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the easiest of ascent of any in Europe, the way up being by an inclined plane rising by one step at each corner.

The bell man at the summit, provided with a telescope, keeps constant watch, and in case of fire gives instant alarm by telegraph or by ringing the bell. While we were there the band, which performs here several times a week in the daytime as well as on specified evenings, was discoursing sweet music in the square below. Opposite the campanile is the clock tower, on the platform of which are two bronze figures in the shape of men, which strike the hours on a bell, as though animated by life; and by means of revolving machinery and transparencies the time both of day and night is always apparent on the face of the clock.

The Church of St. Mark dates back eight hundred years.

Its form “is that of a Greek cross, with equal arms, covered by a Byzantine dome in the center and one at the extremity of each arm. the vestibule are smaller domes, and "externally and internally the Church is adorned with five hundred columns of marble, the capitals of which present an exuberant variety of styles.” The vaulting is of marble mosaics on a gold ground, and the floors, which have become very uneven, are of tesselated marble. They were being repaired when we were there.

Over the main entrance are the four celebrated horses in gilded bronze, supposed to have been constructed in the time of Nero. “Constantine caused them to be conveyed to Constantinople, whence the Doge Dandolo brought them to Venice in 1204. In 1797 they were carried by Napoleon to Paris, where they afterward occupied the summit of the Triumphal Arch in the Place de Carousel.” In 1815 they were restored to their former position by

the Emperor Francis. The Church contains a large number of statues, both in marble and bronze, of noted persons, and other monuments, as well as relics, including a crystal vase with the “Blood of the Saviour;" a silver column, with a fragment of the "True Cross," and a cup of agate, with portions of the “Skull of St. John.”

We visited several other churches, in all of which there are many things to interest the traveler. In none were the attractions greater than in the Church of the Franciscans, built in the thirteenth century, and which is one of the largest and most beautiful in the city. It contains many paintings, sculptures, and monuments - among the latter a fine monument to Titian and one to Canova, of which, as well as of the Church, interior and exterior, we have photographs.


VENICE, NOVEMBER 12. – We have now been

YG here about four days, and have seen the principal objects of interest in the city, which is between seven and eight miles in circumference. Of the three hundred and seventy-eight bridges here, nearly all are quite narrow and are reached by steps, rendered necessary to allow the gondolas to pass under them. Three of the bridges only span the Grand Canal. Two of these are of iron, and the third, the famous Rialto, is of marble, built in 1588-91 by Antonio da Ponte. This is called after the largest island (isola del Rialto, from il rivo alto, the deep stream.)" Entered by flights of steps from a small open square at either end, it has three passages, along which are rows of shops, and in rainy weather there is a busy provision market in gondolas under it. It looks beautiful at all times, but especially at night, as we saw it one evening when we went out to get a view of “Venice by moonlight” and to hear the lively singing of the gondoliers. These gondoliers are an institution in themselves; but they are governed by strict laws. The charge for a single trip, or for not exceeding one hour in the common gondola, accommodating two or three passengers, with one rower, is one franc, and five sous for each additional hour; in addition to which the gondolier expects a small fee pour boire. For five francs one can have a gondola and rower for the whole day. The number of gondolas here is not far from four thousand, all painted black, in obedience to an ancient law, to guard against extravagance. The gondoliers are very expert in their vocation; and it requires a good deal of skill on their part to avoid collisions. When about to turn a corner they cry out-Già è,(boat ahead,) Pre,” (pass to the right,) “Stali," (pass to the left;) and these, or similar warnings, are about all you hear from them, unless you ask them questions; nor do they make scarcely any noise with their

In gliding along through the narrow canals, the people being shut up in their dwellings, the silence is usually as profound as it would be were you being rowed on a river or lake through a dense forest. To one first making such an excursion it is, indeed, a novel experience.

Yesterday, when we were in a gondola on the Grand Canal, we came to a point where there was


a funeral, the gondolier said, of an English gentleman who died at the hotel where the ceremonies were being performed. In front of the hotel there was one handsomely ornamented gondola, with an ornamented hearse, and some twenty or more common gondolas, arranged several abreast in four or five platoons. Some of the attendants were in uniform, and the gondoliers were dressed in their best. We did not wait to see the procession start. The Venetian cemetery is on the small island of Murano, a little north of the city.

We stopped at a glass factory, and were kindly shown through all the workshops as well as the rooms in which the various articles made here are stored when finished. Here glass mosaics of almost every description are manufactured, embracing necklaces, pendants, bracelets, brooches, table leaves, etc., and all kinds of fancy articles, wine glasses, beads, and we know not what else.

We have passed many hours in the Palace of the Doges and the Academy of Fine Arts, where we saw an endless number of pictures, statues, rare books, old manuscripts, old coins, and other wonderful things impossible to enumerate. Among the pictures seen in the Academy are “The Assumption,” by Titian, famous everywhere; and “The Entombment,” also by Titian, and on which he was engaged, but had not entirely finished, at the time of his death (1576,) in the ninety-eighth year of

On the frieze of the Palace are the portraits of seventy-six Doges, and on the walls twentyone pictures “painted to commemorate the achievements of the Republic, especially against Frederick Barbarosa." At the head of the Giants' Staircase we stood on the spot where the Doges used to be

his age.

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crowned. This staircase, erected in 1482, is a beautiful structure. In one of the rooms is Tintoretto's “Paradise,” in size eighty-four by thirty-three feet six inches, said to be the largest oil painting in the world. There are several rooms devoted to painting and sculpture. Among the more noted paintings are “The Last Judgment,” by Giovane; “Forest Landscape,” by Paul Veronese; and “Christ in Glory,” also by the last named artist. Of the sculptures in marble, “Apollo Reposing,” “Gaul in

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