Imagini ale paginilor


His twofold claim, His Discourse closed. But they had understood His allusions, and in their anger would fain have laid hands on Him, but His hour had not come. Yet others were deeply stirred to faith. As they parted they spoke of it among themselves, and the sum of vii. 29 it all was: The Christ, when He cometh, will He do more miracles (signs) than this One did?'

St. John

So ended the first teaching of that day in the Temple. And as the people dispersed, the leaders of the Pharisees-who, no doubt aware of the presence of Christ in the Temple, yet unwilling to be in the number of His hearers, had watched the effect of His Teaching -overheard the low, furtive, half-outspoken remarks (the murmuring') of the people about Him. Presently they conferred with the heads of the priesthood and the chief Temple-officials. Although there was neither meeting, nor decree of the Sanhedrin about it, nor, indeed, could be,2 orders were given to the Temple-guard on the first possible occasion to seize Him. Jesus was aware of it, and as, either on this or another day, He was moving in the Temple, watched by the spies of the rulers and followed by a mingled crowd of disciples and enemies, deep sadness in view of the end filled His heart. 'Jesus therefore said '-no doubt to His disciples, though in the hearing of all-yet a little while am I with you, then I go away 3 to Him that sent Me. Ye shall seek Me, and not find Me; and where I am, thither ye cannot come.' Mournful words, these, which were only too soon to become true. But those who heard them naturally failed to comprehend their meaning. Was He about to leave Palestine, and go to the Diaspora of the Greeks, among the dispersed who lived in heathen lands, to teach the Greeks? Or what could be His meaning? But we, who hear it across these centuries, feel as if their question, like the suggestion of the High-Priest at a later period, nay, like so many suggestions of men, had been, all unconsciously, prophetic of the future.


to the true as the real, and the real as that which has become outwardly true. I do not quite understand-and, so far as I understand it, I do not agree with Cremer (Bibl. Theol. Lex., Engl. ed. p. 85), that' aλŋ@wós is related to aλnohs as form to contents or substance.' The distinction between the Judæan and the Grecian meaning is not only borne out by the Book of Revelation (which uses it in the Judæan sense), but by Ecclus. xlii. 2, 11. In the LXX. it stands for not fewer than twelve Hebrew words.

1 On the heads and chief officials of the

Priesthood, see 'The Temple and its Ser-
vices,' ch. iv., especially pp. 75-77.

2 Only those unacquainted with the
judicial procedure of the Sanhedrin could
imagine that there had been a regular
meeting and decree of that tribunal.
That would have required a formal
accusation, witnesses, examination, &c.


3 Canon Westcott marks, that the word here used (máyw) indicates a personal act, while another word (Topeúoμai) marks a purpose or mission, and yet a third word (anéρxouai) expresses simple separa






(St. John vii. 37—viii. 11.)

It was the last, the great day of the Feast,' and Jesus was once more in the Temple. We can scarcely doubt that it was the concluding day of the Feast, and not, as most modern writers suppose, its Octave, which, in Rabbinic language, was regarded as a festival by itself.' But such solemn interest attaches to the Feast, and this occurrence on its last day, that we must try to realise the We have here the only Old Testament type yet unfulfilled; the only Jewish festival which has no counterpart in the cycle of the Christian year, just because it points forward to that great, yet unfulfilled hope of the Church: the ingathering of Earth's nations to the Christ.


The celebration of the Feast corresponded to its great meaning. Not only did all the priestly families minister during that week, but it has been calculated that not fewer than 446 Priests, with, of course, a corresponding number of Levites, were required for its sacrificial worship. In general, the services were the same every day, except that the number of bullocks offered decreased daily from thirteen on the first, to seven on the seventh day. Only during the first two, and on the last festive day (as also on the Octave of the Feast), was strict Sabbatic rest enjoined. On the intervening half-holydays (Chol ha Moed), although no new labour was to be undertaken, unless in the public service, the ordinary and necessary avocations of the home and of life were carried on, and especially all done that was required

Hence the benediction said at the beginning of every Feast is not only said on the first of that of Tabernacles, but also on the octave of it (Succ. 48 a). The sacrifices for that occasion were quite different from those for Tabernacles;' the " 'booths' were removed; the peculiar rites of the Feast of Tabernacles, and espe

cially the ceremony of water-pouring,' no longer observed. This is distinctly stated in Succ. v. 1, and the diverging opinion of R. Jehudah on this and another point is formally rejected in Tos. Succ. iii. 8.

