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prepared in it, but it is now occupied by several mummylike bodies, which have reposed here more than two centuries. An old town-hall, built in 1405, is chiefly noted for the curious wine-vaults beneath. It is called the Rathsweinkeller (council's wine-cellar), and is said to contain Hocheimer and Rüdesheimer wine nearly a century and a half old, and Hock more than two centuries old; along one side of the vaults are a number of small apartments, for the reception of visitors.
of Bremen, as an independent power; and afterwards of the city itself. The legislative power of the state is vested in a senate, consisting of four burgomasters, two syndics, and twenty-four senators; besides which there is the convention of burghers, composed of all resident citizens who pay a certain amount of taxes. The senators, who are chosen for life, are elected out of a certain number of candidates proposed by the burghers; each election taking place at the death of a senator, and the power of election residing in the other senators, who vote by ballot. The senators form the executive, and are responsible to the convention of burghers for the due administration of the laws. Each department of government is presided over by some one member of the senate, assisted by civic deputies. The convention of burghers takes part with the senate in the enactment of legislative measures, in imposing taxes, in applying the revenues, in directing military and naval expenditure, and in taking cognizance of all matters relating to trade and navigation. The senate exercises sovereign authority in respect of foreign affairs, territorial possession, public instruction, police regulations, the administration of justice, licensing ministers of religion, &c. In short, the senate is somewhat equivalent to the Sovereign in England, the convention of burghers to the House of Commons, and the senate and burghers combined to the parliament in its legislative capacity. The state forms one of the thirty-eight members of the Germanic confederation, in the diet or parliament of which it possesses one vote; and it is bound to furnish a contingent of 485 men to the army of the confederation.
The state of Bremen owes most of its importance to the extent of its commerce. The imports and the exports each equal about three millions and a half sterling per annum; the former consisting principally of tobacco, whale-oil, coffee, sugar, and wine; and the latter of lead, copper, iron, glass, grain, timber, bark, potash, drugs, hemp, flax, wool, paper, tobacco-pipes, &c. Besides the city to which it owes its importance, this little state contains two market towns, Vegesack and Bremer-Haven, and about sixty villages and hamlets. It is divided into fourteen parishes, which contain collectively about nine thousand houses, and sixty thousand inhabitants; of which number about forty-four thousand inhabit the city. The greater part of the inhabitants are Protestants; the number of Roman Catholics and of Jews being but small. The surface of the land is low, and consists principally of a marshy soil. Small as is its extent, it is watered by no fewer than six or seven affluents of the Weser, besides water-courses and canals. Neither wood nor grain are grown in large quantities; but the pastures are very rich, and support a fine breed of horned cattle. We must now take a glance at the city itself. Bremen is divided by the river Weser into two unequal portions, of which one, termed the Altstadt, or "old town," is on the right bank of the river, and the other, called the Neustadt, or 66 new town," is on the left. The two towns are united by a bridge over the Weser, which passes through a small island called the Werder. Both sides of the river are lined with quays, from which a fine view of the town is obtained. The old town consists principally of narrow, crooked streets, rendered very gloomy by the loftiness of the houses. It has very large suburbs, diversified with handsome mansions, villas and gardens; it was formerly surrounded with ramparts and bastions, but these have been levelled and converted into delightful promenades, across which six roads enter the town. The only open space of any considerable magnitude in the old town is the "dom-hof" or cathedral square, and the market-place. The Cathedral is a venerable gothic structure, nearly seven hundred years old: it is about three hundred feet long, and a hundred and twenty wide; beneath it is a cellar called the "lead cellar," from the circumstance that the lead for the roof was melted and
The new town, which was begun in the year 1625, is built in a very regular manner, with broad and handsome streets; but it has no suburbs. Bremen contains six churches in the old town, and three in the new, of which one has a steeple nearly as high as St. Paul's Cathedral in London. The present town-hall, which was once the archiepiscopal palace, has been completely renovated within the last few years, and has a range of open piazzas around it, for public accommodation. Formerly the dead were buried in churchyards within the city, as is customary in England; but several churchyards are now left unoccupied, for the purpose of affording freer circulation to the air; cemeteries having been established in the outskirts of the city.
