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in it. We roamed among these ancient sepulchres for half an hour or more, and came out, glad to see daylight once more, at an opening some distance from the one where we entered.
Learning from Miss Foley, whose sculpture studio we visited yesterday, that William and Mary Howitt were stopping at her house, we called on them last evening and were exceedingly gratified with our short interview with them. Mr. Howitt is a gentleman of medium size, with hair entirely white, and an expression of countenance and manner at once attractive and agreeable.. He is over eighty years of age, but still active as a man of sixty-five. Mrs. Howitt, we should judge, is from ten to fifteen years younger. Both in dress and deportment she appeared like an accomplished Quaker lady. Her hair is brown, and with a handsome nose and brilliant eyes, her expression is sweet and winning. For a number of years they have passed their winters in Rome and their summers in the Tyrol. They were gratified to hear us speak of the many friends they have made in the United States by their writings, and mentioning the names of a few of our best authors, they said they had met some of them in Europe. Mrs. Howitt desired to be kindly remembered to “Grace Greenwood," whose acquaintance she said she had the pleasure of making twenty years ago.
Now, having turned our faces homeward, we take our final leave of Rome.
ENEVA, FEBRUARY 19.-In company still with
our friends, Dr. Parker and family, we took our departure from the Eternal City" at eleven in the forenoon of the first instant, and arrived in Florence at seven in the afternoon, stopping at our old rooms on via Palestro. We left in good time, as we have since learned that a great many travelers were soon prostrated by the Roman fever; nor did some of our party entirely escape from the bad effects of the malaria brought away in our systems. It showed itself in tooth-ache and painful swelling of the gums and in the glands of the face. Another fortnight, now, in Florence enabled us to finish up our sight-seeing there pretty thoroughly, although the weather during most of the time was wet, raw, and disagreeable, inclining us to stay indoors more than we should have done had it been pleasanter. We revisited some of the churches, the Protestant Cemetery, St. Miniato, the Picture Galleries, and other places, in respect to all which we have already written, and notwithstanding the variableness of the weather, we shall always have pleasant recollections of Florence.
A ride of two hours by rail brought us on the 14th to Pisa in time to visit the great Cathedral, Baptistery, and Campo Santo, and to ascend the famous Leaning Tower. Pisa, where we remained over night, is situated on both sides of the Arno, five miles from its mouth, in the Mediterranean. In the thirteenth century it was a city of one hundred and fifty thousand inhabitants; but its present number is stated at not exceeding fifty thousand. The Ca
thedral was in course of construction from 1063 to 1118. It “is entirely of white marble, with black and colored ornamentation. The most magnificent part is the façade, which in the lower story is adorned with columns and arches attached to the wall, and in the upper parts with four open galleries, gradually diminishing in length. The choir is also imposing." At the end of the nave, suspended by a very long iron rod from the arched ceiling, is the elaborate and beautifully wrought bronze lamp, which suggested to Galileo the idea of a pendulum. We have a fine photograph of it, and also excellent photographs of the Duomo, Baptistery, Leaning Tower, and of parts of the Campo Santo.
The Baptistery, a circular white marble structure with a dome, is remarkable particularly for its beautiful Gothic architecture, its exquisitely carved pulpit, and its wonderful echo. Situated a few rods from the Duomo, its height is about one hundred and ninety feet and its diameter one hundred feet. The pulpit is on pillars near the center, and is entered by a flight of marble steps richly carved. One of the pillars rests on the back of a lion, while others present reliefs, representing, we imagine, Saints or Apostles. The panels are in like manner covered with bas-reliefs of various descriptions. Near the pulpit is a large baptismal font, adorned with beautifully carved figures in alabaster or marble. The custodian sounded a series of musical notes, and “heavenly echoes burst forth in response. They were of such a tender and exalted rapture that we might well have thought them the voices of young-eyed cherubim singing as they passed through Paradise over that spot of earth where we stood." We called to one after another of our dear friends at
home, and their names were echoed back to us, many times repeated, as though they were answering in person.
The Leaning Tower stands across the street from and on the other side of the Duomo. When taken together in a photograph all three structures appear to be connected. We climbed by easy circular stairs to the seventh story of the Tower, from which we had a grand view of the city and surrounding country. In October, 1867, the writer, with his son Henry, ascended one story higher to the top, above the bell deck; but the rain was pouring in torrents, which, of course, obstructed the view. The question whether the oblique position of this Tower was intentional or accidental has been frequently discussed. Some writers hold that the most probable solution is that the foundation settled during the progress of its construction, and that to remedy the defect as much as possible an attempt was made to give a vertical position to the upper part. Our impression is that its leaning position was intentional; and this impression is strengthened by the fact that there is an ancient Leaning Tower at Milan, which we were informed was left unfinished because it could not be carried to its contemplated height on the same oblique line with its base without the danger of its toppling. The work of the Pisa Tower, too, looks very solid; nor could we discover any cracks either in the stone steps or walls. Its height is one hundred and seventy-nine feet, consisting of eight different stages.
It is thirteen feet out of the perpendicular. Galileo is said to have availed himself of this position of the Tower in his experiments regarding the laws of gravitation. This structure was completed in 1350. It is supplied with seven bells,
the heaviest of which, weighing six tons, hangs on the side opposite the overhanging wall. To ring these bells the bell-ringer is obliged to stand on the bell deck.
The Campo Santo, or Burial Ground, also near the Cathedral, is well worth a visit. Surrounding the church - yard is a low structure four hundred and fourteen feet in length and one hundred and seventy feet in width, with corridors looking inward. The walls of the corridors are covered with frescoes, representing - The Creation," " The Fall," " Expulsion from Paradise," " Building of the Ark," “ The Deluge," and many other scriptural subjects. The pavement is formed of the tombstones of the persons buried here, and there are memorial tablets also in the walls. There is a collection of Roman, Etruscan, and Mediæval sculptures, and some of modern date. among which we observed a fine marble bust of Cavour. On the walls there are two heavy chains, which were used to protect the harbor of Pisa when at war with neighboring principalities. One of them, captured by Florence, was restored in 1848, and the other, captured by the Genoese in 1632, was restored in 1860. That the dead here “might repose in holy ground," the Archbishop, after the loss of the Holy Land in the thirteenth century, caused fifty-three ship loads of earth to be brought hither from Jerusalem.
On the 15th, Dr. Parker and family reached Pisa at half past eleven in the morning, from Florence, and, joining them, we all arrived in Genoa at half past six in the evening, stopping at the London Hotel We passed near Carrara, where we great quantities of white marble, and still nearer Spezzia, which town, situated on the Gulf of Spezzia