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allow us to mention more than one of the winged visitors
THE BRANDY PEST. o this dreary island; and we select the wild or whistling
No. II. gwan. This noble bird is five feet long; and, when the
An Accident. wings are extended, eight feet broad: its plumage is pure white, slightly tinged on the head with orange
ABOUT three miles from the inn where we dined, the road yellow. It sometimes remains all the winter in Iceland; passed over a hill, and led to a village at the foot of it. and during the long dark nights is heard the wild song whipped on the horses, and our carriage was suddenly
As we were descending this hill, our postilion madly of troops of these birds as they pass from place to place. overturned. We reached the ground unhurt, but the This song is thought to be a kind of signal or watchword, postilion fell with great violence; fortunately the horses to prevent the dispersion of the party, and is described were soon stopped, by some villagers, who helped us out of as remarkably pleasant, resembling the tones of a violin, the carriage. The postilion, bleeding and senseless, was though somewhat higher, each note occurring after a conveyed to an inn, where we made up our minds to stop distinct interval. This midnight music is said to pre
also. cede a thaw, and hence the Icelanders are well pleased
“I expected this,” said Fridolin, on the way to the inn; to bear it. In summer these birds abound in many of He is intoxicated: his glowing red face, and his swearing,
" the fellow drank too much at the place where we dined. the lakes, rivers, marshes, and small ponds: here they showed it evidently." lay their eggs in spring and the natives go in search of About a quarter of an hour passed before the postilion them; and in August, when the old birds moult and recovered his consciousness. Fridolin examined and treated the young cannot yet ily, many persons go to collect the him with great care. The poor fellow had broken a rib feathers and catch the birds. The flesh, which is dry and his left arm, and his face was much bruised. and tough, is eaten, but the quills and skins are valu
This accident obliged us to remain at the inn until the able articles of export.
carriage was repaired, and in the evening we enjoyed the The inclemency of an Icelandic winter is often in
company of some officers, and other respectable people
of the village. We were in our dear Switzerland. The creased by the vast shoals of ice which the waves bear
company talked much about the existing institutions and from Greenland to its shores; but the same cause which governments. They all approved of them, with the excepproduces this disadvantage brings also a compensation tion of the landlord, who interrupted them often, saying, for many privations: every year vast heaps of drift wood " It is really too bad of our governments to allow the inare cast ashore sufficient to supply the natives with fuel
crease of ale-houses and brandy-shops, by which the disand building material.
soluteness of the country increases. In some of our towns
every fifth house is an inn or an ale-house. Here in our This timber appears to come from two directions, the small village, with scarcely six hundred inhabitants, there Current from the northern coast of Asia bringing it from the are seven public-houses, which are full of guests every east, and the American or Mexican gulf stream from the evening.' south-west. Owing to the general course of these, it is There is sometimes in the life of a man, a time, a found in greatest quantities on the north-western side. The day, in which, by a remarkable coincidence of circumfords in Strande Syssel enjoy it in most abundance, and instances, the same thing occurs more than once, or in many of them it is seen piled up several yards thick, partly which several events happen that appear to have the same covered with sand or wild plants, and is often quite fresh. | bearing. We ought to pay more than usual attention to Trees with their bark and roots are also very commonly circumstances thus pressed upon our notice by repetition, found in good condition, having, from being enveloped in for in such coincidences the willing observer may discern ice, either before or soon after they fell into the water, been the warning or encouraging voice of Providence. preserved from injury and waste. The wood on the north- Such was the case with me. Dr. Walter's description of western coast consists of the pine, Scotch fir, lime-tree, birch, the dangers of brandy-drinking, the letters by which I had willow, mahogany, Campeachy wood, and the cork-tree; learnt the dreadful consequences of this bad habit, the danon the east are found Scotch fir, silver fir, birch, willow, and ger to which our lives had been exposed, through the intoxijuniper; on the coast near Langanes, the Scotch and silver cation of our postilion-all this, happening in one day, for prevail. Associated with these come dead whales and made a deep impression upon me, and confirmed me in my seals, which are a great prize to the poor inhabitants. These resolution to give up drinking spirits for ever. hare probably been killed by the icebergs, which move But this day had yet other consequences upon my
futuro faster than a boat can row, and, when dashing together, life. sometimes by their friction set fire to the wood contained in them.
