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became entirely free from his sway, and would have remained so, but for the sin of the Golden Calf. Similarly, in the time of Ezra, the object of Israel's prayer (Neh. viii. 6) was to have Satan delivered to them. After a three days' fast it was granted, and the Yezer ha-Ra of idolatry, in the shape of a young lion, was delivered up to them. It would serve no good purpose to repeat the story of what was done with the bound enemy, or how his cries were rendered inaudible in heaven. Suffice it that, in view of the requirements of the present world, Israel liberated him from the ephah covered with lead (Zech. v. 8), under which, by advice of the prophet Zechariah, they had confined him, although for precaution they first put out his eyes (Yoma, 69 b). And yet, in view, or probably, rather, in ignorance, of such teaching, modern criticism would derive the Satanology of the New Testament and the history of the Temptation from Jewish sources !

Over these six persons—Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, Moses, Aaron, and Miriam, with whom some apparently rank Benjamin—the Angel of Death had no power (Baba B. 17 a). Benjamin, Amram, Jesse, and Chileb (the son of David) are said to have died (only) through “the sin of the serpent.' In other cases, also, Sammael may not be able to exercise his sway till, for example, he has by some ruse diverted a theologian from his sacred study. Thus he interrupted the pious meditations of David by going up into a tree and shaking it, when, as David went to examine it, a rung of the ladder, on which he stood, broke, and so interrupted David's holy thoughts. Similarly, Rabbi Chasda, by occupation with sacred study, warded off the Angel of Death till the crackling of a beam diverted his attention. Instances of the awkwardness of the Enemy are related (Chethub. 77 b), and one RabbiJoshua——actually took away his sword, only returning it by direct command of God. Where such views of Satan could even find temporary expression, superstitious fears may have been excited; but the thought of moral evil and of a moral combat with it could never have found lodgment.

III. Evil SPIRITS (Shedim, Ruchin, Ruchoth, Lilin). Here also, as throughout, we mark the presence of Parsee elements of superstition. In general, these spirits resemble the gnomes, hobgoblins, elves, and sprites of our fairy tales. They are cunning and malicious, and contact with them is dangerous; but they can scarcely be described as absolutely evil. Indeed, they often prore kind and useful; and may at all times be rendered innocuous, and even made serviceable.

1. Their origin, nature, nd numbers. Opinions differ as to their origin. In fact, they variously originated. According to Ab. 12 b, Ber. R. 7, they were created on the eve of the first Sabbath. But since that time their numbers have greatly increased. For, according to Chag. 17 a, Ber. R. 20 (ed. Warsh. p. 406), multitudes of them were the offspring of Eve and of male spirits, and of Adam with female spirits, or with Lilith (the queen of the female spirits), during the 130 years that Adam had been under the ban, and before Seth was born (Gen. v. 3);' comp. Erub. 18 b. Again, their number can scarcely be limited, since they propagate themselves (Chag. 16 a), resembling men in this as well as in their taking of nourishment and dying. On the other hand, like the Angels they have wings, pass unbindered through space, and know the future. Still further, they are produced by a process of transformation from vipers, which, in the course of four times seven years, successively pass through the forms of vampires, thistles and thorns, into Shedim (Bab. K. 16 a)-perhaps a parabolic form of indicating the origination of Shedim through the

1 From the expression a son in his own offspring during the 138 years was not in his likeness,' &c., it is inferred that his previous likeness.





fall of man. Another parabolic idea may be implied in the saying that Shedim spring from the backbone of those who have not bent in worship (u. s.).

Although Shedim bear, when they appear, the form of human beings, they may assume any other form. Those of their number who are identified with dirty places are represented as themselves black (Kidd. 72 a). But the reflection of their likeness is not the same as that of man. When conjured up, their position (whether with the head or the feet uppermost) depends on the mode of conjuring. Some of the Shedim have defects. Thus, those of them who lodge in the caper

bushies are blind, and an instance is related when one of their number, in pursuit of a Rabbi, fell over the root of a tree and perished (Pes. 111b). Trees, gardens, vineyards, and also ruined and desolate houses, but especially dirty places, were their favourite habitation, and the night-time, or before cock-crowing, their special time of appearance. Hence the danger of going alone into such piaces (Ber. 3 a, b; 62 b). A company of two escaped the danger, while before three the Shed did not even appear (Ber. 43b). For the same reason it was dangerous to sleep alone in a house (Shabb. 152 a), while the man who went out before cock-crow, without at least carrying for protection a burning torch (though moonlight was far safer) had his blood on his own head. If you greeted anyone in the dark you might unawares bid Godspeed to a Shed (Sanh. 44 a). Nor was the danger of this inconsiderable, since one of the worst of these Shedim, specially hurtful to Rabbis, was like a dragon with seven heads, each of which dropped off with every successive lowly bending during Rabbi Acha's devotions (Kidd. 29 b). Specially dangerous times were the eves of Wednesday and of the Sabbath. But it was a comfort to know that the Shedim could not create or produce anything ; nor had they power over that which had been counted, measured, tied up and sealed (Chull. 105 b); they could be conquered by the ‘Ineffable Name;' and they might be banished by the use of certain formulas, which, when written and worn, served as amulets.

