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Butler, Ruth M.:

Medical-Social Worker Helps Blind

Babies to Get Good Start, 2 July.
Brower, Bernice R.:

What Shall I Do With My Baby? 166

Apr.
Cage, Lydia H.:

County Boards and Child Welfare Serv-

ices, 194 June.
Campbell, Hilary:

Children Are Chief Victims of Migra-

tory-Labor System, 12 July.
Capuano, Pasquale J.:

Community Action Helps to Solve Child-

Labor Problem in Bowling Alleys, 58

Oct.
Chisholm, Brock:

A New Look at Child Health, 178 May.
Class, Norris E.:

To Train Personnel for Delinquency

Control, 140 Mar.
Cochran, William D.:

Children of Divorce, 38 Sept.
Crane, Marian M.:

Pediatricians From 63 Countries Meet

at New York, 46 Sept.
Eliot, Martha M.:

How Can Your Community Plan for

the Care of Children in Hospitals ?

116 Feb.
Strengthen Research Into Child Life, 96

Dec.

Will You Help? 16 July.
Emery, Margaret A.:

For Children Who Need Foster Care,

198 June.
Enochs, Elisabeth Shirley:

Act of Congress Authorizes Interna-

tional Cooperation in Work for Chil-

dren, 174 Apr.
Ewing, Oscar R.:

For Health, Education, and Welfare of

Children and Youth, 134 Mar.

For Our Children's Future, 112 Jan.
Faegre, Marion L.:
Book reviews by, 15 July, 95 Dec., 127

Feb., 175 Apr.
Fenske, Virginia:

State Protects Children Living Away

From Their Own Homes, 135 Mar.
Goodwin, Robert C.:

Youth and the Employment Service,

114 Feb.
Gula, Martin:

Study and Treatment Homes for

Troubled Children, 66 Nov.
Hawley, Eleanor:

Southwest Looks at Pediatric Nursing

(with Lillian Jeffers, Louise James,
and Alma Rollins), 45 Sept.

Hayes, Clara E.:

Book review by, 61 Oct.
State Plans for Maternal and Child-

Health Services Show Expected Vari-

ations, 6 July.
Jackson, Edith B.:

“Rooming-In" Gives Baby a Good Start,

162 Apr.
James, Louise:

Southwest Looks at Pediatric Nursing

(with Lillian Jeffers, Alma Rollins,

and Eleanor Hawley), 43 Sept.
Jeffers, Lillian:

Southwest Looks at Pediatric Nursing

(with Louise James, Alma Rollins,

and Eleanor Hawley), 42 Sept.
Johnson, Elizabeth S.:

Summer Jobs Dovetail Work and School,

208 June.
Jolowicz, Almeda R.:

A Foster Child Needs His Own Parents,

18 Aug.
Krakow, Samuel:

"Neuvola" or Well-Baby Clinic Protects

Health of Finnish Children, 22 Aug.
Laabs, Alma:

When a School Child Is in Trouble, 82

Dec.
Lenroot, Katharine F.:

The American Scene as a Background
for a 1950 Conference on Children,

196 June.
Children's Bureau Has Thirty-fifth An-

niversary, 32 Aug.
For Every Child a Fair Chance, 144 Mar.
For Hungry Children, 176 Apr.
Ten Young Men From Burma, 80 Nov.
Wanted: More Child-Health and Child-

Welfare Workers, 48 Sept.
We Meet Again With Our Latin-Amer-

ican Neighbors, 128 Feb.
We Need to Know More About Europe's

Children, 64 Oct.
Luck, Juanita:

Make Way for Youth, 93 Dec.

That Youth May Be Served, 50 Oct.
Maclennan, Rika:

Homemaker Service Helps to Preserve

Family Life (with Frances Preston)

27 Aug.
Mayo, Leonard W.:

Book review by, 47 Sept.
Parsons, Lois:

Homes for Unmarried Mothers Develop

Leisure-Time Programs, 54 Oct.
Perry, Mary Bishop:

California Youth Committee Studies

Transient Youth, 13 July.
Peters, Ann:

Book review by, 95 Dec.