A Conversation such as is seldom heard
in an Inn.
" It is jealousy of trade, landlord, jealousy of trade, that Taere are a thousand objects, such as quills, reeds, the makes you speak thus !” cried one of the guests, laughing. grasses, &c., which show that strength is uniformly given “ No, sir," answered the landlord, "I do not speak from by Nature, with the least possible expense of material. It selfishness, I feel compassion for the poor people. Every was this fact to which Galileo appealed, when he was year they become more dissolute and disorderly on account arraigned before the inquisition on the charge of atheism of the increase of public-houses; for the more numerous II, said he, there were nothing else in nature to teach me the the opportunities of seduction, the more numerous are the existence of a Deity, even this straw would be sufficient. seduced; the more public-houses, the more drunkards. Such a straw, if made solid, and yet of the same quantity of Read the newspapers! I have noticed many things in them. material, would be so thin, that it would bend and break In the canton of Berne, for instance, five years ago, there under the slighest weight; whereas, in its present form, it were already more than 900 public-houses: there are now is able to support an ear, which is heavier than the whole more than 1500. Five years ago, I tell you, three to four stalk.-DR. POTTER.
million gallons of wine, and about 248,000 gallons of brandy, were imported into the same canton. You think
this is a great deal; but now nearly 7,000,000 gallons That ignorance of our future destiny in life, of which we of wine, and about 500,000 gallous of brandy, are consometimes complain, is a signal proof of the goodness of our sumed! Besides this, many persons make brandy for their Creator. He hides from us the view of futurity, because own use out of the husks of pressed grapes, apples, or pears, the view would be dangerous and overpowering. It would or out of potatoes. Many persons drink brandy in the either dispirit us with visions of terror, or intoxicate us by morning before breakfast, at noon, and again in the evening. the disclosure of success. The veil which covers from our Even boys drink ardent spirits. The same is the case in sight the events of this and of succeeeding years, is a veil the cantons of Freiburg, Solothurn, Aargau, Zürich, and woven by the hand of mercy. Our “times are in his hand,” others. Once the canton of Basel-Landschaft sold an imod we have reason to be glad that in his hand they are mense quantity of cherry-brandy to France. Though that kept, shut out from our view. Submit to his pleasure as commerce is now at an end, still the distilling of the brandy an Almighty Ruler we must; because we cannot resist Him: continues. What do the peasants of Basel do with it? equal reason there is for trusting in Him as a guardian They consume themselves the whole quantity every year.” under whose disposal we are safe.-BLAIR.
“It is jealousy of trade, landlord, nothing but jealousy of trade,” repeated the same merry guest ; “ you exaggerate, / sickly, weak persons amongst them, who have the physician it is not half so bad as you say.'
constantly in their house, and whose children are weak and An old gentleman, who sat opposite to him, raised his degenerate. But these so-called well-educated people disvoice, and spoke thus, very seriously: “The evil is worse pense brandy also amongst the lower people. They give it than you think, or perhaps, know. Have you not been to their labourers; they give it to their threshers and hayyourself a witness of the accident that happened to these makers; they give it to their washerwomen; they offer it to gentlemen, caused by the intoxication of their postilion? those who bring them their rents; and, in short, they take Such accidents, owing to drunkenness, are not at all rare in advantage of every opportunity to make people drink. They our days. Where is there a village or a town in the country, imagine, perhaps, in their ignorance, that by this means they where you do not meet with drunkards reeling through the give more pleasure and strength to their labourers. Yes, it streets, quarrelling, fighting, and even killing each other? is true, in the first hour the brandy excites their spirits, they How many fires are occasioned by the carelessness or work merrily; but, in the following hours, faintness, debithoughtlessness of intoxicated persons! The poverty of lity, indolence, and sleep overcome them. It is a fact, that the lower classes increases strikingly with the increased out of two equally strong labourers, he who abstains from use of wine, ale, or brandy. Debauchery, idleness, and brandy works better, and with more prudence and reflection thieving, become more frequent every year. The parish is | than he who takes it. The latter is like a traveller, who, in overburdened with orphans and deserted children. If an the beginning, runs fast, and leaves others behind him, but epidemic disease breaks out, all is misery and destruction, soon he becomes tired, and must remain behind those who in spite of the great number of physicians. People die like walk steadily.” flies, for they are ripe for the grave through their daily use A little man, who had the appearance of a wealthy farmer, of spirits. The government know all this; they see it every interrupted the justice of the peace in his speech, and said: day, and yet do nothing against it. Instead of stopping the “Right! right! I know it well. Four sober labourers, who source of the evil they dig ponds and lakes to receive its quench their thirst with water and milk, work more in a victims. They build immense work houses, hospitals, and day than five brandy-drinkers. I allow no brandy on my houses of correction, and fill them with drunkards; but they farm; and I am very well without it. A brandy-drinker do not reflect upon the origin of all this misery. They give saves no money either for himself or for his family.”. licences for ale-houses and brandy-shops, and so let misery The justice of the peace resumed: “I know, neighbour, run unbridled over the country.”