The number of these spirits was like the earth that is thrown up around a bed that is sown. Indeed, no one would survive it, if he saw their number. A thousand at your right hand and ten thousand at your left, such crowding in the Academy or by the side of a bride ; such weariness and faintness through their malignant touch, which rent the very dress of the wearers ! (Ber. 6 a). The queen of the female spirits had no less a following than 180,000 (Pes. 110 b) Little as we imagine it, these spirits lurk everywhere around us : in the crumbs on the floor, in the oil in the vessels, in the water which we would drink, in the diseases which attack us, in the even-numbered cups of our drinking, in the air, in the room, by day and by night.

2. Their arrangement. Generally, they may be arranged into male and female spirits, the former under their king Ashmedai, the latter under their queen Lilith, probably the same as Agrath bath Machlathonly that the latter may more fully present the hurtful aspect of the demoness. The hurtful spirits are specially designated as Ruchin, Massikin (harmers), Malaché Chavalah (angels of damage), &c. From another aspect they are arranged into four classes (Targ. Pseudo-Jon. Numb. vi. 24): the Zaphriré, or morning spirits (Targ. on Ps. cxxi. 6; Targ. Cant. iv.6); the Tiharé, or midday spirits (Targ. Pseudo-Jon. Deut. xxxii. 24; Targ. Cant.

1 The following Haggadah will illustrate neighbour's landmark '), which seemed to both the power of the evil spirits at night and give the spirit a warrant for attacking him. how amenable they are to reasoning. But when the Rabbi replied by quoting Prov. Rabbi was distributing his gifts to the poor xxi. 14 (* a gift in secret appeaseth wrath'), at night when he was confronted by the the spirit 'fied in confusion (Jer. Peab viii. Prince of the Ruchin with the quotation 9, p. 21 b). Deut. xix. 34 (“Thou shalt not remove thy



iv. 6); the Telané, or evening spirits (Targ. Cant. ïïi. 8; iv. 6; Targ. Eccles. ii. 5); and the Lilin, or night spirits (Targ. Pseudo-Jon. on Deut. xxxii. 34; Targ. Is. xxxiv. 14). [According to 2 Targ. Esther ii. 1, 3, Solomon had such power orer them, that at his bidding they executed dances before him.]

a. Ashmedai (perhaps a Parsee name), Ashmodi, Ashmedon, or Shamdon, the king of the demons (Gitt. 68 a, b; Pes. 110 a). It deserves notice, that this name does not occur in the Jerusalem Talmud nor in older Palestinian sources. He is represented as of immense size and strength, as cunning, malignant, and dissolute. At times, however, he is known also to do works of kindness—such as to lead the blind, or to show the road to a drunken man. Of course, he foreknows the future, can do magic, but may be rendered serviceable by the use of the • Ineffable Name, and especially by the signet of King Solomon, on which it was graven. The story of Solomon's power over him is well known, and can here only be referred to in briefest outline. It is said, that as no iron was to be used in the construction of the Temple, Solomon was anxious to secure the services of the worm Shamir, which possessed the power of cutting stones (see about him Ab. S. 12 a; Sot. 48 6; Gitt. 68 a, b). By advice of the Sanhedrin, Solomon conjured up for this purpose a male and a female Shed, who directed him to Ashmedai. The latter lived at the bottom of a deep cistern on a high mountain. Every morning on leaving it to go into heaven and hear the decrees of the Upper Sanhedrin, he covered the cistern with a stone, and sealed it. On this Benaiah, armed with a chain, and Solomon's signet with the Ineffable Name, went and filled the cistern with wine, which Ashmedai, as all other spirits, hated. But as he could not otherwise quench his thirst, Ashmedai became drunk, when it was easy, by means of the magical signet, to secure the chain around him. Without entering on the story of his exploits, or how he indicated the custody of Shamir, and how ultimately the worm (which was in the custody of the moor-cock?) was secured, it appears that, by his cunning, Ashmedai finally got released, when he immediately hurled Solomon to a great distance, assumed his form, and reigned in his stead; till at last, after a series of adventures, Solomon recovered his signet, which Ashmedai had flung away, and a fish swallowed. Solomon was recognised by the Sanhedrin and Ashmedai fled at sight of his signet. [Possibly the whole of this is only a parabolic form for the story of Solomon's spiritual declension, and final repentance.]

b. Lilith, the queen of female spirits—to be distinguished from the Lilin or night-spirits, and from Lela or Lailah, an Angel who accompanied Abraham on his expedition against Chedorlaomer (Sanh. 96 a). Here we recognise still more distinctly the Parsee elements. Lilith is the queen of Szemargad' (Targ. on Job i. 15)—“Szemargad'representing all green crystals, malachite, and emerald—and the land of Szemargad being 'Sheba.' Lilith is described as the mother of Hormisz or Hormuz 3 (Baba B. 73 a). Sometimes she is represented as a very fair woman, but mostly with long, wild-flowing hair, and winged (Nidd. 16 b; Erub, 100 b). In Pes. 111 a we have a formula for exorcising Lilith. In Pes. 112 b (towards the end) we are told how Agrath bath Machlath (probably the Zend word Agra-smiting, very wicked '—bath Machlath “the dancer ') threatened Rabbi Chaninah

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1 Hamburger ascribes this to the anxiety of the Palestinians to guard Judaism from Gnostic elements. We are, however, willing to recognise in it an indirect influence of Christianity.