Among the buildings in Bremen is the Schütting, in which the elders of the mercantile body hold their sittings; this body has the immediate superintendance over such matters as affect trade and navigation; the elders are gerents for the commercial body only, being in no way connected with the government or legislature, except as individual members of the one or the other. The exchange, the arsenal, and the weighing-house, are among the other public buildings. The city is supplied with water by waterworks in the river, by which a great wheel throws up about a hundred and twenty hogsheads of water at each revolution; the revolutions are about fifty in an hour, and the water thus thrown up is deposited in a large reservoir. Besides these water-works, there are a number of public wells in the city. The manufactures carried on within, or in the immediate. neighbourhood of the town, are principally woollens, leather, tobacco, sugar refining, beer, brandy, spirits, rapeoil, whalebone, flour, soap, starch, cables, and ropes, cotton-yarn, and silks.
Of the institutions connected with education and science, are two gymnasia and a high school; schools for trade and navigation; the city library; Dr. Olbers' observatory, from which he discovered the two asteroids, Pallas and Vesta; thirty parochial and elementary schools; two orphan asylums, where three or four hundred orphans are maintained and educated, and the museum, which contains a large library, collections in natural history, mechanics, the arts, &c., as well as lecture and reading rooms. Of the origin of this museum Holcroft gives a curious account:
The Germans deserve high praise, as well for their public rude houses, where no man would have expected the least as private efforts to obtain and promote knowledge. relic of science, and which not only taste but common convenience seemed to have forsworn, I have met with men as I travelled, who abounded in knowledge; and who spoke even of the fine arts so as to prove, though they had not seen, they had read. To this love of literature the Museum at Bremen is indebted for its origin. When Lavater's expensive work on physiognomy appeared, three of the inhabitants, exceedingly desirous to read it, proposed to each other to purchase it in common, and peruse it in turn. This suggested the convenience of buying other books; and at last of clubbing their small libraries, hiring a common room, and having each a key. Pipes and tobacco could not be forgotten: ice to a Neapolitan is not a more pressing want. Here they came, read, smoked, and meditated; society grew; and the spirit with which it has been mainwhenever they had leisure. From this small beginning the tained, the generosity of its members, the ardour of their zeal, and their thirst of inquiry, have been rewarded by the pleasures which knowledge affords, and the applause of the surrounding cities.
The inhabitants of Bremen are rather short in stature, and form a striking contrast with the tall southern Germans. They are simple and frugal in their manners, and retain many very primitive modes of living. The usual hour of dinner is eleven o'clock in the forenoon; but on Sundays it is the practice to breakfast at six in the morning, and to dine at ten. They are obliging, frank, charitable, and hospitable in their dispositions; industri-ing, ous, orderly, and peaceful in their habits; possessed in general of good natural abilities, improved by a liberal education; and are well acquainted with the chief departments of useful knowledge.
MEDITATED RESOLVES AND RESOLVED MEDITATIONS.
Ir is the over-curious ambition of many to be best or to be none: if they may not do so well as they would, they will not do so well as they may. I will do my best to do the best, and what I want in power, supply in will. Thus while I pay in part, I shall not be a debtor for all. He owes most that pays nothing.
PRIDE is the greatest enemy to reason, and discretion the greatest opposite to pride; for while wisdom makes art the ape of nature, pride makes nature the ape of art. The wise man shapes his apparel to his body, the proud man shapes his body by his apparel. 'Tis no marvel then if he know not himself, when he is not to-day like him he was yesterday, and less marvel if good men will not know him, when he forgets himself and all goodness. I should fear, while I thus change my shape, lest my Maker should change his opinion, and finding me not like him he made me, reject me as none of his making. I would any day put off the old cause of my apparel, but not every day put on newfashioned apparel. I see great reason to be ashamed of my pride, but no reason to be proud of my shame.
THE reason that many men want their desires is, because their desires want reason. He may do what he will that will do but what he may.
I SHOULD marvel that the covetous man can still be poor when
wanting in his store, while the other is stored in his wants.
HYPOCRISY desires to seem good rather than to be so: honesty desires to be good rather than seem so. The worldlings purchase reputation by the sale of desert, wise men buy desert with the hazard of reputation. I would do much to hear well, more to deserve well, and rather lose opinion than merit. It shall more joy me, that I know myself what I am, than it shall grieve me to hear what others report me. I had rather deserve well without praise, than do ill with commendation.