2 Bishop Haneberg speaks of the anniversaries of the Martyrs as part-fulfilment of the typical meaning of that Feast.



for the festive season. But the last, the Great Day of the Feast,' was marked by special observances.


Let us suppose ourselves in the number of worshippers, who on 'the last, the Great Day of the Feast,' are leaving their booths' at daybreak to take part in the service. The pilgrims are all in festive array. In his right hand each carries what is called the Lulav,1 which, although properly meaning 'a branch,' or 'palm-branch,' consisted of a myrtle and willow-branch tied together with a palm-branch between them. This was supposed to be in fulfilment of the command, Lev. xxiii. 40. The fruit (A. V. boughs) of the goodly trees,' mentioned in the same verse of Scripture, was supposed to be the Ethrog, the so-called Paradise-apple (according to Ber. R. 16, the fruit of the forbidden tree), a species of citron." This Ethrog each worshipper carries in his left hand. It is scarcely necessary to add, that this interpretation of Lev. xxiii. 40 was given by the Rabbis ; perhaps more interesting to know, that this was one of the points in controversy between the Pharisees and Sadducees.

Also Lulava and Luleira.

There can, indeed, be little question of the correctness of this identification. The willows would be cut at the spring which is there, and close by is the village Brit Muzza, evidently Moza (Josh. xviii.


26), of which Emmaus is perhaps the
Greek form. As for the identity of
'Colonia' and Emmaus, see Jos. Jew. War
vii. 6. 6; comp. P. E. F. Report, July 1881
Rather more than two pints.

[blocks in formation]

Succ. iv 5

iv. 3

Thus armed with Lulav in their right, and Ethrog in their left hands, the festive multitude would divide into three bands. Some would remain in the Temple to attend the preparation of the Morning Sacrifice. Another band would go in procession below Jerusalem' to a place called Moza, the 'Kolonia' of the Jerusalem Talmud, not without reason regarded as the Emmaus of the Resur- d Jer. Succ. rection-Evening. At Moza they cut down willow-branches, with which, amidst the blasts of the Priests' trumpets, they adorned the altar, forming a leafy canopy around it. Yet a third company were taking part in a still more interesting service. To the sound of music a procession started from the Temple. It followed a Priest who bore a golden pitcher, capable of holding three log.3 On it moved, probably, through Ophel, which recent investigations have shown to have been covered with buildings to the very verge of Siloam, down the edge of the Tyropoon Valley, where it merges into that of the Kedron. To this day terraces mark where the gardens, watered by the living spring, extended from the King's Gardens by the spring Rogel down to the entrance into the Tyropœon. Here was the so-called 'Fountain-Gate,' and still within the City

b Vajj. R. 30,

towards end, p. 47 a

ed. Warsh.,



wall the Pool of Siloam,' the overflow of which fed a lower pool. As already stated, it was at the merging of the Tyropoon into the Kedron Valley, in the south-eastern angle of Jerusalem. The Pool of Siloam was fed by the living spring farther up in the narrowest part of the Kedron Valley, which presently bears the name of th Virgin's Fountain,' but represents the ancient En-Rogel and Gihon. Indeed, the very canal which led from the one to the other, with the inscription of the workmen upon it, has been excavated. Though chiefly of historical interest, a sentence may be added. The Pool of Siloam is the same as the King's Pool' of Neh. ii. 14. It was made by King Hezekiah, in order both to divert from a besieging army the spring of Gihon, which could not be brought within the City-wall, and yet to bring its waters within the City. This explains the origin of the name Siloam, sent '-a conduit-or 'Siloah,' as Josephus calls it. Lastly, we remember that it was down in the valley at Gihon (or En-Rogel), that Solomon was proclaimed,a while the opposite faction held revel, and would have made Adonijah king, on the cliff Zoheloth (the modern Zahweileh) right over • 1 Kings i. 9 against it, not a hundred yards distant, where they must, of course, have distinctly heard the sound of the trumpets and the shouts of the people as Solomon was proclaimed king.f