that you have dismissed every one who is fond of brandy, While he thus spoke, the other guests were all attentively and you have derived advantage from so doing. No liquor silent. The landlord nodded his approbation, and said: “It is to be found in your house. Oh may all honest persons, is but too true, your worship!" (for the speaker was a all intelligent and true friends of the people, imitate your exjustice of the peace.)
ample! But if wealthy families, manufacturers, officers, even No one had listened with greater attention than Fridolin. magistrates and teachers, offer to their children, to their “I have been absent more than four years,” said he, “and workmen, to their pupils, the bad example of spirit-drinking, I am both astonished and grieved to hear such facts. No what can we expect from the common people ? Yes, they corruption, debauchery, nor licentiousness, ought ever to be are the poisoners of the community; they are the mischiefheard of in Switzerland. And yet, gentlemen, what else is makers! And, what is worse, gentlemen, the very men to the cause of the misery and infamy of our country, but the whom we intrust the superintendence of the public welfare, avidity and covetousness of the dealers in ardent spirits, contribute, by their ignorance or their thoughtlessness, to the who thus distribute poison through the whole country.” diffusion of all those evils, vices, and crimes which originate
Our landlord shook his head and replied: " By your leave, in the daily use of strong liquors in our deplorable country; sir, I will agree, that the greediness for gain of the retailers of poverty and gambling, of lust and dissipation, of theft and of spirits contributes much to the misery and impoverish- fighting, of weakness in offspring, and of all sorts of disment of families and parishes. But if you call brandy a eases. Some of our clergymen preach on the decay of relipoison, the band of poisoners is much larger than that of gion, lament over the increasing immorality; but they have landlords, alehouse-keepers, and dealers. I will not say not yet destroyed the secret source of vice, namely, the anything more. It is more becoming for your worship to daily use of fermented and distilled drinks. Indeed, it is speak than for me.”
not enough to preach, to lament, and to admonish. Do we He addressed these last words to the old gentleman who not, in this wretched brandy-drinking country of ours, often had spoken before. Fridolin, too, turned towards the jus- see unworthy priests who are drunkards? do we not see tice of the peace and requested him to explain, how it came even the teachers of youth and professors addicted to drinkto pass that brandy, in the course of these twenty years, had ing, and exposing themselves to the scorn and derision of become such a common, and indeed, unfortunately, such a their scholars? But, gentlemen, the vice has become already daily beverage.
so general amongst us, that it is no more regarded as a vice; The Speech of an old Justice of the Peace, worthy of it is hardly regarded as a weakness; has it not become a
proverb to say, 'To be tipsy honourably shall be prohibited every one's attention.
