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gate, $876; two day watchmen, $600 each; and one night watchman, $600.36

The Deficiency Appropriations Act of February 19, 1861, for fiscal year ending June 30, 1861, provided the following:

For the contingent expenses of the Senate and House of Representatives, viz: For additional police for the Capitol payable by the Senate, $1,096.97; and for additional police for the Capitol, payable by the House of Representatives, $1,096.97.37

The Appropriations Act of February 20, 1861, for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1862, provided $8,200 for the Capitol police as a contingent expense of the Senate, and $8,420 for the Capitol police as a contingent expense of the House. The number of personnel was not mentioned. The Act also provided annual compensations for the employees in Capitol Square: keeper of the western gate, $876, two day watchmen, $600 each; and one night watchman, $600.38

Meanwhile, on August 6, 1861, an Act creating the Metropolitan Police Force for the District of Columbia was passed. This Act established a Police Board, composed of five Commissioners of Police, appointed by the President, with the advice and consent of the Senate. The Commissioners together with the mayors of the cities of Washington and Georgetown were empowered to promulgate rules and regulations for enforcing the law in the District of Columbia.39 The laws and regulations of the District of Columbia for the preservation of the public peace and order continued to be extended to Capitol Square, even though a Capitol Police force was in existence.

The Appropriations Act of March 14, 1862, for fiscal year ending June 30, 1863, included $10,224 for the Capitol Police in the contingent expenses of the Senate, and $10,620 for the Capitol Police in the contingent expenses of the House. The Act also provided annual compensations for the employees in Capitol Square: keeper of the western gate, $876; two day watchman, $600 each; and one night watchmen, $600. In this same Act, additional sums were appropriated for fiscal year ending June 30, 1862. Part of the contingent expenses of the Senate included $1500 for the Capitol Police. 40

The February 25, 1863 Appropriations Act, for fiscal year ending June 30, 1864, provided $10,224 for the Capitol Police in the contingent expenses of the of the Senate, and $11,170 in the contingent expenses of the House. The Act also provided annual compensations for the employees in Capitol Square: keeper of the western gate, $876; two day watchmen, $600 each; and one night watchman, $600.41

The Appropriations Act of March 3, 1863, for fiscal year ending June 30, 1864, designated $9500 “for payment of arrearages to Capitol Police due under the Act of April 22, 1854.”42 (See Deficiency Appropriations Act of April 22, 1854, 10 Stat. 182, 183.)

36 12 Stat. 91, 92, 93, 102, 103. 37 12 Stat. 131, 132. 38 12 Stat. 133, 134, 144. 39 12 Stat. 320-326. 40 12 Stat. 355, 356, 366, 367, 368. 41 12 Stat. 682, 683, 684, 694.

The Deficiency Appropriations Act of March 14, 1864, for fiscal year ending June 30, 1864 supplied a deficiency in the appropriations for the Capitol Police for the Senate, in the amount of $4,003.75.43

The Approprations Act of June 25, 1864, for fiscal year ending June 30, 1965, in a modification in Congressional practice, provided (in both the contingent expenses of the Senate and House) specifically for: “... a captain of the capitol police $870; capitol police, $11,880; one policeman $480, making a total of $92,484 for the Senate, and $92,484 for the House. 44

In the March 2, 1865 Appropriations Act for fiscal year ending June 30, 1866, $19,170 was appropriated for the Capitol Police as part of the contingent expenses of the Senate. Also, $19,170 was appropriated for the Capitol Police as part of the coningent expenses of the House. The same Act made deficiency appropriations for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1865, to this extent:

. . For pay of the Capitol Police, $3,885.72 ... To supply deficiency in the appropriation for Capitol Police, to be added to the contingent fund of the Senate, $2,914.28.45

The Deficiency Appropriations Act of April 7, 1866, for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1866, provided the following:

To supply a deficiency in the appropriation for the Capitol Police under the Act of April 22, 1854, to be paid to the widow of David Vose, late a policeman in the crypt, being twenty per centum on his salary from December 4, 1861 to July 8, 1864, $532, to be expended under the direction of the Commissioner of public buildings. 46

The Appropriations Act of July 23, 1866, for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1867, provided for compensation of one special policeman in the Senate, at $720 per annum (his salary was included in the appropriation for Senate employees). The same Act appropriated, for the contingent expenses of the Senate, $21,480 for the Capitol Police, with the proviso that $330 of the Capitol Police appropriation could be used during the present fiscal year. The same amount of $21,480 for the Capitol Police was appropriated for the contingent expenses of the House, with the same proviso. The Act also provided annual compensations for the employees in Capitol Square: keeper of the western gate, $876; for two day watchmen, $600 each; for one night watchman, $1,000.47

The Deficiency Appropriations Act of July 28, 1866, for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1866, provided compensation for three watchmen for the dome of the Capitol at $720 each, for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1867. The same Act stated: “That the Capitol Police and two policemen at the executive mansion shall be entitled to the increased compensation allowed by law to officers, clerks, messengers, and others in the employ of the House of Represenatives."'48

The Appropriations Act of March 2, 1867, for fiscal year ending June 30, 1868 marks the first time Congress clearly set forth the number and compensation of the Capitol Police force, as follows: 1 captain, $2,088 per annum; 1 lieutenant, $1,800 per annum; 29 privates, $1,584 per annum; 1 watchman, $1,152 per annum; total

43 13 Stat. 22, 26. 44 13 Stat. 145, 146, 147. 45 13 Stat. 445, 446, 460, 461, 462. 46 14 State. 14, 25. 47 14 Stat. 191, 192, 206.

