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5TH, 1842.





SIR DAVID WILKIE AND HIS WORKS. kind, it tells like two or three different pictures, instead

of like one consistent and necessarily connected whole. III.

The immense size of the buildings as compared with In November, 1809, Wilkie became an Associate of the that of the figures, increases this defect. The work, how

ever, displays infinite talent, both of mind and of hand; but Royal Academy. In the exhibition of the following certainly more of the latter than of the former. May he had no picture: he was probably anxious to show that the honours conferred upon him, as well as the new In 1813 Wilkie exhibited - Blindman's Buff," now in dignity that awaited him, deserved the exertion of his the Royal collection; in 1814, “ The Letter of Intro. best powers, the results of which could only be produced duction,” for which he received 200 guineas from Mr. by time and careful study. In February, 1811, he was Dobree, of Walthamstow; and “ Duncan Gray,” or made an Academician, and gave as his presentation “ The Refusal,” which some time ago at the price of 450l. picture, his “ Boys digging for rats.” In this year, he passed into the collection of Mr. Sheepshanks. exhibited “a Gamekeeper" and "a Humorous scene." In 1815 he exhibited his “ Distress for Rent," noticed In 1812 he exhibited a sketch of his celebrated “ Blind- in our former article. The next year he exhibited his man's Buff,” and “The Village Festival. This picture “Rabbit on the Wall," and during several successive was sold to Mr. Angerstein, for nine hundred guineas, years he produced the following works, the titles and as it is now in the National Gallery accessible to of' which will doubtless call up many pleasant recollecevery one of our readers in London, the following elabo- tions either of the pictures themselves, or of the capital rate critique may be acceptable.

engravings that have been made from them. “The This picture represents the circumstances likely to occur Breakfast;" The Errand Boy;” The Abbotsford Family;" at the door of a village alehouse on a warm summer eve- now at Huntly Burn. “ The Penny Wedding;" a comning, when the labours of the day are done, and its fatigues mission from the Prince Regent. "The Reading of the have tempted some of the villagers to take something more Will;" a commission to the amount of 450 guineas from than their needful repose. It consists of three principal | the King of Bavaria. Guess my


The Newsgroups and several subordinate ones, scattered about the

mongers;" “ Chelsea Pensioners reading the Gazette scene in a somewhat unskilful and unsatisfactory manner,

of the Battle of Waterloo;" painted for the Duke of as far as relates to mere composition, but full of the most rich and admirable detail. The centre group represents a

Wellington, for 12001., by far the largest sum the artist contest between two parties—a set of half-tipsy merry

had then received for one performance. “ The Parish makers, and a village housewife and her daughter-as to Beadle;” “Smugglers offering run goods for sale or conwhich shall get posession of the person of an idle husband, cealment;" “ The Cottage Toilet; "A Scene from the whom the latter have come to fetch home. There is a Gentle Shepherd;" and "The Highland Family." homely and pathetic truth in the expression of the wife,

During the years 1826, 1827, and 1828, Wilkie that is delightful. Anybody but Wilkie would have made her a shrew. The imploring expression of the daughter

visited Italy and the Peninsula, and on his return sur- which is conveyed by the air anu attitude alone, her face prised the world of art and the public generally, by an not being seen--is also admirable. These are richly but

entire change of style and subject. Italy had long been perhaps somewhat too forcibly contrasted with the coarse the school for artists of all degrees of merit, Wilkie merriinent of the boozers who wish to retain their com- therefore turned to Spanish art and Spanish subjects, panion. The principal figure in this group -the husband- for the production of picturesque novelties, which he of indifferenee to him whether the contest is decided for “go returned laden with sketches, and had completed several is the least expressive part of it. It seems a matter nearly hoped would attract and command attention. He or stay." The colouring of this group is exquisite in every part : perhaps superior to any thing else from the hand of pictures, among which were - The Spanish Posada;” “The this artist. The left-hand group of the three is even more