by nobody? Our doctors ought to take care of the health “Do not wonder at it," said he; “it is not the fault either of the people. They ought to be the first, if they were of the revolution, or of the foreign soldiers who came into conscientious, benevolent men, to warn the community of our country, or of that licentiousness of the people which the abuse of strong liquors; and, I repeat it, daily use is an is occasioned by war. Neither is the number of inns and abuse. They best know to how many bodily diseases this taverns the cause of the increase of brandy-drinking. Were daily use leads. They know how many diseases are deveall the inns and taverns to be abolished, the number of loped by the poison of brandy ; but some of our doctors, I brandy-drinkers would not diminish. The chief cause is really believe, have more anxiety to get patients than to the cheapness of brandy, and the facility of preparing it. It preserve the health of the people; they do not warn us; is prepared, in distilleries and in private houses, out of the they do not prohibit the liquors so advantageous for themhusks of grapes and fruit, out of potatoes, cherries, plums, selves, in the houses which they frequent; at least not in the gentian, wheat, rye, and barley; almost everything can be houses of the rich. Is this carelessness, or avarice? And, used to make that liquor, which, as that gentleman said, gentlemen, what shall I say of our governors and legislators, empoisons by degrees and imperceptibly, the health of amongst whom there are drunkards, and dealers in poisonhuman beings.
ous spirits? I will not speak of magistrates, who, when “But our landlord is quite in the right when he says they have taken a glass too much, often commit cruelty and that the band of poisoners consists not alone of brandy- | injustice. distillers and of the dealers in that poison. There are other * Finally, let me call your attention to the perverse, persons besides, who seduce the ignorant people to brandy- | immoral institutions and laws of our country; they permit drinking; who destroy the health of men, women and chil- dancing on four or five Sundays during the year, but limit dren; who promote poverty and licentiousness; who fill the this abuse, from a pretended regard to public morals, while prisons, the mad-houses, the hospitals, the houses of correc- they openly countenance, if they do not actually encourage, tion, with miserable victims; and these are—the wealthy, the drinking on every Sunday throughout the year. Instead respectable, the so-called well-educated people. They set be- of making brandy dear by taxes and tolls, they charge more fore their guests strong wines, spirits before and after dinner, for the mild wines, which are much less obnoxious, and spirits at supper. Every friend or stranger who comes to thus drive the poorer people to the use of spirits. Thus our them is encouraged and incited to drink. There are amongst governors and rulers favour the poisoning of the people, and the rich and fashionable class as many brandy-drinkers as the ruin of their health and morality. Yes, gentlemen, amongst the poor and the peasantry; therefore we see so many these persons call themselves the fathers of their country,
the friends of the people, and yet they make more widows
SIR MATTHEW HALE. I. and orphans, more cripples and sickly persons, more suicides and madmen, than perhaps a war would have made.”
When the speaker was silent, the landlord exclaimed, “Go on! that is all truth, and no exaggeration.”
“Well," said the magistrate, “why repeat what you yourself have said? By brandy-drinking men become frivolous, spendthrifts, lazy, poor, and shameless. Then arise complaints of the deficiency of good poor-houses. But who has promoted the poverty? The legislature! Poverty and intemperance render tenfold the number of offenders against the law-thieves, swindlers, and other offenders. We find few criminals who do not embolden themselves by a dram, before committing their crimes. The highwayman and the thief, before undertaking an enterprise, swallow a dram. In judicial examinations hitherto, this has been too little inquired into. But question each man in the prisons and houses of correction, and you will find more than half of them to be brandy-drinkers. And then we complain that the houses of correction become too small for the number of offenders! Who, then, is answerable for the increase of offences and of criminals? The lawsaters are the first cause of the public corruption. But no more on that head.”
Then a gentleman in a black dress rose, to whom the title of counsellor had been given during the evening. He said, “ Your worship has forgotten one thing! We have a law which favours drunkards more than sober people. By this law it is ordained that the drunkenness of a criminal shall be considered in mitigation of punishment, because not being master of his reason, he cannot be made entirely answerable for his offence. But is it not a crime in the first place for a man to confuse his reason, to contaminate his human dignity, and to lower himself down to a brute? In England and in North America they understand legislation better. There the previous stupefaction
IMMORTAL Hale! for deep discernment praised, of the mind, by means of heating liquors, is not considered
And sound integrity, not more than famed å reason for the mitigation of the punishment, but all
For sanctity of manners undefiled.—COWPER offences committed in drunkenness are punished as if perpetrated in a state of sobriety. Every one can avoid placing When the venerable and learned Bishop Burnet underhimself in a state in which he no longer knows what serious took to write the life of Sir Matthew Hale, he stated consequences he hazards, but it takes a long time before we in Switzerland arrive to the perception of the simplest truth.
