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heritance of his father; and the inheritance not to be transferred to another tribe. This was grounded on a law made before, which empowered daughters to inherit land where the heirs male should be deficient; and was the case of the daughters of Zelophehad (a descendant of Manasseh, the son of Joseph), who, by this additional law, were required to marry within the family of their father's tribe.

The forty years' travels of the Israelites being now nearly expired, Moses, considering that the then generation were either sprung up since the law was given at Mount Sinai, or too young to remember and understand it, thought proper to repeat the whole to them, that they might not be deficient in performing those duties so religiously enjoined. Accordingly, on the first day of the eleventh month, and in the fortieth year from their departure out of Egypt (being then encamped on the plains of Moab, by the banks of the river Jordan) Moses called al! the people together, to whom he briefly related all that had befallen their fathers since the time of their leaving Egypt; the gracious dealings of God with them; their continual murmurings and rebellions against him; and the many severe judgments that followed thereupon, even to his own exclusion from the promised land. He then gave them a summary of all the laws which the divine goodness had calculated for their happiness; and, after repeating the decalogue almost word for word, he reminded them of the solemn and dreadful manner in which it was delivered from Mount Sinai, and of the manifold obligations they lay under to a strict observance of it. He encouraged them to be faithful to God, by assuring them, that, if they kept his commandments, they should not fail of having innumerable blessings heaped on them; but at the same time he threatened them with all manner of calamities if they departed from them. He then, in the name of the Lord, renewed the covenant which their fathers had made with God at Mount Horeb; cominanded them to proclaim, on the mountains of Gerizim and Ebal,* beyond Jordan, blessings on such as observed the covenant, and curses on those who broke it: and to erect an altar there, on which should be written, in legible characters, the terms and conditions of the covenant.

These, and several other directions relative to their future conduct in the land of Canaan, did Moses not only deliver to the people by word of mouth, but likewise ordered them to be written in a book, which he committed to the care and custody of the Levites, who, by God's appointment, laid it up on the side of the ark, there to remain a witness against the people should they afterward rebel.

Such was the care and concern of Moses for the future welfare of the people: and that they might never want a proper fund of devotion, he composed a song, or poem, which he not only repeated to them, but likewise gave orders that they should all learn by heart. In this song he expressed, in a very elegant manner, the many benefits which God had bestowed on his people; their ingratitude and forgetfulness of him, the punishment wherewith he had afflicted them; and the threats of greater judgments, if they persisted in provoking him by a repetition of their follies. The whole of this beautiful song runs from the first verse of the thirty-second chapter of Deuteronomy to the forty-third.

The time was now near at hand when a period was to be put to Moses's earthly peregrinations. The Almighty had before told him, that he should not conduct the people into the promised land because of his error at the waters of Meribah: he therefore now commanded him to go up to the mountains of Abarim,t and there take a view of the land of Canaan, which he had promised to his forefathers, Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob; and farther told him, that after he had so done, he should die there, as his brother Aaron had done on Mount Hor.

Moses humbly submitted to the will of the Almighty, and, as a necessary prepara

These two mountains (of which we give a beautiful and correct representation, p. 177), are so near each other,that they are only separated by a valley of about two hundred paces wide, in which is situated the town of Shechem. They are much alike in length, height, and form: their figure is semicircular, and on the side of Shechem they are so steep that there is not the least shelving they are at most about half a league in length. But notwithstanding they are so much alike in the particulars mentioned, they are very different in one instance; namely, Ebal is desolate and barren, whereas Gerizim is beautiful and fruitful."

+ These mountains were situated in the country of the Moabites, between the two rivers Arnon and Jordan, and commanded a most extensive prospect of the land of Canaan. One part of these mountains was distinguished by the name of Nebo, as appears from Deut. xxxii. 49, but if we compare this with Deut. xxxiv. 1, we shall find that Nebo and Pisgah were one, and the same mountain. If, therefore, there was any distinction between the names it was probably this, that the top of the mountain was more peculiarly called Pisgah, which signifies to elevate or raise up, and, therefore, may very properly denote the top or summit, of any mountain. Not far from Nebo was Beth-peor, which was probably so called from some deity of that name worshipped by the Moabites

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tion to the execution of this last command, took a solemn farewell of the people, be stowing a prophetic blessing on each tribe, in like manner as Jacob had done a short time previous to his death.