32.49

In a significant action, the Civil Expenses Appropriations Act, of March 2, 1867, transferred the Capitol Police from the authority of the Commissioner of Public Buildings, who was disestablished, to the Sergeants at Arms of the Senate and the House. The Act provided:

That the office of Commissioner of Public buildings is hereby abolished; and the Chief Engineer of the Army shall perform all the duties now required by law of said Commissioner ... and the Sergeant at Arms of the Senate and the Sergeant at Arms of the House of Representatives shall hereafter appoint the members of the Capitol Police. 50

In another noteworthy action, Congress in an Act to authorize the appointment of certain watchmen and for other purposes, of March 30, 1867 provided that:

The Sergeant at Arms of the Senate and the Sergeant at Arms of the House are hereby authorized to select a pattern for a uniform for the Capitol police and watchmen, and furnish to each member of the force two suits per year, at a cost not to exceed fifty dollars per suit, and also to furnish said force with the necessary belts, arms, and so forth, at a cost not to exceed twenty dollars per man, and the amount of money necessary to carry this provision into effect is hereby appropriated out of any money in the Treasury not otherwise appropriated, payable upon the certificate of the officers above named. One half of the moneys hereinbefore appropriated shall be paid into the contingent fund of the Senate, and the other half into the contingent fund of the House of Representatives.51

The organization, and compensation of Capitol Watchmen and Capitol Police were further defined by the same Act of March 30, 1867 to this extent:

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That the eight watchmen on the dome of the Capitol, at the congressional stables, the gate-keeper, and watchmen of the grounds surrounding the Capitol, be hereafter appointed by the Sergeant at Arms of the Senate, and the Sergeant at Arms of the House. That the officers aforesaid be also authorized to appoint three additional watchmen, one for each of the eastern porticos and the carriage-ways under the same. Each watchman so appointed shall receive an annual compensation of one thousand dollars, payable on the order of the Sergeant at Arms of the Senate or the Sergeant at Arms of the House, or either of them, and the amount of money necessary to pay said watchmen from the date of their appointment until the end of the present fiscal year be, and the same is hereby, appropriated.

For the compensation of said watchmen for the fiscal year ending June thirtieth, eighteen hundred and sixty-eight, the sum of eleven thousand dollars is hereby appropriated.

For the compensation of an additional lieutenant and private of the Capitol police, authorized to be appointed by the presiding officers of the two houses of Congress, from the date of their appointment until the close of the present fiscal year at the rate paid others of the same grade, so much money as may be necessary is hereby appropriated, and for the fiscal year ending the thirtieth June eighteen hun. dren and sixty-eight, the sum of thirty-three hundred dollars is hereby, appropriated.

49 14 Stat. 440, 441, 442. 50 14 Stat. 457, 466.

51 For many years American police organizations had resisted the use of uniforms under the belief that it rendered the wearer subservient in dress to other citizens in the manner of a butler or an usher. But with the advent of the Civil War the prejudice against uniforms subsided, permitting police departments to adopt the custom of uniform dress without protest by the 52 15 Stat. 11, 12. Record of debate on the Act of March 30, 1867, can be found in Congressional Globe. 40th Cong., 1st Sess. March 22-30, 1867: 289, 366, 395, and 460-463.

Sec. 2. And be it further enacted, That the Sergeant at Arms of the Senate and of the House of Representatives are authorized to make such rules and regulations as they may deem necessary to preserve the peace and secure the Capitol from defacement and for the protection of the Public property therein, and shall have power to arrest and detain any person violating said rules, until such person can be brought before the proper authorities for trial, without further order of Congress. .

Sec. 4. And be it further enacted, That all laws inconsistent with this act are hereby repealed. 52

Information regarding the personnel of the Capitol Police force first appeared in the Congressional Directory, 1st Session of the 39th Congress (1865). The officers, policemen and watchmen, together with their home addresses, were listed. The list of personnel was included in subsequent issues of the Congressional Directories for the next 28 years (until 1893).53 Beginning with the 2nd Session of the 53rd Congress in 1894, only the officers of the Capitol Police force were listed. This practice has continued until today.