Maid of Saragossa;" “The Guerilla's departure;" and rich in the expression appropriate to the subject, than the “The Guerilla's return;" four pictures that His Majesty one just described. The face of the sot who is holding up King George the Fourth secured when the artist's foreign the bottle is absolutely perfect. It is unquestionably labours were unpacked. superior in its way to any one face that has proceeded from On the death of Sir Thomas Lawrence, in 1830, the pencil of any artist, living or dead, with the exception Wilkie was appointed to the office of prineipal painter in of two or three others by Wilkie himself. That of the land- ordinary to his Majesty. He was then engaged with the lord also, who is pouring out the ale, and who seems to contrive to keep himself just sober enough to make his portrait of King George the Fourth, in his Highland dress, guests tipsy, is no less true than rich. The black who and his royal patron's reception at Holyrood. He now, forms the third of this group is not so good; he is not black to the regret of many lovers of art, took to portraiture, but red. It is rery rare to see this artist sacrifice truth to and his portraits show something of the style of his harmony of efteet: he had better left the head out altogether, favourite Velasquez. But he did not neglect the higher than have done so in this instance. The third principal branch of his art, for in 1832 he exhibited “ John Knox division of the composition, decupying the right corner, contains two or three exquisite morceaux both of colouring and by Sir Robert Peel, for 1500l. In this picture we see

preaching after his return from banishment;" purchased expression. The girl holding the fat infant is an admirable study, designed with infinite ease, and coloured with great below him on one side are a group of his disciples,

the well-known Reformer in the full fervour of discourse: sweetness. Iudeed, the colouring of many parts of this picture, in breadth, sweetness and purity, is perhaps supe- watching and listening to him with the deepest attention, rior to any other from this painter, whose forte certainly while a higher class of his adherents occupy the front does not lie in that department of his art. And, in fact, it benches: these are all portraits. Particularly beautiful is only of individual parts that the above is true even with is the figure of a young female in full light, her whole regard to this picture. As a whole it is scattered, confused in

soul apparently absorbed by the discourse, while another of this group which requires particular mention, is the face, female, purposely thrown into shadow, sertes as a backfigure and whole deportment of the nice old woman who is ground. Further behind, in half light and plaeed on just finding her idle drunken son half asleep behind the

elevated seats, are seen the ranks of the Roman Catholic horse trough. The sight, painful as it evidently is to her, elergy, their bishop at their head, who evidently can is scarcely capable of moving her from that staid gravity hardly restrain the expression of his anger. In the which becomes her age and character, for she is evidently galleries still deeper in the back-ground are the members one of the matronly oracles of the village, and perhaps of the government; beneath them, the common people. the schoolmistress. The secondary groups in this picture In the treatment of the different characters, and in the do not demand any detailed description. The fault of this work (and it is a great one) is a want of arrangement of the whole, such a nice distinction beunity and compression in the composition, and conse

tween the various parties of that period is preserved, that quently a want of general coinpactness and singleness the composition justly assumes the rank of an historical of effect. Unlike one of Teniers great works of this picture. The peculiarities also of the Scottish kirk are

in many respects rendered with the greatest fidelity, and introduced with manifest advantage to the picture; for instance, a sitting group by the pulpit of two women and an infant brought for baptism, which come finely into contrast with the figures of Knox and his pupils.

At the time when M. Pasavant was collecting materials for his work on English art, he was invited by Wilkie to visit him in his studio. M. Pasavant describes the artist's method of working, which was to prepare mahogany panels with a chalk ground without oil; then to draw the outline of the picture; he then covered the whole with a mixture of transparent brownish colour, and at length painted fresh in, subsequently glazing different portions as the keeping of the whole might require.