The Almighty had before appointed Joshua to succeed Moses in his commission; and to prevent any disputes after his death, Moses first laid his own hands upon Joshua, and then presented him to Eleazer the high-priest, who, in a solemn form of admis sion, and in the presence of all the people, accepted him as leader and general of the Israelites; after which Moses gave Joshua some instructions relative to his office, and one more especially which concerned his consulting God, by way of Urim and Thummim, on matters of emergency.

Having adjusted these matters, Moses, in conformity to the divine command, retired to Pisgah, the most elevated situation on Mount Nebo, directly opposite to Jericho, whence he might take a full view of the country, which God had promised to Abraham's posterity. At this time he was a hundred and twenty years of age, notwithstanding which, his natural strength and vigor were not abated, nor had his eyesight in the least failed him. He was, therefore, able to survey the beauteous prospect which the delightful plains of Jericho, and the fair cliffs and lofty cedars of Lebanon, afforded him; and having done this for some time, he at length resigned his soul into the hands of seraphim, who were waiting to convey it to a more happy Canaan than that which he had been surveying.

The Almighty was pleased to pay the funeral honors to the remains of this great prophet himself, by burying him in a valley in the land of Moab opposite to Beth-Peor, and that in so secret a manner, that the place of his interment was never yet discovered. Thus died the illustrious and pious Moses, the most eminent servant of God, and the great conductor of his chosen people, who, as soon as they knew of his death, lamented the loss of him with the greatest solemnity, weeping and mourning for him in the plains of Moab for thirty days.



On the death of Moses, Joshua, being appointed to succeed him in the government of the Israelites, was installed into the kingly office by Eleazer, the high-priest, and with the universal approbation of the people. To encourage him in the great work he had to undertake, the Almighty expressly commanded him (as he had done his servant Moses) to lead the people over the Jordan, telling him that every place on which they should tread should be their own, and that no man should be able to stand against him: that in like manner as he had been with Moses, so he would be with him, and that he might be assured he would never forsake him.

Encouraged by these divine assurances, Joshua ordered the officers to proclaim throughout the camp, that within a few days they should pass the Jordan, in order to possess the land which the Almighty had promised them, and that therefore they should provide themselves with proper necessaries on the occasion. He then called together the leaders of the tribes of Reuben and Gad, and the half-tribe of Manasseh,

* Urim and Thummim, signifying lights and perfections, formed the oracle of God put into the sacred breastplate of judgment of Aaron, by which the Divine will was to be sought on solemn occasions: but while learned men have offered many and various conjectures, it is not agreed what they were, as it is not fully declared by Moses, Exod. xxviii. 30, Lev. viii. 8. Josephus supposes that they were the twelve precious stones of the breastplate, on which were engraven the names of several tribes of Israel, Exod. xxviii. 15-21; and that God gave answers to the high-priest inquiring before the most holy place, by an extraordinary glory illustrating the letters: but others are of opinion that they were given by an audible voice from the Shekinah, in the cload of glory over the mercy-seat, Psal. lxxx. 1, xcix. 1. This oracle, it is believed, was not used during the life of Moses, as God spake to him directly, Exod. xxxiii. 11, Num. vii. 89; and afterward only in national difficulties, by the high-priest only, and not for any private person, Num. xxvií. 21, Josh, vij. 6-15. This sacred instrument is supposed to have been destroyed with the temple of Solomon, if not before; as the Jews acknowledge that it did not exist in the second temple, Ezra ii. 13, Neh. vii. 65. The rabbins indeed say, that it continued in use only under the tabernacle, 1 Sam. xxviii. 6: they have a maxim that the Holy Ghost spoke to Israel under the tabernacle by Urim and Thummim; under the first temple by prophets; and after the captivity of Babylon, by the Bath-kol, or Daughter of the voice; meaning a voice from heaven, as at the baptism, and transfiguration of Christ, Matt. iii. 17, xvii. 5; 2 Pet. i. 17. ↑ See Engraving (p. 179).-The costume is Egypto-Syrian--that is Egyptian, with such modifications as the Syrians appear to have given it in adopting from the Egyptians. It has been very carefully studied.