the following reasons, among others, which incited him He who is sober knows, that when he is in a state of intoxi
to the task. cation, he cannot one minute answer for his actions in the In the age in which we live, religion and virtue have been Dext; that he cannot warrant whether or not the next hour proposed and defended with such advantages, with that will find him guilty of treachery, of adultery, of murder, of great force of reason, and those persuasions, that they can having rained his fortune through gambling, and plunged hardly be matched in former times; yet after all this, there his whole family into the deepest pitch of misery! The are but few much wrought on by them, which, perhaps, demon of brandy opens before him the broad path of crime flows from this, among other reasons, that there are not so and misery, it drags him laughing to infamy, to prison, to many excellent patterns set out, as might, both in a shorter the convict's chains, to the scaffold! When sober, he knows and more effectual manner, recommend that to the world Fery well that all this may happen to him as soon as he which discourses do but coldly: the wit and style of the loses his reason by getting drunk, and yet he drinks, and writers being more considered than the argument which drinks, till he has lost it! He commits a crime, and now they handle, and therefore the proposing virtue and religion intoxication is made the ground of a milder punishment for in such a model, may perhaps, operate more than the perhim than for the sober!”
spective of it can do ; and for the history of learning, noThis conversation, which caused much debate, lasted till thing does so preserve and improve it, as the writing the late at night, and was not finished when I and
friend lives of those who have been eminent in it. Dr. Walter went to bed.
The subject of our present memoir was born on the 1st of November, 1609, at Alderley, in Gloucestershire.
His father had been educated for the bar, but he "gave ON VISITING MELROSE ABBEY AFTER AN ABSENCE
over the practice of the law, because he could not under
stand the reason of giving colour in pleading, which, as Yon setting sun, that slowly disappears,
he thought, was, to tell a lie.” In his infancy Matthew Gleams a memento of departed years :
lost both his parents, and was brought up under the Aye, many a year is gone, and many a friend,
directions of a kinsman, who being attached to the docSince here I saw the Autumn sun descend.
trines of the Puritans, placed Matthew under the care of Ah! one is gone, whose hand was lock'd in mine, teachers holding similar opinions; and thus were proIn this that traces now the sorrowing line;
bably founded those strict principles of thought and And now alone, I scan the mouldering tombs,
action, which afterwards distinguished him. At the age Alone I wander through the vaulted glooms,
of seventeen he became a student of Magdalen Hall, And list, as if the echoes might retain One lingʻring cadence of her varied strain.
Oxford, where he was remarkable, as at school, for pro-, Alas! I heard that melting voice decay,
ficiency in his studies. He did not, however, escape Heard seraph tones in whispers die away ;
the temptations to which a young and ardent mind is I mark'd the tear presageful fill her eye,
likely to be exposed in so public a place as a university. And quivering speak, I am resigned to die.
He rejected the precise habiliments of the Puritan for Ye stars, hat through the fretted windows shed
more fashionable attire: he preferred the theatre to the reA glimmering beam athwart the mighty dead,
tirement of his study: and the lessons of a fencing-master Say to what sphere her sainted spirit flew, That thither I may turn my longing view,
to the lectures of his tutor: and so strongly was he And wish, and hope, some tedious seasons o'er,
enamoured with martial exercises, that when his tutor To join a long lost friend, and part no more.
was about to depart for the Low Countries as chaplain
OF SIXTEEN YEARS.
to Lord Vere, young Hale resolved to accompany him, austere as to neglect his personal appearance, so much in order to trail à pike in the Prince of Orange's so, that being impressed as a fit person to serve his army.”
