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have a proverbial saying in Scythia, "That fortune has no feet, and is furnished only with hands to distribute her capricious favours, and with fins to elude the grasp of those to whom she has been bountiful." You give yourself out to be a god, the son of Jupiter Contempt. Hammon. It suits the character of a god to bestow favours on mortals; not to deprive them of what Advising. they have. But if you are no god, reflect on the Reproof. precarious condition of humanity. You will thus show more wisdom than by dwelling on those subjects, which have puffed up your pride, and made you forget yourself. You see how little you are likely to gain by attempting the conquest of Scythia. Offering. On the other hand, you may, if you please, have in Friendship. us a valuable alliance. We command the borders of Instruction. both Europe and Asia. There is nothing between us and Bactria but the river Tanais; and our territory extends to Thrace, which, as we have heard, borders on Macedon. If you decline attacking us in a hostile manner, you may have our friendship. Nations which have never been at war are on an Warning. equal footing. But it is in vain that confidence is reposed in a conquered people. There can be no sincere friendship between the oppressors and the oppressed. Even in peace, the latter think themselves entitled to the rights of war against the former. Offering. We will, if you think good, enter into a treaty with you according to our manner, which is, not by signing, sealing, and taking the gods to witness, as is the Grecian custom; but by doing actual services. The Bluntness. Scythians are not used to promise, but to perform without promising. And they think an appeal to the gods superfluous; for that those who have no regard for the esteem of men will not hesitate to offend the Advising. gods by perjury. You may therefore consider with yourself, whether you had better have a people of

Offering.

such a character (and so situated as to have it in their power either to serve you or to annoy you, according as you treat them) for allies, or for enemies.

XXV.-REFLECTION ON LOST HAPPINESS-SELF-CON-
DEMNATION-HORROR-DESPERATION.

Satan's Soliloquy, from "Milton's Paradise Lost."
O thou, that with surpassing glory crown'd,
Look'st from thy sole dominion, like the god
Of this new world; at whose sight all the stars
Hide their diminish'd heads; to thee I call,
But with no friendly voice, and add thy name,
O Sun, to tell thee how I hate thy beams,
That bring to my remembrance from what state
I fell; how glorious once above thy sphere;
Till pride and worse ambition threw me down,
Warring in heav'n against heaven's matchless King:
Ah, wherefore? He deserv'd no such return
From me, whom he created what I was
In that bright eminence, and with his good
Upbraided none: nor was his service hard.
What could be less than to afford him praise,
The easiest recompense, and pay him thanks?
How due! yet all his good proved ill in me
And wrought but malice: lifted up so high,
I disdained subjection; thought one step higher
Would set me high'st, and in a moment quit
The debt immense of endless gratitude,
So burdensome still paying, still to owe.
Forgetful what from him I still receiv'd,
And understood not, that a grateful mind
By owing, owes not, but still pays; at once
Indebted, and discharged; what burden then?
Oh, had his pow'rful destiny ordain'd

Admiration.

Hatred.

Painful reflection.

Self-condemnation.

Vindication of an enemy.

Self-condemnation.

Pride.

Self-condemnation,

Anguish.

Reflection

Me some inferior angel, I had stood

on lost hap- Then happy, no unbounded hope had rais'd Ambition. Yet why not? some other pow'r

piness.

As great might have aspir'd, and me, though mean, Drawn to his part. But other pow'rs as great Fell not, but stand unshaken, from within, Or from without, to all temptations arm'd. Hadst thou the same free-will, and pow'r to stand? demnation. Thou hadst: whom hast thou, then, or what t'accuse,

Self-con

But heav'n's free love dealt equally to all?

Blasphemy. Be then his love accurs'd! since love or hate,
To me alike it deals eternal woe.