whom he reminded of the promises they had made to Moses, and entreated them, not only for his sake, but also their own, to fulfil their engagements. They faithfully promised to comply with his request, and that they would be equally obedient to him as they had been to his predecessor.

Opposite to Joshua's camp stood the city of Jericho, which of course must be the first place he would have to attack after passing the river Jordan. As a necessary precaution, he sent two spies to take a view of the strength and situation of that city, and to learn the disposition of the inhabitants. They accordingly entered Jericho, and being considered as strangers come thither to gratify their curiosity, were permitted to perambulate the streets without the least molestation. On the close of the day they took up their residence in the house of a woman named Rahab, where, after refreshing themselves, they retired to rest.

In the meantime, information had been given the king that there were two spies in the city, and that they had concealed themselves in the house of Rahab. On this the king immediately despatched proper officers to seize them; but Rahab (who had been previously informed of it), before their arrival, had secreted the two spies under some stalks of flax on the roof of the house.

When the messengers arrived and related their business, Rahab told them there had been such people at her house, but she knew not who they were, nor whence they came; that a short time after dark, and before the gates of the city were shut, they departed; and, as they could not be got far, it would be no difficult matter to overtake them. The messengers, believing Rahab's story, left her, and immediately set out in pursuit of the spies.

As soon as they were gone, Rahab uncovered her guests, told them what had passed, and pointed out the great danger to which she had exposed herself and family for their protection. In return for this kindness, she exacted from them an oath, that when the city should be invested by the Hebrews, they should preserve her and her relations from the general destruction. To effect this, they told her that when she found the city attacked, to shut herself up with her family in her house, and that, in order to distinguish it from the rest, she must hang a scarlet thread to the door, which signal should be communicated to the general, who would, no doubt, give such such directions as to secure her from all danger. This being agreed on, Rahab, for the better security of her guests, let them down into the street by a rope fastened to the window, so that they made their escape unperceived. She advised them immediately to fly to the mountains, and there conceal themselves for three days, in which time the messengers, finding their endeavors ineffectual, would relinquish the pursuit.

The two spies took Rahab's advice, and the consequences turned out as she had predicted; for, after two days' search, the messengers, despairing of success, gave over the pursuit and returned to Jericho. At the close of the third day the two spies left the mountains, crossed the Jordan, and arriving safe at the camp of Joshua, gave him a faithful account of their expedition; adding, that for certain the Lord had delivered the country into their hands, for the people were quite dispirited at the name of the Israelites.

Pleased with this intelligence, Joshua, early the next morning, left Shittim, and conducted his army within a small distance of the place where it was intended they should cross the river Jordan. Here he communicated to every tribe the order to be observed in their march. He told them that when they saw the ark of the Lord carried by the priests, the whole army should then move and follow it, that they might know the way by which they were to go; and that they should leave a space of two thousand cubits between them and the ark. That when the priests were got into the middle of the channel, they should there stand still till the whole multitude were got safe on the opposite shore; and, to prepare themselves properly for this remarkable passage, they were all enjoined to sanctify themselves, by washing their clothes, avoiding all impurities, and abstaining from matrimonial intercourse the preceding night. He also, by the direction of the Almighty, appointed twelve men one out of each tribe) to choose twelve stones from the middle of the river where the priests were to stand with the ark, and there to set them up (that they might be seen from each side of the river when the waters were abated) as a monument of this great miracle; and to take twelve others with them to be erected on the land for the like purpose.

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