majesty, he was only released by being recognised by a But he was happily deterred from gratifying this war- passing acquaintance. like freak by one of those events called accidents, but The zeal and ability of Hale attracted the notice of which should rather be regarded as Providential means Noy, the Attorney-General, who undertook to direct his and opportunities of escaping temptation, or turning from studies, and interested himself so warmly in his progress, an evil way. Young Hale was engaged in a lawsuit that Hale was distinguished amongst his fellow-students relative to his property, and was induced to visit London by the name of Young Noy. Under such patronage to attend to it. Having retained Serjeant Granville, he Hale soon became known: his merits also procured him became acquainted with that learned man, who soon the friendship of the learned Selden, and John Vaughan, remarked the many valuable qualities of his client, and afterwards Chief Justice of the Court of Common Pleas. succeeded in persuading him to relinquish all idea of the Hale was peculiarly struck with the varied acquirements military service, and devote his powers to the study of and instructive conversation of Selden, and by his exthe law. In November, 1629, he was admitted a stu- ample was induced to extend his own studies to literadent of Lincoln's Inn. The ardour with which he ture and science. His posthumous works show the had so latterly pursued pleasure, was now directed to diligence with which he pursued mathematics and natural his studies, to which he applied such method and indus- philosophy. He also devoted considerable attention to try, as could not fail to command success. He assumed the study of medicine, anatomy, ancient history, and a sober, student-like dress, and for some years devoted chronology; but his principal delight was in the study of sixteen hours each day to study. But, notwithstanding divinity, to which he was probably led by early associathis change, the love of convivial society was a tempta- tions. All these pursuits, any one of which would suftion strong within him, to which he sometimes yielded, fice to occupy the working-hours of an ordinary mind, til an event occurred, which powerfully affected him. Hale called his diversions, with which he refreshed him. Being present at a party where wine was drunk to excess, self from the fatigues of professional studies. one of the company became insensible, and the most Like many men of ardent genius, (says Mr. Roscoe,) he serious apprehensions were entertained for his life. Hale possessed the valuable faculty of applying the powers of his was so much affected by this event, that he retired into strong and active mind to various subjects, without that another room, fell upon his knees, and prayed earnestly distraction of thought, to which persons of inferior capacity to God that his friend might recover, and that he him
are subject. His indefatigable industry also enabled him self might be pardoned for having participated in such
to accomplish tasks which, to the indolent, would seem in
credible. He rose early in the morning, and as he sacrificed excesses. At the same time he made a vow never more to
no portion of the day to idle society, nor even indulged in any be guilty of similar intemperance, nor again while he lived, useless correspondence by letter, he found leisure to apply to drink a health. Most persons under the influence of to his various literary pursuits without injury to his professome powerful and painful mental impression, are ready sional prospects. His temperance also was highly favourto make good resolutions :—but there is too often this able to mental occupations; and so sparing was he in his difference between Matthew Hale and them—he kept
diet, that his meals never prevented him from immediately his during the rest of his life-they forget their's when resuming the labours which they had interrupted. It is, time has weakened the impression, or new pleasures have
perhaps, to the variety of studies in which Hale engaged,
that his extensive learning is to be attributed. A complete effaced it. Happy would it be for us, if, adopting the change in the nature of the objects upon which the mind is maxim of an old writer, we would do when we are well, engaged, is almost equivalent to repose, and is, perhaps, what we so often resolve to do when we are ill!
equally salutary to the mental health. It was probably under the influence of these good re- At the time when Hale was called to the bar, the solutions that Hale composed the scheme of daily employ- civil dissensions which were beginning to harass the ments, which we insert below*. May we hope that country, made it "no easy thing for a man to preserve every reader will carefully study it, and, if possible,' his integrity and to live securely:" he resolved, however, adopt it for his own use. The early impressions of Hale to take no part in the political contests of the times. now returned with full force, and, (like young persons The only interest which he displayed in public affairs, generally, apt to fall into extremes,) he became so was in relieving the distresses of both parties.
The strict neutrality thus professed by Hale, at a period * MORNING.-I. To lift up the heart to God, in thankfulness for re- when so much was at stake on both sides, is not a subject newing my life. II. To renew my covenant with God in Christ; 1. By renewed acts
for applause. When the violent and the indiscreet of all of faith, receiving Christ, and rejoicing in the height of that relation. parties are roused to action, it does not become the moderate 2. Resolution of being one of his people, doing him allegiance.
and sensible portion of society to remain unmoved, and to IlI. Adoration and Prayer.
preserve their individual repose, at the expense of the tranIV. Setting a watch over my own infirmities and passions, over the quillity of the state. At a later period of his life, Hale snares laid in onr way. Perimus licitis. Day EMPLOYMENT.There must be an employment-two kinds :
appears to have been sensible of this error, and exerted the I. Our ordinary calling, to serve God in it. It is a service to Christ,
influence which his high character gave him, in endeavourthough never so mean. Coloss. ii. Here, Faithfulness, Diligence, ing to place the liberties of his country upon a sure foundaCheerfulness. Not to overlay myself with more business than I can bear. tion.