Preston, Frances:

Homemaker Service Helps to Preserve

Family Life (with Rika Maclennan),

27 Aug.
Rockwood, Edith:

National Commission Prepares for Mid-

century White House Conference, 130

Mar.
To Strengthen Family Life, 88 Dec.
Rollins, Alma:

Southwest Looks at Pediatric Nursing

(with Lillian Jeffers, Louise James,

and Eleanor Hawley), 45 Sept.
Scurlock, Stella:

Book review by, 126 Feb.
Colorado Improves Services for Chil-

dren, 13 July.
For Youth Conservation in South Caro-

lina, 31 Aug.
North Carolina Measures Its Services

for Children and Youth, 78 Nov.
Smith, Anna Kalet:

France Provides Health Services to

Mothers and Children, 10 July.
Norwegian Schools Offer Health Serv-

ices to Children, 110 Jan.
Smith, I. Evelyn:

Book reviews by, 111 Jan., 126 Feb., 191

May.
To Safeguard Children Placed Outside

Their Own State, 122 Feb.
Snyder, Harold E.:

That Children in War-Torn Countries

May Go to School, 60 Oct.
Stokes, Warrington:

Social Worker Plays Part in Court

Process, 89 Dec.
Van Horn, A. L.:

Book review by, 61 Oct.
Warburton, Amber Arthun:

Harlan County Plans for Its Boys and

Girls, 74 Nov.
Whitridge, John, Jr.:

Toward Better Care for Rural Mothers,

98 Jan.
Wilson, Mrs. H. A.:

A Better Chance for Negro Children in

Houston, 34 Sept.
Wolff, George:

International Statistical Conference

Held, 94 Dec.
Work, Henry H.:

Child's Mental Health Can Be Fostered,

170 Apr.
Psychiatric Team Helps Disturbed Child,

120 Feb.
Ylppö, Arvo:
Finland Safeguards Health of Mothers

and Children, 138 Mar.

204068

vol. 12

US GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 1952

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MEDICAL-SOCIAL WORKER HELPS

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If the mother demands special attention for the child in the clinic, or is critical of the hospital's methods, every effort is made to meet her demands in order that she may know that the

hospital has an interest in her as an RUTH M. BUTLER,

individual.

At this time the father may be more Medical-Social Worker, Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Boston

articulate concerning the diagnosis than the mother, and he is likely to ask the

case worker questions to which she can F A BLIND CHILD is to grow up feelings and to tell of the disappoint- give factual answers. to be an acceptable member of his ment, anxiety, and frustration she is While the worker is discussing the

family, of his neighborhood, and of suffering because her child cannot see. diagnosis with the parents, she observes his community, he needs mother love The mother, and the father too, may

the mother's emotional reactions and and a secure place in his home even at first refuse to believe that their baby judges her ability to understand the more than other children do. And a is blind; and if they still refuse to be doctor's direct statement. The worker first step in helping a blind baby toward lieve it after a reasonable amount of also studies the ways in which the a happy and useful future is to help to explanation, the case worker may ask mother either expresses or disguises her relieve emotional or other strains on his

feelings about blindness and notes her mother.

responses to the case worker's own servThis may mean that the medical In developing a program to meet the needs ices. The worker thus picks up clues to social worker in a program for meeting

of blind preschool children under medical the mother's psychological make-up.

care at the Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirthe needs of blind children is at one

and in this way determines how she can mary, the social-service staff has been guided

make her services most useful. time arranging hospitalization; at an by the following principles : other, raising funds for housekeeping 1. Each blind child is an individual; his

Case worker ready to help service when the mother is unable to particular needs should be studied, and servattend to her home duties; or trying to ices offered accordingly.

The case worker offers no direct

2. If the blind child is to make a satisfac. advice at this time. She tries to give place the blind child in a foster-family tory adjustment to his handicap, the attitude

the mother a sense of her complete home; or seeking a nursery school that of his parents, particularly of his mother,

interest and sympathy, and definitely will accept him.

must be recognized. But basically it means that the 3. The blind child will find his greatest

tries to gain her confidence by accepting worker, in trying to relieve family sense of security in his own home, where he

the mother's attitude without comment has his place in the family group. strains, is not only providing services

even if it includes great hostility to

4. All community services that are useful for the child but is helping to strengthen

the child. The worker points out that to the seeing child, such as convalescent care, the tie between the mother and the child, foster-home care, child-guidance clinics, and

it may take some time before the mother which may be weakened even to the nursery-school programs, should also be can feel differently. She shows that

available to the blind child. breaking point by his blindness.

she is aware of the many difficulties the

5. The mother of a blind child should be After a doctor diagnoses blindness

child's condition presents and suggests offered practical assistance in training the that the mother come to her to discuss in one of our baby patients, almost al

blind; such assistance should be timed acways the mother needs help in facing cording to the mother's ability to use it.

any disturbing situations. the facts and in seeing them in perspec 6. Further research and study is needed :