AN IMPROVED METHOD OF SOLDERING
WHEN two pieces of iron are to be united, it is sufficient to heat them nearly to the fusing point; to place them in contact, when by means of quick and forcible hammerthey will become united as one piece. This process is called welding, and is peculiar to iron; the union of other metals being effected by the interposition of a metallic cement called solder. This substance fuses at a lower temperature than the metal to be soldered. The plumber uses a solder composed of tin and lead. The solder of the coppersmith is an alloy of copper and zinc. Hard and soft solders are used for brass; the former is composed of brass and zinc, and the latter of brass, zinc, and tin. Before soldering, the surfaces of the metals which are to be united must be made bright, smooth, and level, and free from oxide, otherwise the solder will not adhere: the contact of air must also be excluded during the soldering, because it is apt to oxidise one or other of the surfaces, and thus prevent the adhesion of the solder. Various artifices are adopted for excluding the air. The locksmith encases in loam the articles of iron or brass which are to be subjected to a soldering heat; the silversmith and brazier mix their respective solders with moist borax-powder; the coppersmith and tinman apply sal-ammoniac, rosin, or both, to the cleaned metallic surfaces, before using the soldering-iron to fuse them with the tin-alloy.
The great object of soldering is, of course, to form joints or seams in pipes, and other articles, so perfectly, that they shall be subject to no leakage or flaw. But this object is not easily obtained by the old method of soldering: the chances of flaw are numerous, and have been enumerated thus:-1st, the difference of expansion between the lead and its alloys with tin, a difference elevated temperatures; 2nd, the electro-chemical actions which is particularly experienced in very cold or very which are developed under certain circumstances by the contact of two different metallic substances *; 3rd, the very powerful re-action which a number of chemical agents exert on alloys of lead and tin, though not upon lead alone; 4th, the extreme fragility of these alloys, which, particularly when heated, often break on the slightest blow; 5th, the difficulty of making the solder adhere to the surface of the lead ; 6th, the use of rosin, which frequently conceals fractures for a time.
All of these objections are removed by a new method of soldering, invented by M. E. Desbassays de Richemont, who has recently obtained, at the National Exhibition of Arts at Paris, a gold medal for his invention. The committee on whose recommendation the medal was awarded, included some of the most distinguished chemists and men of science in France; and in their report on the subject they say:
We consider this invention of the highest importance; it is applicable to many branches of industry, and will render great service to a large number of manufactures. efficacy has not only been proved by experiment, but is confirmed by the fact that most of our eminent manufacturers and tradesmen have taken out licenses for the use of it.
A COWARD in the field is like the wise man's fool: his heart is at his mouth, and he doth not know what he does profess: but a coward in his faith is like a fool in his wis
dom; his mouth is in his heart, and he dares not profess what he does know. I had rather not know the good I should do, than not do the good I know. It is better to be beaten with few stripes than with many.
EACH true Christian is a right traveller: his life his walk, Christ his way, and Heaven his home. His walk painful, his way perfect, his home pleasing. I will not loiter, lest I come short of home: I will not wander, lest I come wide of home, but be content to travel hard, and be sure I walk right, so shall my safe way find its end at home, and my painful walk make my home welcome.
[ARTHUR WARWICK, 1637.]
This invention (which is patented in France, Great Britain, and Ireland,) is called autogenous soldering, and consists of a method of uniting two pieces of metal without the use of solder. The parts to be joined are united by the fusion of the metal at the points or lines of junction; so that the pieces when joined form one homogeneous mass, no part of which can be distinguished
Messrs. Vauquelin and D'Arcet state that they have seen in soappowder. The same has been remarked of leaden pipes passing through works the soldering of vata lined with lead, crumble in a few days to a
+ The solder often sticks without uniting, and the workman may be quite ignorant of his imperfect work, and thus gas, water, or dangerous liquids, may be allowed to escape,
A section of the gas-producer is shown in fig. 1: a, is leaden tank, for containing dilute sulphuric acid; b, a pipe which passes from the acid vessel to another similar leaden vessel, c, which is to contain cuttings of zinc; d, is a conical plug with a stalk and handle covered with lead, by the opening of which the acid is allowed to flow through the pipe, b, to the zinc-cuttings, and thus hydrogen gas is produced; e, is an opening by which zinc is put into the vessel, c.. The opening, e, has a cover furnished with screws and nuts, by which it may be firmly secured; f is an opening by which acid and water are poured into the vessel, a. When the hydrogen gas is produced, it has to pass through the safety chamber, g; his a bent tube or pipe, which conducts the gas from the vessel, c, to the bottom of the safety chamber, the mouth of the pipe dipping into an inch or two of water in the safety chamber. This water is introduced by the pipe, i, which is furnished with a stopple. The cock, k, cuts off the flow of gas from the vessel, e, to the safety chamber, g. A flexible tube, m, is screwed to the top of the safety chamber, and conveys the gas to the working instrument, or jet, in the hands
of the solderer.