II. Our spiritual employments. Mingle somewhat of God's imniediate service in this day.
This political neutrality and the esteem in which he REFRESHMENTS.-I. Meat and drink, moderation, seasoned with was held by both parties, made him a desirable advocate somewhat of God. II. Recreations: 1. Not our business. 2. Suitable. No games, if
to those of the prerogative party, who were tried for poligiven to covetousness or passion.
tical offences. In many of the great state trials of the IR ALONE - I. Beware of wandering, vain, lustful thoughts; fly from period, he appeared as counsel, and on one of these thyself, rather than entertain these. II: Let thy solitary thoughts be profitable; view the evidences of thy
occasions on being threatened by the attorney-general salvation, the state of thy soul, the coming of Christ, thy own mortality, for appearing against the government, he replied, “that it will make thee humble and watchful.
he was pleading in defence of those laws, which they COMPANY.-Do good to them. Use God's name reverently. Beware declared they would maintain and preserve, and he was of leaving an ill impression of ill example. Receive good from them, if more knowing
doing his duty to his client, so that he was not to be EVENING.-Cast up accounts of the day. If anght amiss, beg daunted with threatenings." pardon. Gather resolution of more vigilance. If well, bless the mercy of God that hath supported thee.
After the execution of Charles I. several of the judges
resigned their seats, and one of the vacancies in the The above notes were copied by Bishop Burnet from the M.SS. of Court of Common Pleas was offered to Hale, as it is Hale“ in the same simplicity in which he writ it for his own private use."
Thiese notes have an imperfection in die wording of them, which shows supposed, from a desire of Cromwell to remove from the that they were only intended for his privacies."
bar a man whose honest and resolute character might
prove injurious to his service. He hesitated to accept
ON ROPES AND ROPE-MAKING. the proffered dignity: his practice was considerable, and
II. he had doubts as to the propriety of acting under a commission from the existing government; but having
THE NATURE AND CULTIVATION OF FLAX. satisfied his scruples by conversing with two eminent The botanical name of the flax plant is Linum, a word divines he came to the resolution, " that as it was abso- | considered by some to be derived from the Greek verb lutely necessary to have justice and property kept up at Nivew, to hold, the fibres of this plant being so remarkall times, it was no sin to take a commission from able for their tenacity, that its herbage has always been usurpers." Some time after he had exercised his judicial functions, cordage, &c.
in the greatest estimation for the manufacture of cloth, he began to entertain doubts with regard to the law
The stem of the flax plant, which is round and hollow, fulness of presiding at the trial of criminals, on the
grows to the height of about two feet, and then divides ground that the government which granted his commis
into several branches; these are terminated by blue sion had no right to inflict punishment. He accordingly flowers, consisting of five petals, and are succeeded by refused to sit on the crown side at the assizes. This re- capsules divided within into ten cells, in each of which is solve was probably not unpleasing to the government, inclosed a bright, slippery, elongated seed. The leaves since the judge had on more than one occasion displayed are long, narrow, sharp-pointed, and placed alternately a stern determination to favour justice rather than the along the stem and branches of the plant. The plant Fishes of those in power. Soon after he was raised to is cultivated for the fibrous bark, bearing the name of the bench two soldiers were tried before him under the fax, for the linseed oil expressed from the seeds, and for following circumstances. An inhabitant of Lincoln, the oil-cakes, (a fattening food for cattle,) formed by the who had been one of the royal party, walking in the fields seed when the oil has been expressed. The mode of with a fowling piece in his hands, was met
by one of the cultivation varies somewhat according as the bark or the soldiers, who informed him that the Protector had seed is the chief object to be obtained. We shall thereordered that none of the King's party should carry arms, fore confine ourselves to that routine of operations man resisted, and throwing the soldier down, beat him whereby the fibrous bark is procured.