As the mother begins to accept the tive. We try to give her this help, for (1) To provide norms regarding the devel. fact that the child is blind, the case unless she is able to acknowledge, both

opment of the young blind child and (2) to worker stands ready to help her, but

determine what can help us most in underintellectually and emotionally, the fact

only as the mother herself decides that standing his emotional growth and in finding that her baby is blind, and unless she is

she needs help. Several months may ways of treating his problem. able to realize that his blindness is only

pass before the case worker gives the one factor in his life, she will be unable

mother any service other than the to give him the care he should have, in

the doctor to explain his diagnosis to opportunity to express her feelings. the sense of fulfilling the needs of his them again. She does this so that the Sometimes a mother is able to accept personality.

parents will feel that it is natural for the blindness of her child with a miniNo attempt is made to hurry the them to have many questions and doubts mum of emotional reaction. Such a mother in adjusting herself to the dif

about their child's condition and that mother is usually aware of the diffificulties she must face from now on, nor

they have every right to discuss the culties met in caring for the child, and to minimize them. Instead, the case situation thoroughly. If they wish to she turns rather soon to the case worker worker gives the mother continued op

seek additional medical opinions the for suggestions regarding toys, feeding, portunities to talk freely about her worker encourages them in this, so that and ways of stimulating the child in

they can feel that they have made every socialization. Paper given at the National Conference on the Blind Preschool Child, March 13-15 at possible effort to give the child the best Mrs. A, aged 40, is an example of this New York. medical care.

type of mother. She was very much i

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disturbed about her baby's blindness, for her baby. If the mother requests and doubted her ability to care for him. that the baby be placed in an instituThe doctor had therefore referred her tion, the case worker discusses this pos

to the case worker when the baby, Don- sibility from the point of view of its [

nie, our patient, was 6 months old. The meaning to the mother and the child, A's had six other children and the and in regard to the best place to send family relationships were excellent; him and the length of time that she Donnie had been fully accepted in the wishes him to be away from home. family group

One mother who requested that her

baby be placed in an institution is Mrs. * Mother's efforts successful

M. She is 24 years old, is not entirely The case worker showed apprecia- has three children under 3 years of

happy in her marital relationship, and tion of the fine care Mrs. A was already

age. giving Donnie, and showed that she

When the middle child, Jean, our realized that Donnie's progress was

patient, was 8 months old, the doctor largely due to his mother's efforts.

referred Mrs. M to the case worker. She encouraged the mother to continue

During the first few months after the his training in the sound way in which

case worker was in contact with her, she had started, and told her she could

Mrs. M did not discuss Jean at all and consult the worker from time to time

did not seem to realize that the child if problems came up.

was blind. She was giving the child When Donnie was almost 18 months

only inadequate care, physically and old and could no longer be considered a baby, Mrs. A came to the hospital emotionally, and the child was much

under par physically. and told the case worker that her

Mrs. M became pregnant, and soon bemother and other relatives were criticizing her for her methods of letting relieved of the care of Jean, giving as

gan to demand aggressively that she be Donnie develop independence; for ex

her reason that she should have less rejo ample, letting him experiment in walk

sponsibility during pregnancy. It was ing, even though he would fall. At this time Mrs. A was invited to

evident to the case worker that Mrs. M attend a week-long educational pro

was strongly antagonistic to the blind

child. gram for mothers of blind preschool

children—a summer school project. tu

Since Mrs. M seemed to be unable to Here she found that her methods of care properly for Jean, and since the

caring for Donnie were approved by economic status of the family was low, ¿ the experts at the school. As a result

the case worker began to make plans to she was able to be more firm after she

remove the child from the home.
$ went home in holding to her own ideas
even though her relatives criticized her.

Child-placing agency finds foster home
LE The case worker suggested that a Great difficulty was encountered in

home nursery-school teacher might finding a foster home that would accept
help Mrs. A with Donnie's training and a blind child. After months of effort,
give her instruction. Mrs. A readily in which 18 different agencies were ap-
accepted this service.

plied to, a child-placing agency finally Mrs. A, as is usual with mothers arranged care for the child in a foster El who may be considered to be making

home. a rather good adjustment, is aware of

The child-placing agency accepted reher own problems and of the resources

sponsibility for a long-time case-work she can use to meet them.

service to prepare the mother to asA mother who is antagonistic toward

sume responsibility for Jean when her

return home was recommended. her blind child is easier to help than

Jean has now been in the foster home one who is overprotective. Regardless for a year. A home nursery-school of how extreme the mother's antago teacher visits her weekly to help the nism may be, the case worker shows

foster mother in training her. Her willingness to help her in any plan that physical progress has been truly rei seems to offer a chance that the mother markable, and she has made some gains,

may develop her latent feelings of love but slowly, in general accomplishment.

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