As long as the dilute acid is allowed to flow upon the zinc, hydrogen gas will be produced: the gas will also be formed as long as the cock is open, which allows the gas to issue as it is produced; but as soon as the cock is shut, a small quantity of gas accumulates, and interferes with the further action of the liquid on the zinc. Consequently, there is no danger of an explosion, because the production of the gas is never more than is required for working; and when the work ceases, the
We now proceed to describe the part of the apparatus with which the workman operates. In fig. 2, the flexible tube, m, is attached to one arm of the forked tube o; the other arm of o is attached to a pipe, q, proceeding from a bellows, or other means for supplying air. The solderer may work a bellows with his foot to supply his apparatus with air, or the men in a whole factory may be supplied from a blowing apparatus. A cock, n, regulates the supply of gas; p is a cock for regulating the supply of air; is the pipe or tube in which the gas and air are mixed; s, the beak or tool from which issues the jet of flame, t, with which the workman operates.
The forked tube, o, is attached to the girdle of the workman, and the regulating cocks, n and p, are placed, that by using one hand the man can allow the exact proportions of air and gas to issue. By stopping both cocks the flame is of course extinguished.
The beak, s, may be exchanged for others of every variety of form so as to produce jets of flame, adapted to any kind of work. Fig. 3, is a tool formed like the rosette of a watering-pot, capable of producing a most intense flame of jets.
Fig. 4, allows a length of flame instead of a point to be produced; n is the hydrogen gas-pipe and cock; p, the air-pipe and cock; r, the tube in which air and gas mingle: u a pipe with a longitudinal slit on one side of it, and v, another pipe covering u, and exactly fitting over it, Gas and air escaping from the slit, on being ignited, will produce a long strip of flame, which may be lengthened or shortened by sliding off or on the covering tube, v, on the slit tube, u.
Fig. 5 is a soldering tool, to be used where a jet of flame is not available, as in joining zinc. In this arrangement, the hydrogen and air flame heats a piece of copper, y, with which the work is performed. w is the tool, with a hollow handle and stalk; air being supplied by the pipe p, passes through the hollow handle and stalk; æ is a small tube which passes down the hollow handle and stalk, , and conveys gas from the pipe to the extremity of w, where it mingles with the issuing air, and, on being ignited, the flame will heat the piece of copper, y, (which, of course, may be of the shape of any soldering tool required) held by the
ON WILHEM'S METHOD OF TEACHING
ADAPTED TO ENGLISH USE, UNDER THE SANCTION OF THE
BY JOHN HULLAH.
We have already stated that the vocal instructions on Wilhem's system are imparted in two different forms, te, 1st, in a large class superintended by the Master himself, and 2nd, in smaller classes conducted by Monitors. In the course of instruction now being given at Exeter Hall, the former plan is followed, in order that all may receive tuition from Mr. Hullah himself; but we shall endeavour to describe the system in both its forms, first remarking that those who have not been present at the exercises of Mr. Hullah's pupils can form little idea of the grand effect produced by the harmonious combination of about three hundred voices when the advanced classes of the singing school unite in the performance of some of those fine old anthems, or those rich madrigals, which form the delight of all real lovers of music. And to those who are privileged to attend these meetings it is matter of no small astonishment to reflect, that at the commencement of the past year, the first step in the course which has led to such pleasing esults, had not been taken, and that of these singers, whose performance seems now in many respects almost beyond the reach of criticism, not one had partaken of Mr. Hul'ah's instructions before the 1st of February, 1841. Certainly, there must be something unusually excellent in the system, as well as in the method of communicating it, thus to facilitate the progress of so many individuals of different capacities, and different degrees of vocal power.
his instructions with a lecture on the elements of music, expressing his meaning in simple language and in an audible tone. He draws a distinction between "noise" and "music," showing how the rolling of wheels, or the blows of a hammer, produce the former, and exemplifying the latter by the ringing of bells, and the singing of birds. He then explains the meaning of the term "musical passage," as being applied to a succession of musical sounds differing in their pitch or tone. He states that the term "scale" is applied to a series of eight musical sounds, gradually ascending in pitoh, the highest being called the " octave to the lowest, and very much resembling it in character. He shows that these eight sounds are not exactly equidistant one from another, two of the intervals being smaller than the others; and he exemplifies this by sketching a ladder on the board, or exhibiting one printed on a tablet, the ladder having eight bars or rounds, which are placed at intervals apart corresponding to the sounds of the musical scale. He explains that the scale is called "major" or "minor" according to the positions which the two smaller intervals occupy in it.