But to return. When the Temple-procession had reached the Pool of Siloam, the Priest filled his golden pitcher from its waters.' Then they went back to the Temple, so timing it, that they should arrive just as they were laying the pieces of the sacrifice on the great Altar of Burnt-offering, towards the close of the ordinary MorningSacrifice service. A threefold blast of the Priests' trumpets welcomed the arrival of the Priest, as he entered through the Water-gate,' which obtained its name from this ceremony, and passed straight into the Court of the Priests. Here he was joined by another Priest, who carried the wine for the drink-offering. The two Priests ascended 'the rise' of the altar, and turned to the left. There were two silver funnels here, with narrow openings, leading down to the base of the altar. Into that at the east, which was somewhat wider, the wine was poured, and, at the same time, the water into the western and narrower opening, the people shouting to the Priest to raise his hand, so as to make sure that he poured the water into the funnel.



• Comp. Neh. iii. 15

b 2 Chron.
xxxii. 30;
2 Kings xx.

• St. John

ix. 7

d 1 Kings i. 33, 38

f ver. 41

8 Tos. Succ. iii. 8

Curiously, in that passage the spring of the river is designated by the word Moza.

2 Except on a Sabbath, and on the first day of the Feast. On these occasions it


had been provided the day before.

3 One of the gates that opened from 'the Terrace' on the south side of the Temple.

[ocr errors]


a Jer. Succ.
iv. 6; Succ.

For, although it was held, that the water-pouring was an ordi-
nance instituted by Moses, 'a Halachah of Moses from Sinai,'a this
was another of the points disputed by the Sadducees. And, indeed,
to give practical effect to their views, the High-Priest Alexander 44
Jannæus had on one occasion poured the water on the ground, when
he was nearly murdered, and in the riot, that ensued, six thousand
persons were killed in the Temple.b

b Succ. iv. 9;
Jos. Ant.

Immediately after the pouring of water,' the great 'Hallel,' con- xiii. 13. 5 sisting of Psalms cxiii. to cxviii. (inclusive), was chanted antiphonally, or rather, with responses, to the accompaniment of the flute. As the Levites intoned the first line of each Psalm, the people repeated it; while to each of the other lines they responded by Hallelu Jah (Praise ye the Lord'). But in Psalm cxviii. the people not only repeated the first line, 'O give thanks to the Lord,' but also these, 'O then, work now salvation, Jehovah,' O Lord, send now prosperity;' and again, at the close of the Psalm, 'O give thanks to the Lord.' As they repeated these lines, they shook towards the altar the Lulav which they held in their hands—as if with this token of the past to express the reality and cause of their praise, and to remind God of His promises. It is this moment which should be chiefly kept in view.


a ver. 25


On the other hand, R. Akiba maintained, that the water-pouring' was prescribed in the written Law.

For the Psalms chanted on the other

days of the Feast, and a detailed descrip-
tion of the Feast itself, see 'The Temple
and its Services,' ch. xiv.




The festive morning-service was followed by the offering of the special sacrifices for the day, with their drink-offerings, and by the Psalm for the day, which, on the last, the Great Day of the Feast,' was Psalm lxxxii. from verse 5.2 The Psalm of course, chanted, as always, to instrumental accompaniment, and at the end of each of its three sections the Priests blew a threefold blast, while the people bowed down in worship. In further symbolism of this Feast, as pointing to the ingathering of the heathen nations, the public services closed with a procession round the Altar by the Priests, who chanted "O then, work now salvation, Jehovah! O Jehovah, send now prosperity.' But on 'the last, the Great Day of the Feast,' this proces- Ps. cxviii. sion of Priests made the circuit of the altar, not only once, but seven times, as if they were again compassing, but now with prayer, the Gentile Jericho which barred their possession of the promised land. Hence the seventh or last day of the Feast was also called that of 'the Great Hosannah.' As the people left the Temple, they saluted the altar with words of thanks, and on the last day of the Feast Succ. iv. 5


Ps. cxviii.

e Succ. 55 a; Maimonides,

ad haChas. uMos. x. 11

Hilc. Tem.

« ÎnapoiContinuați »