The most proper soil for flax is a deep free loam, mode and left him. The soldier having met one of his com- rately moist; especially if there be water at the depth of rades, prevailed upon him to accompany him for the pur- a foot or two beneath the surface, as is the case in pose of taking revenge. They accordingly watched for Zealand, and other parts of Holland, where flax is grown the man, and on his approach the soldier again demanded
of great excellence. The land requires to be rendered the fowling-piece, and while they were again struggling fine and mellow, by repeated ploughings and harrowings. for its possession, the other soldier, coming behind the Where grass land is to be broken up for this crop, it man, pierced him with his sword. For this act the men
should be done in the autumn, and left exposed to the were tried; one of them was found guilty of manslaughter, influence of the atmosphere until the early part of the and the other of murder. At the trial, Colonel Whaley, following year; when it should be well pulverized and who was in command of the garrison, came into court, broken down by heavy harrowing, then in the course of and addressing the bench, urged that the man was a week or two ploughed again; in which state it may rekilled for disobeying the Protector's orders, and that the main till the period of putting in the seed, when another soldier had done his duty. The judge, however, was light harrowing should be given, and the ploughing perneither convinced by the colonel's arguments nor daunted formed afterwards by a very light furrow. But in cases by his threats ; and passing judgment on the prisoner, where the crop is sown after grain, or other crops
that ordered him for immediate execution, lest a reprieve have the property of keeping the ground free from weeds, should be granted. In this
, however, he certainly ex- the first ploughing need not be given till January; when ceeded the bounds of his duty as a judge. Upon another it may remain in that state until the early spring, being occasion, Hale also displayed a remarkable degree of then well reduced by good harrowing and rolling; and moral courage and a love of justice. On being informed after continuing in that state about a fortnight, the seed that the Protector had ordered a jury to be returned to try a cause in which he was particularly interested, the may either be immediately put in, or another light
ploughing and harrowing be first given.
The quantity judge called upon the sheriff to explain the matter. The of seed put in is generally about two, or two and a half sheriff knew nothing about it, but referred to the under bushels per English acre. The best time for sowing sheriff, who admitted that the jury had been returned by is about the latter end of March or the beginning of an order from Cromwell. Hale, having pointed out the April. The best method of sowing, when the flax statute which directs that every jury shall be returned by rather than the seed is the object of cultivation, is that the sheriff or his lawful officer, dismissed the jury and of broad-cast over the surface of the ground; care being refused to try the cause. On his return from the circuit taken that the seed be dispersed as evenly as possible to the Protector expressed his displeasure at the conduct of prevent the plants rising in an unequal or tufty manner. Hale, and told him angrily that he was not fit to be a It should afterwards be covered in by regular harrowing judge: to which Hale mildly replied “it was very true.” with a light common or bush harrow. When the plant is
cultivated for its seed, the drill method of sowing is preErpectation prepareth applause with the weak, and prejudice ferred; but this we need not dwell on, for the reason with the stronger judgment. The fashion of commending our before assigned. friend's abilities before they come to trial, sometimes takes As soon as the crop is sufficiently up, it is benefited good effect with the common sort, who, building their belief by a good hand-hoeing or weeding; care being taken not on authority, strive to follow the conceit of their betters: to injure the plants by too much treading amongst them. bespeaking of opinion breeds a purpose of stricter examina- Flax is sometimes damaged by insects, when it is about tion, and, if the report be answered, procures only a bare four inches high: these, it is said, may be destroyed by acknowledgment; whereas, if nothing be proclaimed or a slight strewing of soot, ashes, &c., over the crop; at all promised, they are perhaps content to signify their own events this dressing will give vigour to the flax, even if skill in testifying another's desert. Otherwise, great wits, it do not kill the insects. If
afterjealous of their credit
, are ready to suppress worth in others wards among the flax, as is generally the case, they must to the advancing of their own; or, if more ingenuous, to be be very carefully rooted out. The finest flax is very no further just than to forbear detraction : at the best, liable to be beaten down in stormy weather; and to premake payment upon demand or challenge.-SIR HENRY vent this it has been proposed to fasten small ropes
across the field, both lengthwise and breadthwise: these