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which, of itself, is one of the wonders of the world. At first view, and especially if we enter it before seeing other European cities, we feel a sense of oppression from the overwhelming number of novel things to be seen everywhere around us; and we are sometimes startled at the thought whether, after all, we are not dreaming! The Garden of the Tuileries, the Champs Élysées, and the many broad boulevards and streets, with their blocks of high, substantial brick and stone edifices, not omitting the Tuileries, the Louvre, the Palais Royal, the Hôtel des Invalides, the Columns of Vendôme, St. Jacques, and July, the Arc de Triomphe, and many other monuments, the Seine, with its twenty-seven beautiful bridges, and the one hundred or more churches of the city, not further to specify, all go to form a grand spectacle nowhere else to be seen.

There are omnibus lines in all directions, and their management is very systematic. At all the prominent stations there are ticket offices, and the passenger purchases his ticket, which is numbered, and he is received only in the order of his number. He may alight where he pleases; but the omnibus stops for passengers only at fixed stations. The fare is six sous inside and three sous outside, on top, the seats being arranged lengthwise. When the seats are all taken, a card, bearing the word “Complet, is displayed on the rear end of the omnibus as a notice that no more passengers will be admitted.

We have attended services at several of the churches, among them the Church of St. Étienne du Mont, built in 1121, the Nôtre Dame, and the Madeleine, three perhaps the most beautiful. The Church of Notre Dame is considered one of the finest monuments of its particular style of architecture in

France. Ii in provided with an enormous bell, requiring the sirength of eight men to ring it. The Church of th: Madeleine is probably the more admired. Commenced in 1764, it was only finished in the reign of Louis Philippe. The work upon it was suspended during the Revolution of 1789. By an Imperial decree rendered at Posen, the ad of December, 1806, Napoleon ordered it transformed into a Greek Temple, and that this inscription, “ The Emperor Napoleon to the Soldiers of the Grand Army,” should be borne on its front. Another article of that decree provided that, every year, on the anniversaries of the battles of Austerlitz and Jena, this monument should be illuminated, that a concert should then be given. preceded by a discourse on the duties of the soldier and a eulogy on those who fell in those sanguinary battles. It was expressly forbidden to mention the Emperor in these discourses. If this decree was carried out, it was probably abrogated after the final abdication of Napoleon; as we see that in 1815 Louis XVIII. ordered that the church be converted into a chapel in honor of Louis XVI. and his consort, Marie Antoinette, and this failing, it was at length completed in its present form by Louis Philippe. “It is surrounded by fifty-two Corinthian pillars, ornamented by a splendid façade. The interior is most magnificently ornamented with rich gilding, paintings, and statuary, and is lighted by three domes, which are most beautifully painted."

We have passed many hours in the Art Galleries of the Louvre, connected with the Palace of the Tuileries, the northwest wing of which is in ruins. These buildings are just across the rue de Rivoli from the Grand Hôtel du Louvre, where we have

our lodgings. To describe what we have seen in the Galleries of the Louvre would be little more than a repetition of what we have spoken of seeing in other galleries; but we should not forget to mention the “Venus of Milo," the original of which we saw here. We were disappointed in not being allowed to see the large collection of most interesting Napoleon relics, which the writer saw here in 1867, when France was in her glory under Napoleon III. The cases containing these are all locked up, and republican France deems it prudent not to allow the old cocked hat, the boots and spurs, the army saddle and pistols of the great Emperor to be exhibited at the present crisis. These are only a few of the many speaking objects here, telling of the reign and power of Napoleon. Even the marble cast of his face, taken after his death, posan almost irresistible attraction."

It is a wonder that the authorities do not consider it necessary, also, to debar all entrance to his superbly grand tomb in the Hôtel des Invalides; but this is still accessible. Over the entrance to this tomb, so often described, are his words,-“I desire that my ashes may repose on the banks of the Seine, in the midst of the French people, whom I have ever loved.” In a recess adjoining the crypt stands a statue of him as Emperor, dressed in his imperial robes, and here also are other insignia of his which he wore on state occasions, together with the sword he carried at the battle of Austerlitz.

We were present one Sunday when all the old invalids, officers and soldiers, filed in line on either side of the main aisle of the Chapel, in another part of this vast building, to hear the twelve o'clock Mass. It was a novel sight-one or two hundred old veterans,


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crippled, scarred, and otherwise debilitated, some of whom had, no doubt, served under the great Napoleon, all in their uniforms, and parading in military order. They stood during the whole service, but some of them appeared to give little attention to the religious ceremonies, at the conclusion of which they all retired, keeping step to the martial music, and were dismissed in the court.



10.— in the Place de la Concorde, which lies between the Garden of the Tuileries and the Champs Élysées. It is a handsome square, adorned by colossal statues and fountains, and in its center stands the obelisk of the Luxor, a column seventy-two feet in height, covered on its four tapering sides with Egyptian hieroglyphics. It was presented to the French Government by the Pasha of Egypt, and transported from Thebes, where it formerly stood in front of the Temple. It dates back fifteen hundred years before the Christian Era. It was in this square that the guillotine was erected, and where, during the reign of terror in 1793 -'4, nearly three thousand victims were beheaded, among them Louis XVI., his unfortunate wife, Marie Antoinette, Beauharnais, the husband of Josephine, the Duke of Orleans, Robespierre, and many other noted persons.

The Place du Carousal and Place Napoleon are formed out of large portions of the space bordered by the Palace of the Tuileries and the Louvre. The former is said to have derived its name from a tournament held there by Louis XIV. in 1662, and the latter is understood to have been so named in honor of Napoleon III. Originally, the whole space was probably intended for the Palace Court.

The Place Vendôme is an octagon, four hundred and fifty by four hundred and twenty feet in extent, surrounded by handsome dwelling houses, including one or two hotels. The rue de la Paix passes through it, and is the direct street leading from the Boulevard des Capuchins into the rue Castiglione,

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