bronze implements already appear amongst the stone. Although the greater number of lake dwellings were destroyed by fire, it is not necessary to suppose that this was always caused by hostile invasions, for we shall presently find

23 Sir Charles Lyell, Antiquity of Man, pp. 9-17. London, 1863.

24 The Gulf of Maracaibo was called the Gulf of Venice by its first discoverers, because an Indian lake village at the entrance had previously received the name of Venezuela (See Peschel, Zeitalter der Entdeckungen, p. 313). Even at the present day dwellings are built on piles in the middle of the Gulf of Maracaibo (Ramon Paez, Wild Scenes in South America, p. 392). On the Papuan lake dwellings, see Wallace, Malay Archipelago, vol. ii. p. 282; and on Brunai, see Spenser St. John, Life in the Far East, vol. i. p. 39. London, 1862.

But they they were actually insertipled into a socke of home & that was, put in a hardin.

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races of men who have been induced by Shamanistic superstition,25 to set fire to their own abodes when they are about to migrate. There is nothing at present to hinder us from considering the lake dwellers of Switzerland to have been an Aryan people. Thus, the skull of a child about thirteen years of age, found near Meilen, and the skull of the bronze period discovered at Auvernier, both belong to the so-called Sion type, of which the Celtic Helvetian is the representative. 26 The Swiss lake dwellers practised husbandry and ate bread, planted fruit-trees, and dried apples. Cattle, sheep, and goats inhabited the lake buildings in company with their owners; provision must therefore have been made for their forage in the winter-time; even cats and dogs had already been domesticated as companions. The pig alone remained in a wild condition, at least at the time of the oldest settlements; the ure-ox, the bison, and the elk were still, though perhaps rarely, among the booty of the chase. Except these animals, which have been extirpated within historic times, the fauna has suffered no losses; and in the vegetable kingdom the change is limited to the disappearance of one species of conifer and two aquatic plants, which have disappeared from the plains. 27 These lake buildings are in some cases buried beneath layers of peat, in others removed inland from the shore by the silting up of the lakes; or the stone implements were buried beneath the detritus of torrents, as in the delta of the Tinière, near Villeneuve, on the Lake of Geneva. From the size and extent of these new formations, an attempt has been made to refer these relics to a period some five to seven thousand years ago. But all the ingenuity of investigators was baffled by the unfortunate circumstance that neither the growth of peat nor the deposition of mountain detritus proceeds with the same regularity as the sand in an hour-glass, but in such formations, periods of repose alternate with periods of activity. At present, therefore, no fact necessitates our regarding any of these remains of lake dwellings as older than the pyramids of the Nile, nor would it

25 This is Peschel's term for all priestcraft.

26 His u. Rütimeyer, Crania Helvetica, pp. 36, 37.

27 Rütimeyer, Die Fauna der Pfahlbauten in der Schweiz, pp. 8, 228, and 229. Basle, 1861.

Lake Dwellings.

even be possible to disprove an assertion that the remnants of the stone age in Switzerland belong to a period between one and two thousand years before Christ.

The attempt to find a reliable date for the very ancient evidence we have of man's presence in Egypt has never met with complete

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success.

In 1851-54, no less than ninety-six shafts in four rows, at intervals of eight English miles, were sunk at right angles to the Nile, by an excellent engineer, Hekekyan Bey, under the superintendence of Leonard Horner,28 an extremely cautious geologist. The greater number of these borings furnished remains of domestic animals, fragments of bricks, and pottery at various depths. These relics did not always afford a satisfactory date of their antiquity, for the strata which were pierced were often broken by layers of sand, due to the action of the desert wind. In the immediate vicinity of the statue of Rameses II. at Memphis, from beneath strata of pure Nilitic mud, over which the desert sand had not been wafted, a red baked potsherd was extracted from a depth of thirtynine feet. Since the statue of Rameses II. was erected, that is, since about 1361 B.C., a Nilitic stratum of nine feet four inches has accumulated round it, without reckoning a stratum of sand eight inches in depth; the rate of alluvial formation in this place has therefore been three and a half inches in the century since 1361 B.C. Hence if this potsherd has been covered by Nile mud at the same rate, earthen vessels must have been baked on the Nile 11,646 years before the commencement of our era. Many groundless objections have been raised against this calculation. Some conjectured that in old times the Nile flowed beneath the statue of Rameses, others, forgetting that we were not dealing with a single fragment but merely with the one lying deepest among countless others, that this potsherd was extracted from an ancient well or tank. Again, it is urged that at any given point sediments of great depth may be accumulated in a short time by the influence of water, but it is entirely overlooked that this would have affected the whole district occupied by the four rows of shafts, so that as

29 Leonard Horner in Philosophical Transactions, vol. cxlviii. pp. 74-75. London, 1859.

the base of the statue of Rameses stands 78′ 3′′ above the sea level,29 the potsherds were therefore found at a positive elevation of only 39′ 3′′. Even the consideration suggested by Sir Charles Lyell that, according to Herodotus, the old Egyptians protected their temples and monuments from the inundations of the Nile by means of embankments,3° does not seem unanswerable, for if these bulwarks were once broken down, the deposits on the depressed surface would increase all the more rapidly, and the stream might in a few years make amends for what, during thousands of years, it had been prevented from accomplishing. But it may be justly objected against the above calculation that the thickness of the Nile mud since 1361 B.C. cannot serve as a reliable standard, as the plains through which the river flows have by no means an even surface. Horner himself observes that when the Nile reaches the 24-ell mark at Pegel on the Island of Rhoda, it varies in depth from 20' to less than an inch, so great are the inequalities of the ground. 31 Hence it follows that the mud strata must increase far more rapidly in the depressions than on the elevated spots, and that if the Egyptians, as may be conjectured, erected their stone Rameses on an eminence in close proximity to a depression, the later increment of Nile mud can have raised the surface but slowly. Few, in defiance of this, will venture to dispute that this potsherd from a depth of thirtynine feet must be at least 4000 years older than the monument of Rameses the Great.

29 Horner, Phil. Trans., vol. cxliii. p. 56.

30 Sir Charles Lyell, Antiquity of Man, p. 38.

31 Horner in Philos. Trans., vol. cxlviii. p. 56.

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