Rage.
Self-con-

Nay, curs'd be thou; since against his, thy will
demnation. Chose freely what it now so justly rues.
Desperation Me miserable! which way shall I fly
Infinite wrath, and infinite despair?
Which way I fly is hell; myself am hell;
And in the lowest deep a lower deep
Still threat'ning to devour me, opens wide,
To which the hell I suffer, seems a heav'n-
Oh, then, at last, relent. Is there no place
Left for repentance? None for pardon left?
None left, but by submission; and that word
Disdain forbids me, and my dread of shame
Among the spirits beneath, whom I seduc'd
With other promises, and other vaunts
Than to submit; boasting I could subdue
Th' Omnipotent. Ah, me! they little know
How dearly I abide that boast so vain;
Under what torments inwardly I groan,
While they adore me on the throne of hell,
With diadem and sceptre high advanc'd,
The lower still I fall, only supreme
In misery; such joy ambition finds.
But say I could repent, and could obtain,
By act of grace, my former state; how soon

Pride.

Anguish.

Pride.

Would height recall high thoughts, how soon unsay
What feign'd submission swore? Ease would recant
Vows made in pain, as violent and void.
For never can true reconcilement grow
Where wounds of deadly hate have pierc'd so deep:
Which would but lead me to a worse relapse,
And heavier fall: so should I purchase dear
Short intermission bought with double smart.
This knows my Punisher, therefore as far
From granting he, as I from begging peace:
All hope excluded thus, behold instead
Of us outcast, exil'd, his new delight,
Mankind created, and for them this world.
So farewell, hope; and with hope farewell, fear;
Farewell, remorse; all good to me is lost;
Evil, be thou my good; by thee at least
Divided empire with heav'n's King I hold;
By thee, and more than half, perhaps, shall reign,
As man, ere long, and this new world shall know.

XXVI. CONSULTATION.

The speech of Satan, in his infernal palace of Pandemonium, in which he proposes to the consideration of his angels, in what manner it would be proper to proceed, in consequence of their defeat and fall.-Milton.

Pow'rs and dominions! deities of heav'n!
For since no deep within her gulf can hold
Immortal vigour, though oppress'd and fall'n
I give not heav'n for lost. From this descent
Celestial virtues rising will appear

More glorious, and more dread, than from no fall,
And trust themselves to fear no second fate.

Malice.

Hopeless anguish.

Malice.

Fixed despair.

Malice bent on mischief.

Dignity with distress.

Courage.

Me though just right, and the fix'd laws of heav'n, Authority.

Did first create your leader, next free choice,

With what besides, in council, or in fight,

Hath been achiev'd of merit; yet this loss
Thus far, at least, recover'd hath much more
Establish'd in a safe, unenvied throne,
Yielded with full consent. The happier state
In heav'n, which follows dignity, might draw
Apprehen- Envy from each inferior; but who here

sion.

Will envy whom the highest place exposes
Foremost to stand against the Thunderer's aim
Your bulwark, and condemns to greatest share
Of endless pain? With this advantage then
To union, and firm faith, and firm accord,
More than can be in heav'n, we now return
To claim our just inheritance of old,
Surer to prosper, than prosperity

Confidence. Could have assur'd us; and by what best way,
Whether of open war, or covert guile,

We now debate. Who can advise may speak.

Courage.

XXVII. FIERCENESS-DESPERATION.

The speech of the fallen angel Moloch, exciting the infernal crew to renew the war against heaven.

a Of wiles

Courage. My sentence is for open war. a Contempt. More inexpert, 1 boast not.

Them let those

Contrive, who need; or when they need-not now.
For while they sit contriving, shall the rest,
Millions that stand in arms, and longing wait
Contempt. The signal to ascend, sit ling'ring here
Rage.

Heav'ns fugitives, and for their dwelling-place
Accept this dark opprobrious den of shame,
The prison of his tyranny, who reigns
Fierceness. By our delay?—No-let us rather choose,

Courage.

"No, let us," &c., to "But perhaps," can hardly be spoken too energetically, if the dignity of the speaker be kept up in pronouncing the passage. At the words, " But perhaps," &c., the speaker composes himself again.

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