Wilkie showed this gentleman several of his sketches made on the Continent, and intended for pictures which he did not live to execute. Two of them had reference to Napoleon. The first represents the conqueror standing in the full pride of his power before the seated figure of Pope Pius VII., holding in his hand a document which he wants to compel this latter to sign, while the Pope, with all the dignity of conscious right, firmly rejects his propositions. In the other sketch Napoleon is seen at the Hospice of Mount St. Bernard, warming his hands before a fire; by his side is the priest, who with monkish inquisitiveness asked him what he intended doing with his great army, to which Napoleon answered sharply, “That's a secret: and if my hat even knew it I'd throw it into the fire." This anecdote Wilkie had from the lips of the monk himself, and his pencil has well characterized the moment.

Between the years 1832 and 1841 Wilkie exhibited many fine pictures and portraits, among which may be noticed, his "Spanish Monks," a scene witnessed in a Capuchin convent at Toledo. "Spanish Mother and Child;""Columbus;" "The Peep-'o-Day-Boys' Cabin;" Mary Queen of Scots escaping from Lochleven Castle" "The Cotter's Saturday-night;""The Empress Josephine and the Fortune-teller;" "Queen Victoria's First Council;""Sir David Baird finding the body of Tippoo Saib;" "Grace before Meat;"" Benvenuto Cellini and the Pope;" "The Irish Whisky Still." Among his unfinished works was "Nelson sealing a Letter," and “John Knox administering the Sacrament.”


It was but the other day (says a writer in the Athenæum), that we rejoiced in the departure of this great painter for the East, and saw in fancy a series of delightful pictures, in which the Eastern costume and character were brightly stamped. Letters arrived both from Turkey and Palestine, wherein he expressed his delight in the strange lands and nations he was visiting; nor were his communications without their devout sympathy with the hills and vales which, when a boy, he had seen by the light of Scripture. His pleasure when, on entering the harbour of St Jean D'Acre, he saw the hills of the Holy Land, he described as amounting to rapture.

It has for some time been reported in the newspapers that Sir David was ill, yet he could scarcely be called ailing, either during his voyage to Egypt, or his residence there, where he painted the portrait of Mehemet Ali, and made numerous sketches; indeed, so far as we can learn, his health did not appear to have suffered till he reached Malta, where, oppressed it is said by the heat, he ate freely of fruit, and drank some iced lemonade. According to the published accounts, on the 31st of May last, the Oriental steamer, on board of which Sir David and his friend Mr. Woodburne were passengers, entered Gibraltar Bay, and received her despatches. "Shortly after she had got under weigh, six o'clock A.M., Mr. Woodburne went into Sir David's berth to request he would come up and breakfast with the company; he replied, that he should probably do so, but he should Eke to see the doctor. Mr. Gattie, a medical gentleman, then came to him, and soon returned to Mr. Woodburne with an assurance that his friend was in a very dangerous state. Mr. Woodburne, being greatly alarmed, asked Dr. Brown (who was with Sir James Carnac), to consult Mr. Gattle as to what could be done to save his friend;

and the two medical gentlemen made every exertion and applied all the usual remedies within their reach, with out avail. Sir David kept gradually sinking, but did not conscious about half-past seven, and at eight o'clock he ceased appear to experience any bodily suffering, and became unto breathe, his friends and the physicians being with him all the time. The passengers assembled to consult what was to be done, and they requested the captain to return and land the body at Gibraltar. He did return, but. the orders of the Governor are so strict, that the remains could not be allowed to come on shore, and therefore the last sad office of committing his body to the deep was perOriental stood out of the bay on her way to England." formed in the most solemn and impressive manner as the

