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rest, arising from the flat posture of the tongue. In the other five, the tongue rushes forward, and gradually ascends towards the palate, to straighten the passage, and render the sound more acute. The e, which is the last in scale, is the sharpest and smallest, because the tongue is higher, and the corners of the mouth more extended than in the rest. In all the vowels the lower jaw assists and accompanies the action of the tongue. The u, in un, and e, in ed, which are the fourth and seventh, are in every situation pronounced short. Sometimes two vowel sounds are represented by one sign or letter, as i in kind, and u in muse, (No. 10 and 11) the letter i being a combination of the 4th and 9th sounds, and the u of the 9th and 3rd. That these are the same vowel sounds which occur in almost every syllable of the language, the following examples will show:
Hail! holy light; Offspring of Heaven, First-born,
Sustaining all yon orbs, and all their suns.
The scale of vowel sounds, represents them in their progressive order with the sounds marked in Italics and the numbers above each, the first example beginning, with Hail, holy light, &c., is introduced to prove, that the vowels in speech are the same as in the scale. Grammarians have differed in ascertaining the exact number of the English vowels, but the ear is the only judge with regard to modification of sound, to which standard we appeal. Some difficulty will likewise arise from provincial modes of pronunciation and other causes, which the pupil will learn to distinguish as he proceeds in his studies. The foregoing, however, may be certainly taken as the nine vocal articulations in the English language. This, by the living voice, can be made evident to every ear; but when, instead of that we substitute written letters addressed to the eye, they must always be fallacious and uncertain.
The nature and property of these sounds should not only be well understood, but the sounds themselves be frequently practiced in studying articulation; as nothing affords such fine exercises for the voice, and consequently tends so much to improve it.
To attain a full and melodious pronunciation of the vowels, the mouth must exercise its full and easy powers of expansion, and the organs of the young pupil be taught to be rapid in their motions and changes.
The following kind of exercises will be found useful for this purpose, and will serve at the same time as lessons both in Orthoepy and Orthography. A portion of them may be pronounced by the pupil each day, or as often as the teacher may think proper.
EXERCISES ON THE VOWEL SOUNDS.
The First vowel sound is marked by--
a broad-as in
All, wall, tall, call, fall, stall, pall, gall; always, allspice, also, alter, altering, almanac, alderman; falcon, falconer, falsehood, falsity, falsify, appal, appalling; install, withall, miscall.
All nature is but art, unknown to thee;
All chance, direction which thou can'st not see;
All discord, harmony not understood;
All partial evil, universal good.—Pope.
The same observation may be transferred to the time allotted us in our present state; when we have deducted all that is absorbed in sleep, all that is inevitably appropriated to the demands of nature, or irresistibly engrossed by the tyranny of custom, all that is passed in regulating the superficial decoration of life; all that is torn away from us by the violence of disease, or stolen imperceptibly by lassitude and languor; we shall find that portion of our duration but very small, of which we can truly call ourselves masters, or which we can spend wholly at our own choice.-Johnson.
It is also marked by
au, cause; aw, draw; o, for;
ou, thought; oa, broad; eo, George. as in the following words and examples:
au, cause, pause, clause, causeway, maul, saul, auburn, august, auction, auctioneer, audible, audacity, augury, augurer, aurora, applaud, applause; aw, draw, saw, law, paw, straw, drawing, sawing, sawyer, lawyer, lawful, lawless, lawfully; awl, brawl, sprawl, shawl, brawling, drawling, sprawling; pawn, fawn, lawn, drawn, dawn, withdrawn; pawning, fawning, drawing, awning. or, for, nor, form, former, formal, formerly; forbear, forget, forgive, forlorn, forsake; border, borderer, bordering; borrow, borrowing, borrower; orb, orbit, order, ordering, orderly, orderless, ordered; corpse, corpulent, corpulency; corporate, corporation; distort, contort, contortion.
ou, thought, brought, fought; thoughtful, thoughtless, thoughtfully, thoughtfulness, thoughtlessness.
oa, broad, abroad, broadly, broadway, broadside.
eo, George, Georgiana, georgeous, georgeously, georgie.
It is the cause, it is the cause, my soul, Let me not
Draw archers, draw your arrows to their heads,
Is sicken'd o'er by the pale cast of thought.
Upon the giddy footing of the hatches
Methought that Glo'ster stumbled, and in falling
O Lord! methought, what pain it was to drown!
Going abroad expands one's ideas; we there see other manners, other customs, and almost another race of mankind. At home the sameness of the objects around us, tends to narrow and confine our views. My advice therefore is, to send Charles abroad, Let him go abroad by all means.