These truths in elementary music are conveyed in a manner calculated to keep the attention of the pupils constantly alive. Sometimes the master illustrates his meaning by singing a few notes; at other times by drawing explanatory figures on the board; and he occasionally interrogates his pupils individually to ascertain whether the real meaning of the instruction is properly understood. There are numerous little difficulties which embarrass the learner of music, and which the master takes care to smooth down when the proper time arrives; such, for example, as the unfortunate application of the word tone in two different meanings: the one relating to cach of the larger intervals of the scale, and the other to the quality of the sound of a musical instrument. These two meanings of the word "tone" are obviously very different, and we know from experience how necessary it is for a learner to have them clearly explained. The word "tune" is also applied in an ambiguous manner, for we speak of a person "playing a tune," and of playing or singing" in tune," alluding in the first instance to a regular composition or melody, and in the second to the correctness of pitch in different notes. It forms a part of Wilhem's method to have these minor difficulties explained by the master as much as possible in a familiar and conversational manner.
The book in which the course of instruction is laid down is printed in chapters; while the instructions themselves are imparted to the pupils in separate lessons, each chapter and each lesson containing a small and convenient amount of information. We shall not attempt to follow the course of instruction, chapter by chapter, or lesson by lesson; but shall mention such points as seem worthy of observation.
For the instruction of the pupils (consisting chiefly of masters and mistresses of elementary schools) at Exeter Hall, one of the large rooms of the building is selected, in which the pupils are seated on benches with their faces directed towards a platform, on which the master (Mr. Hullah) takes his station. Two black boards are provided, on which words and musical notes may be written with chalk, so as to be read distinctly by all the pupils in the class. The master is provided with a tuning-fork, to determine the pitch of musical sounds, and a wand for beating time. The master commences
After having explained that a "scale" which contains no more than eight sounds or notes, is called a "diatonic scale;" that the notes are numbered from 1 to 8, beginning from the lowest; that the larger intervals are called tones, and the smaller semi-tones; that when the two semitones are between the 3rd and 4th, and the 7th and 8th notes, the scale is called a major scale; the master proceeds to exercise the voices of his pupils by making them sing the eight notes of the major diatonic scale; holding up an open hand when they sing a tone, and a closed hand when they sing a semi-tone. This seems the proper place to make a few remarks respecting "musical voice," and "musical ear." The reader has perhaps imagined that Mr. Hullah's numerous pupils have been selected because they can sing, and that those persons who may not have sung a dozen notes correctly in their lives, are excluded from these classes. The reception of all who desire to learn is a peculiar feature in this method, founded on an opinion, (the confirmation of which would be a matter of much interest,) that there is
even in a solo, the effect is frequently heightened by occasional intervals of silence; the master therefore explains the means by which these pauses are represented, in the use of rests of different forms.
When the pupils have acquired these elementary notions the master proceeds to the important subject of names of notes. He explains that as it is necessary to apply to musical notes some names by which they may be known, various expedients have been devised for this purpose. As the 8th note in the scale bears a singular resemblance to the 1st or lowest, the same name isunder whatever system of nomenclature-given to both; and as we may suppose another scale placed above the first, the 8th note becomes the basis or foundation for this upper scale; and each note bears the same name in both. There are thus only seven different names applied to the whole range of musical notes. These seven are in England generally the first seven letters of the alphabet, but as these letters are exceedingly difficult to sing, musicians on the Continent adopt the much more judicious plan of using seven short syllables, of no meaning in themselves, but capable of being sung in a musical manner. These syllables are do, re, mi, fa, sol, la, si, and they are employed in Wilhem's system, both as conducted in France, and as adapted to English practice by Mr. Hullah. This having been made clear, the master proceeds to explain how the notes are adjusted to the lines and spaces of the stave; whether, for example, the note do (which is a definite musical sound, having a determinate pitch) shall be placed on this or that line, this or that space of the stave. Men's voices are, by nature, an octave lower than those of females, but it is sometimes desirable to express them by the same lines and spaces, to avoid the use of too large a number of ledger lines. The master explains how this is effected by the use of certain symbols called clefs, whereby the note expressed on any given line or space of the stave, varies according to the clef which may be placed at the beginning of the piece of music.