When the news of Sir David's death reached England' every one seemed to feel his loss as that of a friend, connected to us by so many pleasant associations. Among other testimonies of respect the touching address to the brother and sister of the artist from the President and Council of the Royal Academy deserves notice here. To THOMAS WILKIE, Esq., the brother, and MISS Helen WILKIE, the sister, of the late SIR DAVID WILKIE, R.A. The President and Council of the Royal Academy, although reluctant to obtrude on sorrows too recent and severe to admit of present alleviation, yet cannot resist the anxious desire they feel, respectfully to manifest to the family of the late Sir David Wilkie how deeply they sympathize in the loss they have sustained by the lamentable and untimely death of that great painter. Connected with him for many years, socially and professionally, as an important member of their body, the Academy are fully sensible how much they have been indebted to his valuable services as a man and an artist; they largely participate, therefore, in the grief and regret which have been so generally excited by an event that has deprived the arts and his country of one of their most distinguished ornaments. The President and Council are well aware that time alone can assuage the sufferings of affection under such a bereavement; but they sincerely hope that when calmer feelings shall succeed to more acute emotions, the relatives and friends of this eminent although he has been unhappily cut off in the full vigour of man will derive much consolation from the reflection, that his powers, he lived long enough for his fame, that his works are known and admired wherever the arts are appreciated, and that he has achieved a celebrity unsurpassed in modern times.

An address was at the same time conveyed througn the Royal Academy to Mr. and Miss Wilkie from the profession at large, expressive of the high sense they entertained of his eminent talents and moral worth.

HIGH is the bliss that waits on wedded love,
Best, purest, emblem of the bliss above!
To draw new raptures from another's joy,
To share each grief, and half its sting destroy;
Of one fond heart to be the slave and lord,
Bless and be bless'd, adore and be ador'd;
To own the link of soul, the chain of mind,
Sublimest friendship, passion most refined,
Passion, to life's last evening-hour still warm,
And Friendship, brightest in the darkest storm;-
Lives there, but would, for blessings so divine,
The crowded Harem's sullen joys resign ?—

From ROLLESTON's Prize Poem of "Mahomet."

DEATH may be said, with almost equal propriety, to confer as well as to level all distinctions. In consequence of that event, a kind of chemical operation takes place; for those characters which were mixed with the gross particles of vice, by being thrown into the alembic of flattery, are sublimated into the essence of virtue. He who, during the performance of his part upon the stage of the world, was little if at all applauded, after the close of the drama is portrayed as the favourite of every virtue under heaven. To save the opulent from oblivion, the sculptor unites his labours with the scholar or the poet, whilst the rustic is indebted for his mite of posthumous renown to the carpenter, the joiner, or the mason. The structures of fame are, in both cases, built with materials whose duration is short. It may check the sallies of pride to reflect on the mortality of men; but for his complete humiliation, let it be remembered, that epitaphs and monuments decay.-BISHOP HORNE.



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Rooks, two Knights, and two Bishops; and eight pawns.

The pieces and pawns of the two players are distinguished The beneficial influence of the game of chess has been 80 completely acknowledged by many pious, learned by being of opposite colours, and will be represented in

the course of these lessons as follows :and eminent men, that it would be superfluous to give any lengthy statement of our reasons for inviting the attention of our readers to its practical details. The only plausible objection to it we have ever heard is, that

K. or

for King “it answers no useful purpose," and therefore involves a “waste of time." In reply to this we would inquire, are all our actions to be restricted to the one purpose of

Q. or

for Queen. utility ? Is it possible, constituted as we are, to find at all times sufficient recreation in the mere exchange of one duty for another ? Are there not moments when

for Rook or Castle. the mind as imperatively calls for diversion, as the body for exercise ? "If this be granted, and we see not how it can be denied, then we must be allowed to express our

B. or

for Bishop: own conviction, that, provided chess be restricted to leisure hours, its general introduction into families and schools would be productive of benefit. It is capable of affording innocent recreation, and healthy

for Knight. mental exercise to most persons. To thread the mazes of its wonderful and numberless combinations requires the exertion of caution, forbearance, and forethought:

for Pawn. it produces none of the pernicious excitement of games of chance; nothing is staked upon

the issue of the

game but skill, and in the attainment of that skill, the mental The king and queen are supported each by three powers are called into agreeable exercise.

officers and four soldiers; but before you inquire into The greater number of chess players to be met with the powers of the various members of this little army in private society seem to know little or nothing of you must become acquainted with the field of battle, and

your the wide extent and variety of this game. For want of learn how to marshal forces in order.