Included in the Appropriations Act of May 19, 1868, for expenses of the trial of the impeachment of Andrew Johnson, and other contingent expenses for the Senate, for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1868, was a lump sum of $17,000 for “deficiency in the appropriation for the payment of the Capitol Police, and for additional policemen and incidental expenses thereof. . . .” 54

The Appropriations Act of July 20, 1868 (for fiscal year ending June 30, 1869), provided for 1 captain $2,088; 2 lieutenants at $1,800 each; 30 private at $1,584 each; 12 watchmen at $1,000 each; 1 superintendent in the crypt, $1,440 and one special policeman in the Senate, $1,000 (his salary was included in funds for Senate employees, not in the appropriation for the Capitol Police) increasing the police force to 47. The Act also provided $500 for contingent expenses and $4,600 for uniforms. One-half of the total appropriation ($71,748) was to be paid into the contingent fund of the Senate and one-half into the contingent fund of the House. The same Act, however, included the provision that:

That after the thirtieth day of June, eighteen hundred and sixty-nine, members of the Capitol police shall furnish their own expense each his own uniform, which shall be in exact conformity to that required by regulations; and all provision of law' requiring an appropriation for such uniforms are hereby repealed. 55

The March 3, 1869 Appropriations Act, for fiscal year ending June 30, 1870, provided for one special policeman for the Senate at $1,000 per year (his salary was included in the funds for Senate employees; and not in the Capitol Police appropriation), for one captain at $2,088, two lieutenants at $1,800 each, 30 privates at $1,584 each, and 12 watchmen at $1,000 each, for a total of $65,160, one-half to be paid into the contingent fund of the House and onehalf paid into the contingent fund of the Senate.56

A bi-partisan group of economizers in the 41st Congress initiated and passed a spate of spending retrenchments. Affected by this were the Capitol Police. In the Appropriations Act of July 12, 1870, for fiscal year ending June 30, 1871, Congress reduced the salaries of the officers and men of the Capitol Police. The captain's salary was reduced to $1,800, two lieutenants to $1,500 each, twenty-five privates to $1,200 each, and eight watchmen to $1,000 each, for a total of $42,800, one-half to be paid into the contingent fund of the House and the other half into the contingent fund of the Senate. The force was reduced in size from 46 to 37. The salary of one special policemen in the Senate remained at $1,000, but his salary was included in the funds for Senate employees.

53 The list is at the end of the statutes.
54 15 Stat. 60.
55 15 Stat. 92, 94.

The Act also carried this proviso: “that no disabled soldier shall be discharged by reason of this Act.” 57 (Also see infra 16 Stat. 515, 520, March 3, 1871.) The Joint Resolution of July 15, 1870, provided that:

the men discharged by the reduction of the Capitol police and watchmen force be paid for the current month of July, and that the same be paid out of the contingent fund of the Senate and House of Representatives in equal proportions. 58

Another Joint Resolution, also of July 15, 1870, provided for inclusion of the Botanical Gardens under the supervision of the Capitol Police, and that:

until otherwise ordered, and especially during the period employed for rebuilding the fence surrounding the grounds, additional police force may be employed, if deemed necessary, the expense for which shall be defrayed from the contingent fund of the Senate and House of Representatives: Provided however, That the additional number of policemen for this purpose shall not exceed three at any time. 59

The Appropriations Act of March 3, 1871, for fiscal year ending June 30, 1872, provided for one special policeman in the Senate at $1,000 per year (salary included in funds for Senate employees). The Act also provided compensation for: 1 captain at $1,800, 2 lieutenants at $1,500 each; 25 privates at $1,200 each, and 8 watchmen at $1,000 each; for a total of $42,800, one-half to be paid into the contingent fund of the House and the other half to be paid into the contingent fund of the Senate. The total force was 37 men. 60 (Also see infra, 17 Stat. 122, 123, May 18, 1872.)

The Deficiency Appropriations Act also of March 3, 1871, for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1871, appropriated $11,544, as follows: for 1 captain $288; for 2 lieutenants, $300 each; for 25 privates for 12 months, $384 each per annum; for 3 privates for 11 months, $384 each per annum.61 (Also see supra 16 Stat. 230, 232, July 12, 1870).

The regular Appropriations Act of May 8, 1872, for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1873, provided for one special policeman for the Senate, at $1,000 per annum (whose salary was included in funds for Senate employees), and for the Capitol Police: 1 captain, $2,088; 3 lieutenants, $1,800 each; 27 privates, $1,584 each; and 8 watchmen at $1,000 each for a total of $58,256, one-half to be paid into the contingent fund of the House, and the other half to be paid into the contingent fund of the Senate.62 This Act increased the salaries of the police force (excluding the watchmen), and increased the personnel by 1 lieutenant and 2 privates, for a total force of 40.

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57 16 Stat. 230, 231, 232. 58 16 Stat. 391. 59 16 Stat. 391, 392. 60 16 Stat. 475, 476, 477. 61 16 Stat. 515, 520.

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