? The Tarnegol Beraa mythical animal reaching from earth to heaven (Targ. on

Ps. 1. 11)-also called Naggar Tura (Giri. 68 b) from his activity in cleaving mountains.

3 Hamburger renders it Ahriman, but it seems rather like Ormuzd. Perhals the Rabbis wished to combine both. Ahrimanis written Ahurmin, Sanh. 39 a, in that very curious notice of a controversy with a Mage. i The superstition There's luck in odd : Dr. Kohut's comparison of Rabbinic numbers' has passed to all nations,




with serious mischief, had it not been that his greatness had been proclaimed in heaven, on which the Rabbi would have shown his power by banning her from all inhabited places, but finally gave her liberty on the eve of the fourth day and of the Sabbath, which accordingly are the most dangerous seasons.

3. Character and habits of the Shedim. As many of the Angels, so many of the Shedim, are only personifications. Thus, as diseases were often ascribed to their agency, there were Shedim of certain diseases, as of asthma, croup, canine rabies, madness, stomachic diseases, &c. Again, there were local Shedim, as of Samaria, Tiberias, &c. On the other hand, Shedim might be employed in the magic cure of diseases (Shabb. 67 a). In fact, to conjure up and make use of demons was considered lawful, although dangerous (Sanh. 101 a), while a little knowledge of the subject would enable a person to avoid any danger from them. Thus, although Chamath, the demon of oil, brings eruptions on the face, yet the danger is avoided if the oil is used out of the hollow of the hand, and not out of a vessel. Similarly, there are formulas by which the power of the demons can be counteracted. In these formulas, where they are not Biblical verses, the names of the demons are inserted. This subject will be farther treated in another Appendix.

In general, we may expect to find demons on water, oil, or anything else that has stood uncovered all night; on the hands before they have been washed for religious purposes, and on the water in which they have been washed; and on the breadcrumbs on the floor. Demons may imitate or perform all that the prophets and great men of old had wrought. The magicians of Egypt had imitated the miracles of Moses by demoniacal power (Shem. R. 9). So general at the time of our Lord was the belief in demons and in the power of employing them, that even Josephus (Ant. viii. 2,5) contended that the power of conjuring up, and driving out demons, and of magical cures had been derived from King Hezekiah, to whom God had given it. Josephus declares himself to have been an eye-witness of such a wonderful cure by the repetition of a magical formula. This illustrates the contention of the Scribes that the miraculous cures of our Lord were due to demonic agency.

Legions of demons lag in waiting for any error or failing on the part of man. Their power extended over all even numbers." Hence, care must be had not to drink an even number of cups (Ber, 59 b), except on the Passover night, when the demons have no power over Israel (Pes. 109 6). On the other hand, there are demons who might almost be designated as familiar spirits, who taught the Rabbis, such as the Shed Joseph and the Shed Jonathan (Pes. 110 b). Rabbi Papa had a young Shed to wait upon him (Chull. 105b). There can, however, be no difficulty in making sure of their real existence. As Shedim have cock's feet, nothing more is required than to strew ashes by the side of one's bed, when in the morning their marks will be perceived (Ber. 6 a; Gitt. 68 b). It was by the shape of bis feet that the Sanhedrin hoped to recognise, whether Ashmedai was really Solomon, or not, but it was found that he never appeared with his feet uncovered. The Talmud (Ber. 6 a) describes the following as an infallible means for actually seeing these spirits : Take the afterbirth of a black cat which is the daughter of a black catboth mother and daughter being firstborn—burn it in the fire, and put some of the ashes in your eyes. Before using them, the ashes must be put into an iron tube, and sealed with an iron signet. It is added, that Rabbi Bibi successfully tried this experiment, but was hurt by the demons, on which he was restored to health by the prayers of the Rabbis.?

Angelology and Demonology with Parseeism


Other and kindred questions, such as those of amulets, &c., will be treated under demoniac possessions. But may we not here once more and confidently appeal to impartial students whether, in view of this sketch of Jewish Angelology and Satanology, the contention can be sustained that the teaching of Christ on this subject has been derived from Jewish sources ? (Über d. jud. Angelol. u. Dämonol. in ihrer and Satanology by the author of 'SuperAbhäng. vom Parsismus) is extremely in- natural Religion' are based on inaccurate and teresting, although not complete and its con- uncritical information, and do not require clusions sometimes strained. The negative detailed discussion. arguments derived from Jewish Angelology

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