The a little study, they have but one method of opening their chess board must be so placed, that each player's rightplay, and they consider the first eight or ten moves as a

hand corner square may be white. The only reason for sort of routine or necessary preliminary to the game,

this is, to establish a universal rule whereby to set up and as such to require little or no care. But the reverse

the pieces. Indeed, it is not necessary that one half of of this is the case :—the Order Chess comprises many

the squares of the chess board be of a different colour to GENERA; to each genus belong numerous SPECIES; and the other half; but that the arrangement greatly facilithe first few moves determine the genus and species of tates the play. Remember that the rows of squares

Even among experienced players the fate of running upwards are called files, while those from left to many a game depends upon the correctness of the open- right are termed ranks; the oblique rows of squares, ing moves. The science of chess, as well as any other either white or black, are called diagonals. science, requires a knowledge of all its classifications, We will now set up the men in the proper order for and the peculiarities of each, not only as essential to commencing the game.

commencing the game. Your right-hand corner square good play, but also as conducive to that wonderful is white, place à rook on it, and remember that this variety for which chess is so remarkable. Without this piece being on the king's side is called the king's rook, knowledge the game soon becomes insipid, because the and the square on which it stands the king's rook's players soon acquire a mutual understanding of each square. Next to this place a knight, then a bishop, and other's opening moves, and consequently every game is

on the fourth square from the right the king must be but a tame repetition of those which they had played placed. You thus see that the king's officers stand on his j before. It is for such players that our easy lessons in right on their respective squares; the king's knight on chess will be valuable. They will form a chess alphabet, the king's knight's square, and the king's bishop on the equally adapted to those who have not yet learned to king's bishop's square. On the square next to the king read on the chequered page, as well as to those who place the queen, and observe that she will occupy a know their chess letters, and a few of their combinations. white square, while the queen of your antagonist will Many persons who have attained among their friends a stand on a black square. Beginners are frequently at a reputation for skill at chess, may think our easy lessons loss to remember the squares occupied by the two royal beneath their notice; but if they have not already pieces; but if you bear in mind the simple law that the acquired from books, or from the instructions of a good queen stands on her own colour you cannot err. One player, or from experience at play, the various methods consequence of this arrangement is, that your queen is of opening and conducting their game, they will find to the left of your king; but if you turn round the board many things new and valuable to them, after we have in order to play the black pieces your queen will then be given the first few preliminary lessons intended for to the right of your king This circumstance is very the beginner only. As we advance further we hope to puzzling to beginners who study from books, in which furnish

many hints and illustrations calculated to assist advice is generally given to the player of the white the progress of chess students in general.

pieces; for when they have to play the black men they Our instruction will be rendered most familiar by get confused. This is why we have advised you to addressing the reader in the second person, and by sup

accustom yourself to the use of either colour; besides it posing him always to play with the white pieces; advising is very likely that two persons who agree to play may him nevertheless to accustom himself to the use of either have a equal liking for white, but as one of the two colour; for which purpose he will do well to play over must have black, you see how necessary it is to make it our lessons with the white and black pieces alternately.

a matter of indifference which colour you use. Good LESSON I.

players always draw lots for colour.

But we must finish setting up our pieces. A bishop The game of chess is played by two persons upon a attends the queen on her left hand; then comes chequered board of sixty-four squares. Each player is knight, and on the left corner square stands the queen's furnished with eight pieces, namely, King, Queen, two rook. Eight pawns stand immediately in front of the

the game.

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pieces, and have the following names, beginning from | kind of chess notation which is now very common and the right.

very convenient. The exercise just given would be intelligible to any chess player if simply writen thus:K. B. to K. R. 3rd.

King's rook's pawn
King's knight's pawn
King's bishop's pawn
King's pawn
Queen's pawn
Queen's bishop's pawn
Queen's knight's pawn
Queen's rook's pawn.