On once a flock-bed, but repaired with straw,
The second vowel sound is marked by
0 - more.
More, pore, shore, sore, bore, score, lore, wore, before, restore, deplore.
ou, soul; ow, know; oo, door;
oa, boat; ew, shew; eau, beau;
Mould, mouldiness; Low, mow, bow, lowly, slowly; knowing, mowing; frowardly, towardly; DOOR, poor, poorly; BOAT, moat, coat, goat, bloat; moated, bloated, goatherd; boast, roast, toast, coast; boatman, boatful, roasted, toasted, coasted, coasting, coaster, board, boarder, boarded; goal, soal, coal; goad, goading, loading; hoarse, hoarseness; coarse, coarsely, coarseness, loathe, loathing, loathsome, loathsomeness; oaf, oafish, oaken; toad, toadstool; shewn, shewy, shewman, shewiness; BEAU, beauish, beaufort.
ATONE, alone; deplore, restore, bespoke, invoke, convoke, provoke, depose, disclose, repose; denote, devote; disport, support; divorce, perforce; parole, patrole; evermore, nevermore, heretofore, thentofore, theretofore; uppermost, undermost, hindermost; tornado, armigero, embargo; incommode, discommode, alamode; discompose, recompose, interpose; carbonade, bastinado, foreknow, bestow, below, overthrow, furbelow, AFLOAT, bemoan, unload, BUREAU, portmanteau.
Lessons on the Second vowel sound.
All are but parts of one stupendous whole,
What advantageth it a man if he gain the whole world, and loseth his own soul? and again, what shall a man give in exchange for his soul?
KNOW YE ME NOT? ye knew me once no mate
For you, there sitting where you durst not soar,
He that cometh not in by the door, but climbeth over the wall, the same is a thief and a robber.
The whitewash'd wall, the nicely sanded floor,
The varnish'd clock that click'd behind the door.
These but the trappings and the suits of woe.
An Ape there was, of nimble parts,
A great intruder into hearts,
As brisk, and gay, and full of air,
As you, or I, or any here;
Rich in his dress; of splendid show;
And with a head like any beau.
When used as an exclamation, the Second vowel sound demands a peculiarly forcible pronunciation.
O wretched state! O bosom black as death!
O limed soul, that struggling to be free,
Art more engaged :
In passages expressive of violent grief, it derives also an additional beauty from swelling or prolonging the tone.
Oh Desdemona! Desdemona! Dead? dead? oh! oh! oh!
The Third vowel sound is marked by
o who; oo, fool; ou, you; u bush.
who, whose; move, prove, moving, movement, amove, approve reprove, improve, disprove; 00, fool, foolish; good, goody, goodness; wood, woody, wooded, woodland, woodman, groom, broom roomy, gloomy, gloominess, bloom, blooming, bloomingly.
ou, you, youth, youthful, youthfulness; through, throughout; group, grouped, grouping.
u, bush, bushy, bushiness; bull, bullwark, bullion, bushel, butcher; pull, pullet, pulpit, push, pushing, pushed.
Who talks of killing? who's he'll shed the blood
A fool, a fool!-I met a fool i' th' forest,
Who laid him down, and bask'd him in the sun,
In good set terms, and yet a motley fool;
Good morrow, fool quoth I;-No Sir, quoth he,
Motley's the only wear.
-You have made me happier, I confess, acknowledge it, much happier, than I have power or words to tell you, Captain; you, even you, who most have wronged me, I forgive:-Let the fools who follow fortune, live upon her smiles, All our prosperity is placed in love.-Southern.
The Fourth vowel sound is marked by
u, turn; or, world.
Turn, burn, urn, churn, turning, burning, churning, spurning; return, returning, overturn; world, worldly, worldling.
You did wish that I should make her turn:
Sir, she can turn, and turn, and yet go on,
World, world, thy slippery turns!
o, Love, lover, loving, loved, lovely, loveliness.
oo, Blood, flood, bloody, bloodless.
ou, Couple, coupling, coupled.
e, Mercy, merciful, merciless, mermaid; herd, inferr'd, interr'd, cowherd, neatherd, goatherd, shepherd.
ea, Learn, learned, learning; earth, earthy, earthly, earthquake.
i, Bird, bird-lime, bird-cage, bird-trap, bird-catcher; irth, birth, birthright; mirth, mirthful, mirthless; cir, circle, circus, circumscribe, circumcise, circumspect, circumflex, circumfuse, circumambiant, circumference, circumfluent.
Lessons on the Fourth vowel sound.
Love's feeling is more soft and sensible,