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heaven! Infuse a better spirit into these men! Inspire even their minds with purer sentiments!-This is my first prayer; or if their natures are not to be reformed; on them, on them only, discharge your vengeance! Pursue them both by land and sea! Pursue them even to destruction! But, to us display your goodness in a speedy deliverance from impending evils, and all the blessings of protection and tranquillity!


-And chiefly thou, O spirit, that dost prefer
Before all temples, th' upright heart and pure,
Instruct me, for thou know'st; thou from the first
Wast present, and, with mighty wings outspread,
Dove-like sat'st brooding on the vast abyss,
And mad'st it pregnant. What in me is dark,
Illumine; what is low, raise and support;
That to the height of this great argument


may assert Eternal Providence,

And justify the ways of God to man.



First, (heaven be the record to my speech!)
In the devotion of a subject's love,
Tendering the precious safety of my prince,
And free from other misbegotten hate,
Come I appellant to this princely presence.—
Now! Thomas Mowbray, do I turn to thee,
And mark my greeting well; for what I speak,
My body shall make good upon this earth,
Or my divine soul answer it in heaven:
Thou art a traitor and a miscreant;
Too good to be so, and too bad to live;
Since, the more fair crystal is the sky,
The uglier seem the clouds that in it fly;
Once more, the more to aggravate the note,
With a foul traitor's name stuff I thy throat,

And wish, (so please my sovereign,) ere I move,

What my tongue speaks, my right-drawn sword may prove.


O liberty! O sound once delightful to every Roman ear! O sacred privilege of Roman citizenship! once sacred! now trampled upon! but what then? Is it to come to this? shall an inferior magistrate, a governor who holds his whole power of the Roman people, in a Roman province, within sight of Italy, bind, scourge, torture with fire and red hot plates of iron, and at last put to the infamous death of the cross a Roman citizen? Shall neither the cries of innocence expiring in agony, nor the tears of pitying spectators, nor the majesty of the Roman Commonwealth, nor the fear of the justice of his country, restrain the licentious and wanton cruelty of a monster, who, in confidence of his riches, strikes at the root of liberty, and sets mankind at defiance?



FATHERS, we once again are met in council;
Cæsar's approach has summoned us together,
And Rome attends her fate from our resolves.
How shall we treat this bold aspiring man?
Success still follows him, and backs his crimes;
Pharsalia gave him Rome; Egypt has since
Receiv'd his yoke, and the whole Nile is Cæsar's;
Why should I mention Juba's overthrow,

And Scipio's death? Numidia's burning sands
Still smoke with blood. 'Tis time we should decree
What course to take. Our foe advances on us,

And envies us even Libya's sultry deserts.

Fathers, pronounce your thoughts;—are they still fix'd
To hold out, and fight it to the last?

Or are your hearts subdu'd at length, and wrought
By time and ill success to a submission ?

Sempronius, speak.


ENQUIRY, into an obscure subject, fixes the body in one posture, the head stooping, and the eye poring, the eyebrows drawn down.


-Tell me, wond'rous youth!

For much I long to know; what is thy name?
Who are thy parents? Since the Moor prevailed,
The cottage and the cave have oft concealed
From hostile hate the noblest blood of Spain;
Thy spirit speaks for thee. Thou art a shoot
Of some illustrious stock, some noble house,
Whose fortunes with their falling country fell.

ATTENTION to an esteemed, or superior character, has the same aspect as Inquiry; and requires silence; the eyes often cast down upon the ground; somtimes fixed on the face of the speaker; but not too pertly.

-This said, he sat; and expectation held
His look suspense, awaiting who appeared

To second, or oppose, or undertake

The perilous attempt: but all sat mute,

Pondering the danger with deep thoughts; and each

In other's countenance read his own dismay.

Astonished! None, among the choice and prime

Of those heaven-warring champions, could be found

So hardy as to proffer or accept

Alone the dreadful voyage; till at last

Satan, whom now transcendant glory raised

Above his fellows, with monarchal pride,

(Conscious of highest worth,) unmoved thus spake.


ARGUING requires a cool, sedate, attentive aspect, and a clear, slow, emphatical accent, with much demonstration by the hand. It differs from Teaching, (see Teaching) in that the look of authority is not wanted in arguing.


If death were nothing, and nought after death;
If, when men died, at once they ceas'd to be,

Returning to the barren womb of nothing,

Whence first they sprang; then might the debauchee
Untrembling mouth the heav'ns; then might the drunkard
Reel over his full bowl, and when 'tis drained,

Fill up another to the brim, and laugh

At the poor bug-bear death;-then might the wretch
That's weary of the world, and tir'd of life,

At once give each inquietude the slip,

By stealing out of being when he pleas'd,

And by what way; whether by hemp or steel;

Death's thousand doors stand open. Who would force
The ill pleased guest to sit out his full time,
Or blame him if he goes? Sure! he does well
That helps himself as timely as he can
When able. But if there be an hereafter,
And that there is, conscience, uninfluenced
And suffer'd to speak out, tells ev'ry man;
Then must it be an awful thing to die;
More horrid yet to die by one's own hand.