When you have finished setting up your pieces, compare the state of your board with the following arrangement, which shows the proper position of all the pieces and pawns on both sids at the commencement of the game.


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The rank which the pieces occupy is sometimes called the royal line, and the eight squares which compose it are called by the names of the pieces occupying them at the commencement of the game: such as king's square. ie, the square whereon the king is first placed, and the square retains this name, throughout the whole of the game, whether the king occupies it or not. The same remark applies to all the other squares of the royal line. The files are also named according to the pieces Occupying the first square in each file. Thus king's rook's square is the first of the king's rook's file: king's rook's pawn occupies the king's rook's second square. King's rook's third, fourth, fifth, and sixth squares are anoccupied; king's rook's seventh is your adversary's king's rook's second square, and is occupied by his king's rook's pawn. Your king's rook's eighth square is your adversary's king's rook's square where that piece is now at home, as it is sometimes called when the piece has not been moved, or having been moved, is played back to its square.

Thus, all the files are named, and this easy method gives a name to every one of the sixty-four squares, and is equally available for your antagonist as well as for yourself.

We will now give you a few exercises on the names of the squares and the pieces. Remove all your white pawns from the board, and all your adversary's pieces, and then :

1. Place your king's bishop on your king's rook's third square.

But as we shall hereafter have to give you many directions for playing a piece from one square to another, it will be desirable to write our instructions in the shortest possible manner; we shall, therefore, use that

2. Play your queen to her eighth square:
Q. to Q. 8th, or
Q. to adv. Q.,

i.e., queen to adversary's queen's square.

3. Play your queen's knight to your queen's bishop's third square:

Q. Kt. to Q. B. 3rd.

4. Play your king to his bishop's second square: K. to K. B. 2nd.

5. Place your sixth square.

king's bishop on your queen's rook's

K. B. to Q. R. 6th.

6. Place your queen on the king's knight's fourth


Q. to K. Kt. 4th.

We will now finish our first lesson. Although you do not yet know the moves of the pieces, yet you are quite competent to perform the exercises given above.


ONE great advantage to the public at large to be derived
from the general introduction of "autogenous solder-
ing," will be the diminution of the number of cases of
the escape of water and gas, which every day occasion
so much inconvenience and even danger as regards the
stability of buildings, the maintenance of the public
thoroughfares, and the security of life.

The disuse of charcoal and tin by plumbers will have the important effect of rendering their trade less unhealthy, the fumes from their brasiers, and the arsenical vapours emanating from impure tin, being a very common cause of serious maladies.

By the old method of soldering, there is great danger of setting fire to houses and public buildings; the destruction of the corn market of Paris, and of the cathedrals of Chartres and of Bruges by fire, was partly owing to the negligence of plumbers; a negligence for which there could be no reason if the new method of soldering had been introduced, since it is only necessary to turn a cock in order to extinguish or re-kindle at any moment the jet of gas which serves for the plumber's tool. By means of the new apparatus, a soldering flame can be conducted to a distance of several fathoms without the dangerous necessity of lighting a brazier to heat irons, to melt masses of solder, and to carry the whole into the midst of complicated carpentry work.

The disuse of solder will also greatly reduce the price of plumber's work, without, however, diminishing the demand for the services of the workmen. The disuse of seams or overlappings, which from this new mode of connecting lengths of lead will almost entirely be given up, will alone occasion a considerable saving in the quantity of lead employed. The ease with which lead of from one-thirtieth to one-tenth of an inch in thickness may be soldered, and defects repaired, will permit of the substitution of this, in many cases, for thicker lead, and thus diminish the expense; perhaps also it will give rise to the use of lead for purposes to which it has not yet been applied, or the return to others, in which from motives of economy it has been superseded by other metals.

The plumber will also be indebted to M. de Richemont's method for several important improvements. He will be able in future to make internal joints wherever a jet of flame can be introduced and directed; to reconstruct on the spot, of pure lead, any portion of a

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