no such thing, except in cases of disease, as a real inability to sing. There are some sensible remarks on this point attached to the Prefatory Minute of the Council of Education in the volume before alluded to, in connexion with the announcement of a Singing-School for School
It is believed that there is no lack of teachers influenced
by the laudable desire to improve themselves and their schools; but some may hesitate to enrol themselves members of a singing class under an idea that they possess no voice or no ear. This apprehension has, however, seldom or never any foundation. Such persons must be informed that every individual in a state of average bodily health, is capable of producing musical sounds, unless the vocal organ has been the subject of some specific disease. Persons who cannot discriminate one musical passage from another are very rare exceptions to a general rule. Every ear,' says an ingenious writer on this subject, in a healthy state, is a musical ear; no voice, means a voice never exercised; no ear, means an ear whose power of attention has never been trained. Frequent and well-directed practice will mend the least tuneful voice; and attention to the correct intonation of others will improve the most obstinate ear. A large body of voices, however uncultivated, is seldom materially out of tune; persons with good ears, are seldom misled by the incorrect intonation of those who have bad ears,' and the latter invariably, though perhaps imperceptibly, approximate the correctness of the former.
As far as our own opportunities of judging extend, in the circles of private society, we are fully prepared to join in the opinion that every one (with the few exceptions mentioned above) is capable of learning to sing, with moderate correctness as to tone, and with a quality of voice not altogether unmusical. The diffidence inspired by the custom of singing alone, or in presence of one or two auditors, is highly unfavourable to that development and exercise of voice and ear which are necessary for the production of even a moderately good singer. This diffidence is not felt when the learner is joined by many other pupils in a similar stage of progress. There is, besides, another reason why singing in class tends to produce accuracy of ear. Dr. Arnott states in one of his scientific works, that when the body of air in a building is vibrating with the sound of many voices singing in unison, there is a tendency to bring stray voices into agreement with the main body of the singers; a tendency of which the singers themselves are not conscious, bnt which has the effect of educating the ear to the appreciation of musical intervals. There are laws of acoustics, in relation to the vibration of sounding bodies, which tend to confirm this statement, and to place it on a philosophical basis.
To return to our subject. As alphabetical characters or some corresponding symbols, are necessary for the expression of our thoughts on paper, so are characters of some form or other requisite for the expression of musical sounds. The master, therefore, with the aid of chalk-marks on the board, or of printed tables, shows that sounds are expressed by round spots calied "notes," and that the pitch or height of sounds is indicated by placing notes at various heights in the page or board. He explains that for the purpose of fixing this relative height musicians employ a set of five lines called a stave; that the notes may be placed on any one of these five lines, ΟΙ on any of the spaces between them; that short lines, called ledger-lines, are placed above and below the stave, to contain such notes as are too high or too low to be contained within it. He calls to the pupils' minds the fact that while singing we sometimes hold a long time on one sound, and at other times only a limited period; and he explains that this variation in length is represented by giving tails or branches to the notes, by which they are distinguished as the representations of sounds of different length, to which the terms minim, crochet, quaver, &c., are applied. If two persons are playing or singing a duet, one of them frequently remains silent for a time while the other sings or plays and
Here we may mention a peculiar feature in the system, which though very simple, is of much practical service. The fingers and thumb of the extended hand are made to represent the five lines of the stave; while the spaces between the fingers represent the spaces between the lines of the stave. The master extends his own hand, and causes the pupil to do so likewise; and when any note is mentioned, the place which it occupies in the stave is represented by pointing to the proper finger with a finger of the other hand. By this means the pupil acquires a sort of manual knowledge of the position of notes. The master about this time also explains the qualities and the compass of different voices, such as soprano, contralto, tenor, and bass. He shows that in most modern music the sol or G clef is most generally used, and accustoms his pupils to study the stave in reference to this clef. We have been surprised at the ease with which a knowledge of the stave is acquired by the class in consequence of this method. In a lecture recently given by Mr. Hullah, at a scientific institution, where a number of his pupils were present, he stood before them with the hand extended, and pointed to the fingers and spaces of that hand. Whichever finger or space was denoted by the master's hand, the pupil immediately pronounced the name of the note, at the same time singing or "sol-fa-ing" it in the proper pitch. This term "sol-fa" means, to sing the notes or the scale in proper tone or pitch, but without attaching words to them; merely using the syllables, sol, fa, &c.
The precautions taken to secure correctness in keeping time, we shall allude to in another article on this highly interesting subject.