Pale trembling coward, there I throw my gage,
Disclaiming here the kindred of a king;
And lay aside my high blood's royalty,

Which fear, not reverence, makes thee to except,
If guilty dread hath left thee so much strength,
As take up my honour's pawn, then stoop,
By that, and all the rules of knighthood else,
Will I make good against thee, arm to arm,
What I have spoken, or thou canst worse devise.


PART OF T. QUINTUS'S SPEECH TO THE ROMAN PEOPLE. In the name of the immortal gods, what is it, Romans, you would have? You desired tribunes: for the sake of peace we granted them.-You were eager to have decemvirs; we consented to their creation.-You grew weary of those decemvirs; we obliged them to abdicate. Your hatred pursued them when reduced to be private men; and we suffer'd you to put to death, or banish, pratricians of the first rank in the Republic.-You insisted upon the restoration of the tribuneship; we yielded: we quietly saw consuls of your own faction elected.-You have the protection of your tribunes, and the privilege

of appeal; the patricians are subjected to the decrees of the Commons. Under pretence of equal and impartial laws, you have invaded our rights; and we have suffer'd it; and we still suffer it; When shall we see an end of discord?


Worst in this royal presence may I speak,
Yet best beseeming me to speak the truth.
Would God, that any in this noble presence
Were enough noble to be upright judge
Of noble Richard; then true nobleness would
Learn him forbearance from so foul a wrong.
What subject can give sentence on his king?
And who sits here, that is not Richard's subject?
Thieves are not judged, but they are by to hear,
Although apparent guilt be seen in them;
And shall the figure of God's majesty,
His captain, steward, deputy elect,
Anointed, crowned, planted many years,
Be judged, by subject and inferior breath,
And he himself not present! O forbid it, God,
That in a Christian climate, souls refined
Should shew so heinous, black, obscene a deed!
I speak to subjects, and a subject speaks,
Stirr'd up by heaven thus boldly for his king,
My lord of Hereford here, whom you call king,
Is a foul traitor to proud Hereford's king:
And if you crown him, let me prophecy,-
The blood of English shall manure the ground,
And future ages groan for this foul act;
Peace shall go sleep with Turks and infidels;
And, in this seat of peace, tumultuous wars
Shall kin with kin, and kind with kind confound;
Disorder, horror, fear and mutiny,

Shall here inhabit, and this land be call'd

The field of Golgotha and dead men's sculls.

O, if you rear this house against this house,
It will the woefullest division prove,

That ever fell this cursed earth;


Prevent, resist it, let it not be so,

Lest child, child's children, cry against you,-woe!


As to myself, O earth! O sun! O virtue! And you who are the springs of true discernment, lights both natural and acquired, by which we distinguish good from evil, I call you to witness, that I have used all my endeavours to relieve the state, and to plead her cause. I could have wished my speech had been equal to the greatness and importance of the subject; and I can flatter myself with having discharged my duty according to the best of my abilities, if I have not done it according to my wishes. Do you, Athenians, from the reasons you have heard, and those which your wisdom will suggest; do you pronounce such a judgment as is conformable to strict justice, and the common good demands from you.


JUDGING demands a grave, steady look, with deep attention; the countenance altogether clear from appearance of either disgust, or favour. The accents slow, distinct, emphatical, accompanied with little action, and that very grave.


For this new married man, approaching here,
Whose salt imagination yet hath wrong'd
Your well-defended honour; you must pardon
For Marianna's sake; but as he adjudged your brother
(Being criminal, in double violation

Of sacred chastity, and of promise breach
Thereon dependent, for your brother's life)
The very mercy of the law cries out

Most audible, even from his proper tongue,
An Angelo for Claudio, death for death.

Haste still pays haste, and leisure answers leisure;
Like doth quit like, and Measure still for Measure.


The law hath still another hold on you:

It is enacted in the laws of Venice

If it be proved against an alien,

That by direct, or indirect attempts,

He seek the life of any citizen,

The party 'gainst the which he doth contrive,
Shall seize one half his goods; the other half
Comes to the privy coffer of the state;
And the offender's life lies in the mercy
Of the Duke only, 'gainst all other voice.
In the which predicament, I say, thou stand'st;
For it appears by manifest proceeding,
That, indirectly, and directly too,

Thou hast contrived against the very life
Of the defendant; and thou hast incurr'd

The danger formerly by me rehearsed.

Down, therefore, and beg mercy of the Duke.


ACQUITTING is performed with a benevolent, tranquil countenance, and tone of voice; the right hand, if not both, open, waved gently towards the person acquitted, expressing dismission (see Dismissing.)


King. Now by my sceptre and my sword, I swear

Thou art a noble youth; an angel's voice

Could not command a more implicit faith

Than thou from me hast gain'd. What think'st thou, Hamet,
Is he not greatly wrong'd?

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